<1r>

Megacles a potent Athenian slew Cylon & his {illeg} for attempting to be king of Athens & was afterwards with his family expelled Athens by the posterity of the slain. Alcmæon the son of Megacles enterteined & conducted the Messengers whom Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos & for doing so was invited by Crœsus & rewarded with much riches. And the Amphictyons in their war against Cyrrha by the advice of Solon made this Alcmæon & Clisthenes king & Sicyon & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army. And the Cyrrhæans were conquered Ann. 2 Olymp. 47 according to the Marbles. Megacles the son of this Alcmæon Married Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes, & by her had Clisthenes II & a little before the tyranny of Pisistratus he & Pisistratus & Lycurgus commanded the three factions into which the Athenians were then divided. When Pisistratus obteined the tyranny (vizt an 4 Olymp. 54) Megacles & his friends were banished but soon after ejected Pisistratus & five years after restored him & gave him his daughter but a while after ejected him again. Afterwards Pisistratus recovered the tyranny again & after the death of Megacles & Pisistratus his sons were ejected by Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista. an 1 Olymp 67, anno Darij 10mo.

The Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Alcmæon the son of Megacles an Athenian & Clsithenes king of Sicyon & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army in their war against Cyrrha & the Cyrrhæans were conquered an 2 Olymp 47 according to the Marbles. This Alcmæon entertained & conducted the Messengers which Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos & for doing so was sent for by Crœsus & rewarded with much riches. Clisthenes proclaiming that he would marry his daughter Agarista within a year to the most deserving, there came to court her Megacles the son of this Alcmæon, & Leocides the son of Phidon the Argive & several others & Clisthenes gave his daughter to Megacles. This was that Phidon king of Argos who appointed weights & measures & coined silver money in Ægina, & invading Clis presided in the Olympiads, as Herodotus sufficiently describes. Phidon therefore was contemporary to Alcmæon both of them to Clisthenes & Solon & their sons Megacles & Leocides were contemporary to one another & to Pisistratus. ffor Megacles, Pisistratus & Lycurgus commanded the three factions into which the Athenians were divided a little before the tyranny of Pisistratus & when Pisistratus obteined the tyrrany he married the daughter of Megacles & he & Megacles ejected one another by turns & at length Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista expelled the sons of Pisistratus An 1 Olymp 67 according to the Marble. So then Phidon flourished in the 47th Olympiad, that is about 70 years before the death of Cyrus or 240 years after the return of the Heraclides: [& in this time there were 10 generations from Temenus to Phidon inclusively, or nine intervals, which is a reasonable proportion being after the rate of about 28 years to an interval or generation. But Chronologers reccon about 511 years from the return of the Heraclides to the 47th Olympiad & account Phidon the seventh from Temenus which is after the rate of 85 years to a generation & therefore not to be admitted. <1v> After his example Solon regulated the weights & money of the Athenians. ffor the pound weight which before conteined 73 drachms Solon appointed to consist of 100 drachms. And [in his laws he appointed mulcts in drachms of silver] whereas the mulcts in Dracos laws (which were made about 100 years before the reign of Darius Hystaspis) were called Oxen, Solon appointed mulcts in drachms of silver. ffor the Greeks at first used only rude masses of metal of the value of Oxen for the convenience of buying & selling Oxen & sheep recconing about ten Sheep to an Ox & thence these masses of metal were calld Oxen & Pecunia. & from their shape they were called Oboli they being usually in the form of long barrs. Such money Homer & Draco call Oxen, & such was the iron money of Lycurgus & the money of all Greece before Phido & Solon regulated it by weight. [Asia minor abounded first in silver & gold & there coynage began. [For Crœsus had much coyned gold money & the wife of Midas coyned gold & in the opinion of Herodotus Phidon was the first who coyned in Greece there is a Silver symbol coyn of Atys a much older king of Lydia] Among the Greeks Phido is the first who coyned silver money & Philip the father of Alexander the first who coyned any quantity of gold. The Romans were poorer then the Greeks & coyned no copper money before the reign of Ancus Martius, no silver money till about 3 years before the first Punic war, an 1 Olymp. 128, no gold money till about 62 years after that. Now Strabo tells us that Phido was the 10th from Temenus not the tenth king (for between Phido & Cisus the son of Temenus they reigned not) but the 10 by generation from father to son including Temenus, or the 9th excluding him & these 9 generations taking up the 250 years from Temenus to Phidon, there were about 28 years to a generation one generation with another which is a moderate rate. But Chronologers reccon &c

[Editorial Note 1]

So then the Greeks have made the reigns of their kings too long & by that means have raised their antiquities. The Olympiads being quadrennial could not be stirred, but in adjusting the reigns of their kings to the Olympiads they have made them reign earlier then they did. ffor Iulitus who restored the Olympiads they have made above an 100 years older then the first Olympiad wherein Gordæus was victor & to reconcile the difference they suppose that there were many Olympiads before the 1st the memory of which has been lost. And by the same means they make the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus about 328 years older then the Olympiads whereas it was scarce above 60 or 70 years older.

<2r>

– nine of Arcadia. And their reign according to Chronologers took up 379 that the 11 kings one with another reigned 34mathML formula years the ten 38. years & the nine 42 years a piece which is much too long for the course of nature. Pausanias tells us out of Tyrtæus a very old Poet who flourished in the time of the second Messenian war that the first Messenian war lasted 20 years. Euphaes reigned in Messene 13 years & Aristodemus six years & some months & it lasted all their two reigns & five months more. Deduct the 20 years of this war from the 379 & there will be 359 years from the return of the Heraclides to the beginning of this war which interval of time being taken up by the reign of the eight first kings of Messene makes 45 years a piece to a reign one reign with another which is very much too long for the course of nature.

Euryleon the son of Ægeus commanded the main body of the Messenians in the fift year of the first Messenian war & was in the fift generation from Oiolycus the son of Theras the brother in law of Aristodemus & Tutor of his sons Eurysthenes & Procles as Pausanias relates & by consequence from the return of the Heraclides which was in the days of Theras to the battel in the fift year of the first Messenian war there were six generations. Now this interval of time according to the vulgar chronology took up 364 years which making about 60 years to a generation one generation with another is very much too long for the course of nature.

By all these instances Chronologers in collecting times past from the number of reigns have made the time between the return of Heraclides & the first Messenian war very much too long & it ought to be corrected, & reduced to such a length as suits best with the course of nature, which will be done by recconning the reigns of the kings at about 20 or 21 years a piece one with another. Let us reccon therefore the eleven reigns of the kings of Sparta by one race at 20 years a piece & the tenn by another race at 22 years a piece & the ten of Messene also at 22 years a piece & the nine of Arcadia at one reign with another & the interval between the return of the Heraclides & the end of the first Messenian warr will amount to 220 years which is full long enough if not still too long. ffor thus the nine kings of Arcadia will reigne 24mathML formula years a piece one with another & the eight first kings of Messene will reign 200 years that is 25 years a piece one with another & the six generations from Theras to Euryleon will take up 205 years which is 34 years to a generation one with another Thus is this period of time confirmed by six several ways of recconing.

<2v>

In the race of the Spartan kings descended from Eurythenes after Polydorus reigned these kings Eurycrates I, Anaxander, Eurycrates II, Leon, Anaxandrides fil, Cleomenes fil, Leonides frat, & in the other race after Theopompus reigned Zeuxidamus, Anaxidamus, Archidamus, Agasicles Ariston Demaratus Leotychides. Polycrates king of Samus being slain about the 7th year of Cambyses was succeeded by Mæandrius & Darius Hystaspis in or neare the beginning of this reign invading Samus Mæandrius fled to Cleomexes king of Sparta (Herod l. 3 prope finem) Some years after when Darius proposed to conquer Greece he sent messengers to all Greece to demand earth & water & the Islands submitted & amongst the rest Ægina. Whereupon Cleomenes king of Sparta to whom that Island belonged sailed to Ægina to comprehend the persons offending as if they revolted to the Persians, & in his absence was accused by Demaratus the other king of Sparta, but upon his return caused Demaratus to be deposed as a bastard, & Leotychides to succeed him & then about 3 or 4 years after slew himself & was succeeded by his brother Leonidas who was slain by the Persians at Thermopylæ in the sixt year of Xerxes, at which time Demaratus was alive being fled to the Persians. Vpon the death of Cleomines a war broke out between the Athenians & inhabitants of Ægina & the Athenians by the advice of Themistocles built ships as well against an expected invasion of the Persians as against the people of Ægina By all which it seems to me that Cleomenes began his reign about the same time with Darius or within 2 or 3 years after & reigned till about the 28th or year of that king & that Demaratus was deposed about the 29th year of Darius & lived above 18 years longer. So then between the end of the first Messenian war & the reign of Darius there were about five reigns in both races of the kings of Sparta which at 20 years apiece one reign with another make the space of about an hundred years. But Chronologers make it 202 years which is more then 40 years a piece to the five reigns one with another.

Polydectes king of Sparta being slain before the birth of his son Charillus or Charilaus, left the kingdom to his brother Lycurgus the Legislator & Lycurgus upon the birth of Charilaus became Tutor to the child & published his laws in the reign of Agesilaus the successor of Darissus in the other race of the kings of Sparta. <3r> Now the name of Lycurgus being on the Olympic Disk Aristotel concluded thence that Lycurgus was the companion of Iphitus in restoring the Olympiads. But Iphitus did not restore all the Olympic games. He restored the racing, in the first Olympiad Coræbus being victor. In the 14th Olympiad the double Stadium was added Hypænus being victor & in the 18th the Quinquertium & wrastling were restored Lampis & Eurybatus (two Spartans) being Victors. Now the Disk was one of the games of the Quinquertium & Pausanias tells us that there were three Disks kept in the Olympic treasury at Altis & produced in those games. Doubtless these were they which had the name of Lycurgus upon them, being dedicated by him. So then the game of the Disk was restored in 18th Olympiad & therefore that Olympiad fell upon the minority of Charillus the Tuition of Lycurgus & the reigh of Agesilaus. ffrom the middle of the reign of Agesilates to the end of the reign of Anaxandrides there were 9mathML formula reigns which at 20 years a piece come to 190 years & these years counted backwards from the beginning of the reign of Darius Hystaspis place the middle of the reign of Agesilaus upon the 2d year of the 17th Olympiad, which being but three years before the 18th Olympiad, shews that our way of recconing comes very neare the truth. And Chronologers have been mistaken in making Lycurgus Charillus & Agesilaus as old as Iphitus & all of them about 180 or 200 years older then the 18th Olympiad.

We told you that the Heraclides returned into Peloponnesus under the conduct of Temenus, Cresphontes & Aristodemus, & that Temenus reigned at Argos. He was succeeded by his son Cisus & then the kingdom ceased untill Phidon the tenth from Temenus recovered <3v> Phidon invented weights & measures & coyned money of Gold & Silver in Ægina, His son Leocides was contemporary to Megalles the son of Alcmæon, both of them at the same time being woers of Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes king of Sicyon. And Alcmæon was contemporary to Crœsus. And therefore Phidon was also contemporary to Crœsus or not above one generation older. Chronologers make him much older but I had rather trust to Herodotus. Let us therefore suppose that Phidon flourished about sixty years before the reign of Darius Hystaspis, that is about 260 years after the return of the Heraclides, & since (as Strabo tells us) he was the 10th from Temenus, there will be nine generations in 260 years which is after the rate of 29 years to a generation which is a reasonable allowance.

In the elective kingdom of the Romans, ninety or an hundred years may be a reasonable allowance for the reign of the seven kings before the Consuls, especially since all of them except Numa either died violent deaths or were deposed. And according to this recconing Numa who was a Pythagorean philosopher & coyned copper money might live after Pherecides Syrus, Thales & Pythagoras had brought philosophy into Europe & be contemporary to Phidon who coyned money in Greece.

<4r>

When Europa & Cadmus & their kindred & captains came with Colonies into Crete & Greece, there were among them a sort of men called Curetes These setled some in Crete where they were called also Idæi Dactyli,2, some in Samothrace where they were called Cabyri,1 some in Phrygia where they were called Corybantes, 3 some in Rhodes where they were called Telchines, & others in Eubæa, Lemnos Imbrus & other places. And a considerable body of them setled in Ætiola which was thence called the country of the Curetes untill Ætolus invaded it & called it by his own name. Strabo. l. 10. p 464, 465, 466 &c. For the Curetes in all these places were men of the same kind. At the sacrifices they appeared seized with a divine fury, & danced in armour with tumult & clamour & bells & drums & pipes & weapons with which they struck upon one anothers armour in musical time. And this is recconned the first original of music in Greece. This noisy dancing they pretended to be in memory of their attending & guarding Rhea & her young son Iupiter. They were skilled in arts & sciences & brought many arts into Greece. Their actions were about religious mysteries & they were by the people admired & accounted jugglers conjurers & magicians. They first wrought in copper in Eubæa in a city thence called Chalcis & in other places where they setled & afterwards found out iron in mount Ida in Crete & wrought also in that metal. they had shops in Lemnos & Rhodes {Imbrua} & other places. Strabo l. 10. p 466, 472, 473 & l. 4. p. 365. In Phrygia they instituted mysteries only about Rhea called Cybele & Magna mater, in Crete their mysteries were about her son Iupiter. The Idæi Dactyli represented that when Iupiter was born in Crete his mother Rhea caused him to be educated in a cave in mount Ida under their care, & that they armed themselves in his defence & danced about him with a great noise that his father Saturn might not hear him cry & when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father & in memory thereof instituted their mysteries. Now [This Iupiter can be no other king of Crete then Minos. Regulus-of-Antimony symbol < insertion from f 5r > & armed themselves in his defence against his father Saturn & danced about him with a great noise that his father might not hear him cry & when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father & in memory of these things instituted their mysteries. Stephanus [in Γαζα] lets us know that Iupiter was worshipped in Gaza a city of Phœnicia after the same manner as in Crete, & this is an argument that the Curetes came originally from the country of the Philistines. In Gaza they called him Marnas which word signifes the king of men. In Crete he was such another king. And I take this king to be Minos.

Regulus-of-Antimony symbol For the ancients gave the names of Saturn & Iupiter to the two first kings of a kingdom & Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of all Crete mentioned in history & Minos was the most potent & famous of all the kings of Crete & on that account deserves the name of Iupiter above them all. He was the Lawmaker of Crete & was so famous for justice as to be accounted the principall judge of Hel & justice was the distinguishing character of Iupiter. Minos was a great warrior & the most potent of all the Greeks of his age & had the dominion of the seas & was the first of the Greeks who had that dominion & Iupiter was the greatest of all the Gods & had a scepter in one hand & a thunderbolt in the other to shew that he was a warlike king. [Asterius was grown up & began to reign before Europa & the Phenicians came into Crete &] Minos was the first king of Crete who could be educated by the Curetes. He was born soon after they came into that Island & its probable that his mother being a Phœnician would commit the care & education of her child to her countrymen. Mount Ida was excavated throughout by art with walks & many winding intricate passages which they called the Labyrinth. There the Idæi Dactyli & their weomen might educate the child. There they might find out minerals & make armour first of copper & then of iron & by the help of this armour after Minos was grown up overcome the native Cretans expell Asterius & set Minos upon the throne. & in memory of these things institute their mysteries & compose the fable of Iupiter's education & of his expelling his father by the assistance of the Curetes. And by being educated under these men he might become so wise a lawmaker as to have his laws consulted by the wisest of the following Lawmakers & with his brother Rhadamanthus so exact in the administration of justice as on that account also to be celebrated above other men to all posterity. He <5v> was buried in the same cave where he was educated: for Pythagoras went down into the Idæan cave to see his sepulchre [Porphyrius in vita Pythag.] Whence Lucian (in Sacrificijs) tells us that the Cretans do not only relate that Iupiter was born & buried amongst them but also shew his sepulchre. Cicero in numbering three Iupiters saith that the third was the Cretan Iupiter Saturns son whose sepulchre was shown in Crete, & the Scholiast upon Callimachus [Ode 1 in Iovem v. 8] lets us know that this was the Sepulchre of Minos. By Saturn Cicero who was a Latine understands the Saturn of the Latines. For Aurelius Victor tells us that Saturn being expelled by Iupiter fled in a ship from Crete into Italy. About the same time some other Greeks carried colonies into Italy as Oenotrus the youngest son of Lycaon & Ianus who received Saturn into part of his kingdom. And this is the first memory of things done in Italy. < text from f 4r resumes > [For Minos was born when the Curetes came first into Crete & was the greatest of the kings of Crete having the dominion of the seas with a potent fleet & conquering many of the Greek islands. And Being educated by the Curetes he became an excellent king in civil as well as in military affairs. He was the greatest & most celebrated king of his time among all the Greeks, & therefore deserved the name of Iupiter above them all & Cicero[1] numbering three Iupiters saith that the third was the Cretan Iupiter Saturn's son whose sepulchre was shewn in Crete, & the scholiast upon Pindar a[2] lets us know that this was the sepulchre of Minos. His father Asterius was the first king of all Crete so far as appears in history, & the two first kings of every kingdom were the Saturn & Iupiter of the kingdom.] Stephanus [in Γαζα] lets know that Iupiter was worshipped in Gaza a city of Phœnicia after the same manner as in Crete, & this makes it probable that the Curetes came originally from the country of the Philistines.

Amphictyon the son of Deucalion reigned in Athens next before Erectheus as above & Xuthus the youngest son of Hellen the son of Deucalion married the daughter of Erectheus & therefore Deucalions flood was a little before the reign of Erectheus. The marble makes it ten years before the coming of Cadmus into Europe. This flood was succeeded by the four ages called the Golden the silver the brazen & the iron ages.// The fourth age ended with the wars against Thebes & Troy as Hesiod tells us expresly. But Hesiod living in the age next after the four calls his own age the fift & translates the name of the iron age from the fourth to this, recconing every age to be worse then the former & his own to <4v> be the worst. And these five ages he reccons to be so many generations of men describing that every age ended when the men of the age were buried & deified & a new generation of men arose, & saying that the men of the fourth age perished in the warrs against Thebes & Troy & that Iupiter would destroy the fift age in which he lived when the men of that age should grow hoary headed.

The third age ended with the Argonautic expedition ffor that was one age before the destruction of Troy recconing three ages to an hundred years or about 33 yars to an age, & the Poets tell us that Talus who guarded the island Crete was the last man of the brazen age & died when the Argonauts in returning home arrived at that island.

The second age was the reign of Iupiter & fell in with the days of Minos. ffor the Poets tell us that Niobe the daughter of {Phoroneus} was the first woman & Alcmena the last with whom Iupiter lay. And that Chiron who lived till the Argonautic expedition or end of the brazen age was begot of Phillyra by Saturn in the golden age when Iupiter was educated among the Idæi Dactyli as Apollonius relates. The Cretan Iupiter was therefore educated by the Idæi Dactyli in the golden age & by consequence reigned in the silver age according to the Theology of the Curetes & since the lifetime of Chiron comprehended the brazen age & the silver age & part of the golden age & lasted about one generation or 33 years longer then the reign of Minos, this Iupiter can be no other then Minos. For Theseus overcame the Minotaur about 33 years before the Argonautic expedition & Minos was slain presently after, & no other king of Crete was educated by the Idæi Dactyli when Chiron was born. The whole time between the Argonautic expedition & the coming of the Curetes with Europa & Cadmus into Crete & Greece was about an hundred years, which being divided into three equal parts allows about 33 years for the golden age & reign of Asterius the father of Minos, 33 years more for the silver age & reign of Minos, & 33 years more for the brazen age & reign of {illeg} over Asia & part of Europe, & the iron age took up about 33 years more till the ruin of Troy.

The people of Elis in giving an account of their own originals say that Saturn reigned first in the kingdom of heaven & that the men who were called the golden age built a temple to him in Olympia & that his wife Rhea when Iupiter was born committed the custody of the child to the Idæi Dactyli otherwise called the Curetes & that five of these Idæi Dactyli (whose names were Hercules Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasius & Ida coming afterwards from Ida a mountain of Crete into Elis there instituted the game of racing once in four years which was the Original of the Olympic games Pausan l. 5. c      The Iupiter therefore who reigned in the silver age was certainly the Cretan Iupiter educated in the golden age in mount Ida by the Idæi Dactyli, & the Parable of the reign of Saturn & Iupiter in the golden & silver ages was brought from Crete into Greece by the Idæi Dactyli, and being formed by them commenced with their first coming into Crete & by consequence in the reign of Asterius. or at the soonest with the beginning of his reign. For we have already shewed that the Saturn & Iupiter of the Idæi Dactyli were Asterius & Minos, the name of Saturn being given to Asterius by the Latines in memory of his lying hid in Italy. In the first of the four ages men lived upon roots, berries apples peares acorns & other spontaneus fruits of the earth without the toill of {plowing} & sowing. In the second the Greeks began to plow & sow & {make bread} & grow potent at sea & by the invention of iron to multiply arts. In the third they grew more warlike but used armour & weapons & utensils of copper. <5r> In the end of the third they invented the constellations & built a long ship & began to make long voyages. In the fourth riches in metals increased & men grew more injurious & violent & continued to build long ships & improve navigation. And these are the characters of the four ages given by the Poets.

They tell us that the Cretan Iupiter conquered his father Saturn & made him fly from Crete into Italy: which makes it probable that the Saturn of the Latines was Asterius the father of Minos. ffor Minos was a very warlike Prince & being the son of a forreign woman might come to the crown by force.

<5v> [Editorial Note 2]

[3]The Eleans recconed Aëthlius the son of Iupiter Æolus their first king He was the father of Endymion the father of Pæon, Epeus, Ætolus & Eurycida. Epeus succeeded his father in the kingdom & from him the people were called Epeans. In his reign Pelops came into Peloponnesus & succeed Oenomaus in the kingdom of Pisa Epeus was succeeded first by Ætolus & his brother & then by Eleus the son of his sister Euricyda. For Ætolus killed Apis the son of Phoroneus & {illeg} ( Apollodor l. 1 c. 7. sec. 6) From Eleus the people were called Eleans. He was succeded by Augeas whose stable Hercules cleansed. Augeas was then an old man & denying Hercules the reward promised him there ensued a war between them. Augeas was assisted by the sons of Actor the grandson of Epeus: but Hercules slew them, took Elis & gave the kingdom to Phylus the son of Augeas. Hercules was therefore one generation younger then Augeas & seven generations younger then Æolus the father of Aethlius, & by consequence Æolus flourished about 160 or 170 years before Hercules, that is in the latter end of the Priesthood of Eli. And since Endymion was an Astronomer, & the native Greeks in those days were ignorant of all arts & sciences we may reccon that his grandfather Æolus came with his family from Egypt in the days of Eli.

The Eleans in giving an account of their own originals say that Saturn reigned first in the kingdom of heaven , & that the men who were called the golden age built a temple to him in Olympia & that his wife Rhea when Iupiter was born committed the custody of the child to the Idæi Dactyli otherwise called the Curetes. & that five of these Idæi Dactyli whose names were Hercules, Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasius & Ida coming afterwards from Ida a mountain of Crete into Elis, there instituted the game of racing once in four years, which was the original of the Olympic games. Pausan. l. 5.

Hellen by his sons Æolus Xuthus & Dorus had a numerous ofspring. He was contemporary to Cadmus & Erechtheus: for his son Xuthus married one of the daughters of Erechtheus. He reigned in Thessaly & with his sons Æolus & Dorus & grandsons Achæus & Ion (the sons of Xuthus) gave names to the Hellenes, Æolians, Dores, Achæans & Iones. Hellen is by some reputed the son of Deucalion the son of Prometheus, by others the son of Iupiter (Conon Narrat. 27. Apollodor l. 1. c. 7. sec. 2.) The first seems improbable: for Prometheus was an Egyptian & Deucalion an Hyperborean & both of them younger then Hellen.

Oxylus the son of Acmon.

<6r>

Diodorus tells us that the mysteries & sacred rites taught by Orpheus & thence called Orphici were those which Bacchus instituted & left in Thrace with Charops & {Oeagrs} from whom Orpheus had them. that Linus who was the master of Orpheus Thamyris & Hercules & by consequence flourished in the times between the Expedition of Sesostris & that of the Argonauts, wrote the actions of this Bacchus in the old Pelasgic letters, & that Dionysius wrote the history of Bacchus & the Amazons, the Argonautic expedition & the things done at Troy, that is, he wrote the history of the Greeks beginning with the expedition of Bacchus & the Amazons, proceeding to the expedition of the Argonauts & ending with the destruction of Troy, & therefore this Bacchus flourished in the times next before the Argonautic expedition. Had he been much older his actions would not have been remembred for want of the use of letters Had he been older then Sesostris the actions of Sesostris being fresher in memory & come between those of Bacchus & the Arg.

Homer places Thebes in Ethiopia, &

The Ethiopians reported that the Egyptians were a colony drawn out from them by Osiris & that thence it came to pass that most of the laws of Egypt were the same with those in Ethiopia & that the Egyptians learnt from the Ethiopians the custome of deifying their kings. Diodor l. 3. p. 101.

Letters might be invented long before in the lower Egypt, the Egyptian reed being the oldest papyr. ffor the Egyptians were learned before the days of Moses & he being skilled in all their learning wrote the law in letters upon tables of stone & in books. And this became the vulgar way of writing in Egypt after the conquest of Egypt by the Ethiopians. But the Priests of Egypt in their sacred books used the hieroglyphical character of the Ethiopians. And this shews that the religious & sacred rites which prevailed in Egypt after the expulsion of the Shepherds were Æthiopic. And whilst the Æthiopians had no letters to write down sounds but used another way of writing, they wrote not down the names of men, but represented the men by hieroglyphical figures, as by painting Ammon &c.

And therefore this Bacchus flourished in the times next before the Argonautic expedition & was contemporary to Sesostris. Had he been much older his actions would not have been remembred for want of the use of letters.

<7r>

For Thebes & its territory were anciently distinguished from Coptos & its territory, the former being called Æthiopia [Αἰα Θήβων] till Homers days.

Ægypt before the rise of the Monarchy, became reduced into three or four kingdoms differing in language. One was Thebes with its territory called Æthioppia by Homer. Another was the lower Ægypt called Misraim from Mizraim the capital of the first inhabitants & Aeria from Abaris or Αουαρις the capital of the Shepherds. And a third was Coptus & its territory . For the language of Egypt was afterwards till the times of the Greek & Latine Empires called the Coptic, that is the language of the city & territory of Coptus. And therefore this city conquered all the rest & by conquest spread its language into all Ægypt, & together with its language it spread its name Αἰα Κοπτου Ægypt. For Herodotus tells us tha

Ægypt like other nations being at first divided into many little kingdoms & those kingdoms growing bigger & bigger till they all united into one monarchy, the chief kingdoms which flourished next before the rise of that monarchy (suppose in the days of Eli & the Iudges seem to have been those of Misraim Thebes & Coptus, that is the lower Ægypt called Mizraim from the old capital Mizraim as above & Aeria from the capital of the shepherds Abaris or Αὀυαρις; Thebes with its territory called Æthiopia [Αἰα Θήβων] by Homer: & Coptus with its territory called Αἰα Κόπτου whence comes the name of Egypt.

And these three spake different languages originally, the language of Thebes being Æthiopic, that of Coptus the Coptic & that of the lower Egypt a dialect of the shepherds. But the Coptic prevailed & became the language of all Egypt till the times of the Greek & Latine Empires & therefore the kings of Coptus conquered all Egypt. They first conquered Thebes & thereby extended the name of Ægypt to all Thebais, & then by expelling the shepherds they extended the same name to all the lower Egypt. For Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt & therefore this name was given to all the upper parts of Egypt before it was given to the lower. When the Coptites conquered Thebes they might also conquer This & Elephantis unless those cities were conquered before by Thebes. But there is no distinct account now remaining of the actions & fate of those kingdoms. Mephramathosis or his predecessors reduced all the upper Ægypt into one kingdom. He & his successor Amosis expelled the shepherds, Ammon & Sesac extended the monarchy westward to the lesser Syrtes & even to the mouth of the straits, southward in to Æthiopia above the Cataracts & to Arabia felix eastward into India & northward to Caucasus the black sea & Thrace.

Now if Sesostris was slain in the 5t year of Asa & Ægypt was invaded by Boccharis

And between the death of Sesostris in the 5t year of Asa & the Æra of Nabo {o}{r} 22th year of Boccharis, there will be 11 Kings reigning 210 years which is after the rate of 19 yeeres a piece one with another.

[Editorial Note 3]

Herodotus tells us that the Egyptians collected a list of 341 names of kings between the reign of Menes & that of Sethon who put Sennacherib to flight

Herodotus tells us that the Egyptians & their Priests recconned from the reign of Menes to that of Sethon who put Sennacherib to flight, 341 generatio{ns} of men & as many Priests of Vulcan & as many kings of Egypt: & that 300 generations make 10000 years. (ffor saith he, three generations of men make an hundred years.) And the remaining 41 generations make 1340 (he should have said 1366 years.) & so the whole time from the reign of Menes to that of Sethon was 11340 years. And by this way of recconing & allotting long reigns to the Gods of Egypt Herodotus tells us from the Priests that from Pan to Amasis were 15000 years & from Hercules to Alasis 17000.

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The Egyptians had before the days of Solon made their Monarchy 9000 years old, & now they reccon to Herodotus a succession of 330 kings reigning so many generations (that is, 11000 years) before Sesostris. But we are to begin with Sesostris & his grandfather & if with Herodotus we omit the names of those kings who did nothing memorable the rest reduced into due order will give us all or almost all the kings of Egypt from the days of the expulsion of the shepherds by the grandfather of Sesostris downwards to the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses. For Sesostris – – – – Amasis Psemmiticus

While the shepherds reigned at Abaris over the lower Ægypt, that part of Egypt was sometimes called Aeria, I think from the capital city Abaris (or Ἀούαρις) by a small corruption of the name. And Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Egypt . But after the expulsion of the shepherds the name of Ægypt was extended to the whole. Whence its probable that Ægypt had its name from Coptos.

Before the shepherds were expelled out of the lower Egypt that lower part of Egypt was sometimes called Aeria I think from the capital city Abaris [Ἀούαρις] where the shepherds reigned. And Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt: whence its probable that that name was derived from Coptos [Αἰα Κόπτου] & that the kings of Coptos conquered first Thebais & then Aeria & thereby extended the name of Egypt to the whole. Misphramethosis & Amosis conquered Aeria, & then Ammon & Sesac carried on the conquest westward to the mouth of the straits, southward into Æthiopia & Arabia felix eastward to India, & northward to Caucasus & Thrace. Symbol (dash in a circle) in text < insertion from lower down f 7v > < text from f 7v resumes > Gold symbol < insertion from lower down f 7v >

< text from f 7v resumes >

Pheron is by Herodotus –– Nuncoreus.

Proteus reigned – – – or President.

Amentophis reigned – – – at This & Susa.

But the kings who were much older then Sesostris might reign over many little kingdoms in several parts of Egypt before the days of Eli & Samuel & so are not under our consideration; If with Herodotus – & who left splendid monuments of their having reigned over that Monarchy (such as were Temples & statues & Pyramids & Obelisks, Palaces dedicated or ascribed to them;) these kings reduced into due order will give us all or almost all the kings from the days of the expulsion of the shepherds & founding of the monarchy downwards to the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses.

The language of Egypt in the time of the Greek & Roman Empires was called the Coptic, that is the language of the city & region of Coptus This language then spread from Oi Coptus into all Egypt. And with this language spread the name of Ægypt. For Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt. And the name Ægypt [Αἰα Κόπτου] signifies the land of Coptus. The name therefore was propagated with the language from Coptus first over all the upper Egypt by conquering Thebes & then over the lower Egypt by e{illeg}

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Chap. IV.
Of the Babylonian Empire

After the regions upon Tigris & Euphrates became free from the Dominion of Egypt, Babylon & Nineveh ( cities built soon after the flood) continued for some time under their own kings. And when the kings of Nineveh began to conquer their neighbours, Semiramis & soon after her Nabonasser reigned over Babylon. In his days a body of Egyptians flying from Sabacon carried to Babylon the Egyptian year of 365 days, & founded the Æra of Nabonassar as above, beginning the years thereof on the very same day with the years of Egypt. And in the year of Nabonassar 68 Asserhadon king of Assyria conquered Chaldea & Susiana & captivated the people placing many of them in Samaria, & carried the people of Samaria captive into Assyria. And henceforward Chaldea & {Susiana} became Provinces of Assyria for a time, but at length revolted & in conjunction with the Medes, destroyed Nineveh.

By the fall of the Assyrian Empire, the kingdoms of the Chaldeans & Medes grew great & potent. The reigns of the kings of the Chaldeans are stated in Ptolomy's Canon: for understanding which, you are to note that every kings reign in that Canon began with the last Thoth of his Predecessor & ended with the last Thoth of his own reign, as

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the prophet Hosea[4] in the time of that interregnum (Hosea X.3, 6) or soon after mentions the king of Assyria by the name of Iarib. And perhaps there might be a king of Assyria called Iarib, but whether he preceeded or succeeded Pul is uncertain. And if he preceeded him yet it appears not that he carried his conquests beyond the Province of Assyria. Pul seems to be the first who extended his conquests beyond those bounds. He invaded Israel, but < insertion from f 10v > the Prophet Hosea in the time of that interregnum or soon after mentions a king of Assyria by the name of Iarib. And perhaps Iarib might be the name of one of their kings before he began to reign: & if he reigned before Pul he might be the first king who reigned over all Assyria. But the first who carried his victories beyond Assyria seems to be Pul. He conquered Calneh with its territories in the reign of {Ieroboam} (Isa 10.8 Amos 6.2) & soon after invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem (2 Kings. 15. 19) but stayed not in the land being bought off by Menahem for a thousand talents < text from f 10r resumes > but staid not in the land being bought off by Menahem for a thousand talents of silver. In his reign therefore the kingdom of Assyria was advanced on this side Tigris. For he was a great warrior & seems to have conquered Haran & Carchemish & Rezeph, & Calneh & Thalasser & all Chaldea & founded or enlarged the city Babylon & governed it by Deputy Kings. For the Æra of Nabonasser (the first of those Kings in the Canon) began soon after the reign of this king: & Isaiah who lived & prophesied in the days of Pul & his successors, thus describes the founding of Babylon. Behold, saith he, the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness [that is for the Arabians] they set up the towers thereof, they raised up the palaces thereof. Isa. XXIII.13. And the short reigns of the first eleven kings shew that they were but deputy Kings put in & out at the pleasure of the Kings of Assyria. The city is said to have been built by Semiramis the widdow of the first king of Assyria a woman five generations older then Nitocris the widdow of Nebuchadnezzar. Which makes it probable that Semiramis might reign there next before Nabonassar. These Princes reigned at Babylon before Asserhadon: those that succeeded him, by their long reigns appear to have been kings for life.

Tiglathpilaser warred in Phenicia & captivated Galile with the two Tribes & an half in the days of Pekah king of Israel & placed them in Halath & Habor & Hara & at the river Gozan, places lying in the western border of Media between Assyria & the Caspian Sea (2 King. XV.29. 1 Chron. V.26) & about the fift or sixt year of Nabonasser he came to the assistance of the king of Iudah against the kings of Israel & Syria, & overthrew the kingdom of Syria which had been seated at Damascus ever since the days of king David, & carried away the Syrians to Kir as Amos had prophesied, & placed other nations in the region of Damascus (2 King. XV.37 & XVI.5, 9. Ioseph Antiq. l. 9. c. 12). Whence it seems that the Medes were conquered before & that the Empire of the Assyrians was now grown great. For the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria & the spirit of Tiglathpilaser king of Assyria to make war 1 Chron. V.26.

Salmanasser (called Enemesser by Tobit (chap. 1){)} invaded a[5] all Phœnicia, took the city Samaria, & captivated Israel, & placed them in b[6] Chalach & Chabor by the river Gozan, & in the cities of the Medes & peopled Samaria with captives brought from Babylon & from Cutha or Susa & from Ava & from Hamath or Antioch & from Sepharvaim & therefore reigned over those cities.

Sennacherib in the 14th year of Hezekiah invaded Phœnicia & took several cities of Iudah, & attempted Egypt, & Tirhakah king of Ethiopia & Egypt coming against him he lost in one night 185000 men, as some say by a plague, as others by being disarmed by mice or perhaps surprized by Tirhakah & returning in hast to Nineveh was there slain soon after by two of his sons who fled into Armenia, & his son Asserhaddon succeeded him. At that time did Merodach-Baladon or Mordokempad king of Babylon send an embassy to Hezekiah king of Iudah.

Asserhaddon, corruptly called Sarchedon by Tobit, Assardan <11r> by the seventy, & Sargon by Isaias (Tob. 1.21. Isa. XX.1) peopled Samaria with captives brought from several parts of Assyria the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, & the Elamites (Ezra IV.2, 9) & therefore reigned over all these nations. [7]In the year of Nabonassar 68 he began to reign immediately over Babylon. He invaded Iudæa, took Azot, carried Manasses captive to Babylon, & captivated also Egypt & Thebais & Ethiopia above Thebais, & by this war he seems to have put an end to the reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt.

< insertion from f 10v > < text from f 11r resumes >

And now the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness being united under one Monarch, & conteining Assyria Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldæa, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phœnicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, & part of Arabia, & reaching eastward into Elymais & Parætacene. For Strabo reccons these two among the Provinces to which this Monarchy had given the name of Assyria, & Herodotus makes Parætacene a province of the Medes. And if Chalach & Habor where Salmanasser placed part of the ten tribes be Colchos & Iberia (as some think) we are also to add these Provinces with the two Armenias.

< insertion from f 10v > Aserhadon seems to be the Sardanapalus who reigned over Medea & Babylonia till those nations revolted, the name Sardanapalus being derived from Asser-hadon-pul. Cleitarchus a[9] saith that he died of old age after he had lost his dominion over Syria, others say that he slew himself. The Scythians of Turan or Turquestan beyond the river Oxus, began in those days to infest Persia & perhaps by one of their inrodes might give occasion to the revolt. Herodotus represents that the Medes revolted first & by force of arms defended their liberty & gave occasion to other nations to revolt, & not long after elected Dejoces their king & built Ecbatane. And perhaps they might revolt after then once. For others say that they revolted Gold symbol under the conduct of Arbaces who was a Mede, & one of the general commanders of the forces of Sardanapalus & who in the book of Iudith (if I mistake not) is called Arphanad. He was encouraged to revolt by the luxurious & effeminate life of his king & conspired with Belesis another commander of the Assyrian forces. And Eusebius tells us that the writers of the Babylonian affairs say that Arbaces made Belesis king of the Assyrians. I suppose he means, king of so much of the Assyrian Empire as after the revolt of the nations remained in subjection to Nineveh. This revolution happened in the year of Nabonassar 81. For at that time Asserhaddon was succeeded at Babylon by Saosduchinus. And by this revolution Manasses was set at liberty to return home & fortify Ierusalem. And the Egyptians also < text from f 11r resumes > And the Egyptians also, after the Assyrians had reigned three years over them (Isa. XX.3, 4) were set at liberty & created twelve contemporary kings over themselves. These kings reigned fifteen years, & then one of them called Psammiticus conquered all the rest, & reduced Egypt again into a monarchy & built the last Portico of the Temple of Vulcan founded by Menes, but made Sais the seat of his kingdome. He died in the 131th year of Nabonassar & was succeeded by his son Pharaoh Nechao.

< insertion from f 10v >

Sardanapalus is said to have built Tarsus & Anchiale in one day, & to have been the son of Anacyndaraxis or as others name him, Anabaxaris. I suppose they mean Sennacherib. The kings who reigned after him in Media were Dejoces , Phraortes Astyages Cyaxeres & Darius; those at Babylon were Saosduchinus, Chiniladon, Nabopolasser & Nebuchadnezzar with his sons; & those at Nineveh, I think were Belesis, Nebuchadonosor & Saracus. [By Nebuchadonosor I understand that king of Assyria who is mentioned in the book of Iudith:

< text from f 11r resumes >
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[10]Chap: 1
Of the Monarchies of the Assyrians Babylonians & Medes.

Of the Assyrian Monarchy we have very litle of certainty besides what is mentioned in sacred writ. In the days of David, Solomon & some of their successors the Israelites reigned over Syria as far as the river Euphrates. Till the days of Ionas the kings who reigned at Nineveh were only called kings of Nineveh. Soon after his day their kings Pul, Tiglath-pul-asser, & Salman-asser conquered far & wide & were called kings of Assyria & therefore may be recconed the founders of this Monarchy. While this Monarchy stood the kingdoms of the Babylonians & Medes were but small so as not to deserve the name of Empires till they subdued the kingdom of Assyria & shared its dominions. This kingdom was subdued by Nebuchadnesser & Ahsuerus (Tobit    ) & therefore these two may be accounted the founders of the two Empires of the Babylonians & Medes. Assuerus Oxyares or Axeres is he whom the Greeks call Cy-Axeres. that is, Prince Axeres, & the Masoretes Ahasuerus.

Of all the kings of the Medes Cyaxeres was the greatest warrior. Herodotus tells us[11] that he was much more warlike then his ancestors & that he was the first who reduced the irregular & undisciplined forces of the Medes into discipline & order & divided the kingdom into Provinces, which is as much as to say that he was the first who by conquering made the kingdom big enough to be divided into Provinces. Æschylus who flourished in the reign of Darius Hystaspis & died in the reign of Xerxes & is the oldest Greek author who mentions these things, introduces this Darius reciting his ancestors the kings of the Medo-Persian Monarchy in this order.

Μηδος γὰρ ἠν ὁ πρωτος ἡγημὼν στρατου.

Αλλος δ᾽ ἐκείνου παις τὸ δ᾽ ἔργον ἤνυσε

Τριτος δ᾽ ἀπ᾽ ἀυτου Κυρος ἐυδαίμων ἀνήρ.

He that first commanded the army was a Mede

The next, was his son, finished the work.

The third from him was Cyrus a happy man.

Whence it appears that before the reign of Cyrus there were but two kings in the Empire of the Medes & Persians & those were both Medes, the second being the son of the first. And who those were is discovered by Daniel who lets us know that Darius the son of Ahsuerus of the seed of the Medes reigned over Babylon before Cyrus. For this Darius reigned by the laws of the Medes & Persians (Dan 6    ) & therefore he reigned over the Medes & Persians as well as over Babylon, & the Medes being set first, were uppermost in his reign. You may know also by the number of Provinces in his kingdom that he reigned over all these nations. For he set over the whole kingdom 120 Princes & afterwards in the reign of Ahsuerus (that Ahsuerus whom the Greeks call Xerxes,) when the Provinces of Egypt Thebais & Libya were added to the kingdom, the whole conteined but 127 Provinces. So then Darius reigned over the Empire of the Medes Persians & Babylonians before Cyrus & by consequence his father Ahsuerus was the first king of this Empire. He first led the army expelling the Scythians who had invaded his kingdom & conquering the Assyrians & Persians eastward & Armenians westward as far as the river Halys & his son Darius finished the work by subduing the kingdoms of the Lydians & Babylonians.

The slaughters of the Scythians, Assyrians & Persians by Cyaxes is thus described by

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Chap.
Of the Monarchy of the Persians.

Cyrus having translated the monarchy to the Persians & reigned seven years left the Kingdom to his son Cambyses who began his reign in spring anno Nabonass 219 as is certain by two Eclipses of the Moon He reigned seven years & five months, in the three last years of his reign subdued Egypt, & dying in autumn anno Nabonass. 226, was succeeded by Mardus or Smerdes the Magus who feigned himself to be Smerdes the younger brother of Cambyses. Smerdes reigned seven months & in – – – antistitem

Cyrus having translated the Monarchy to the Persians & reigned seven years was succeeded by his son Cambyses [in spring anno Nabonass 219 who reigned seven years & five months, & in the three last years of his reign subdued Egypt, & was succeeded by Mardus or Smerdes the Magus who – – – – antistitem. By Zoroaster's – – – – – – subjection to Darius.

C

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While the kings of Egypt instead of imploying their wealth & people in their warrs abroad imployed both in these useless works at home they lost their dominion abroad by degrees & became divided at home into several dominions untill Sabacon the Ethiopian invaded them. ffor at Sais reigned Stepanates Nechepsos & Nechus, at Memphis & Heliopolis or one of them ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ at Memphis Asychis & Anysis or Amosis & at Thebes Gnephachthos (called also Neochabis & Technatis) & his son Boccharis //Gnephachthus leading an army into Arabia through desert places his provision failed so that he was fain to take up with such mean food as he could then be supplied with which he relished so heartily that he forbad all excess & luxury & cursed Menes who first brought in a sumpteous & luxurious way of living & caused the curse to be cut on a Pillar & placed in the Temple of Iupiter at Thebes which made the fame & reputation of Menas to be clouded in future generations. Diodorus L. 1. p 59. Plutarch de Iside p. 354. And accordingly Alexis tells us that Boccharis & his father Neochabis used a moderate diet. (Apud Athenæum Dipn. l 10. p. 418e.) Boccharis was a little man of an infirm body but for prudence & justice he was famous to a proverb. He was very piercing & quicksignted in judgment & is recconed amongst the lawmakers of Egypt. He let in a wild Bull upon the Ox Mnevis which the Ox slew, & for that act the Egyptians hated him (Ælan de Animal. l 11. c. 11. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Diodorus reccons Boccharis the 4th king from Mycerinus but names not the intermediate kings. Perhaps they were Guephachthus & Boccharis the father of this Boccharis. ffor Diodorus in another place calling him Vchoreus – – – cities in the world. However Memphys was built before by Meænes & now only repaired & better fortified & perhaps enlarged & adorned by Boccharis.

Anysis was blind & in his reign Sabacus or Sabocon King of Ethiopia invaded & conquered Egypt, Sabacus punished none with death but condemned offenders to carry earth to the cities of Egypt for raising them higher. By which means he raised them much higher then Sesostris had done before. These two kings Anysis & Sabacus are by Diodorus called Amotis & Actisanes. Amosis was cruel & put many to death for which reason his subjects upon the invasion of Actisanes revolted from him so that he was easily conquered. Actisanes was merciful & obliging to his subjects & instead of putting robbers to death he cut of their noses & banished them into a barren place between Egypt & Syria thence called Rhinocorera.

While the kings of Egypt isntead of imploying their wealth & people in their wars abroad imployed them at home in building Pyramids, the Egyptians by degrees lost their dominion abroad & became divided at home into severall kingdoms untill Sabacon invaded them. ffor there reigned at Thebes Gnephachthus & his son Bocharis. at Sais Stephanates, Nechepsos & Nechus successively & at Tanis & Pelusium Anytis

Gnephacththus (called also Neochabis & Technatis) leading an army – – – enlarged by Boccharis.

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In the kingdom of Sais the last king Nechus was the father of Psammiticus who reigned afterwards & his predecessor Nicepsos with one Petosiris is reputed the inventor of Iudicial Astrology & the first that wrote the Art of predicting by the starrs. [He lived immediately before the Assyrians built Babylon & borrowed from the Egyptians their year & study of the stars.]

When Sabachus invaded Egypt he took Boccharis & burnt him alive, & slew Nechus & made Anysis fly into the fenny places of Egypt neare Pelusium where he lay hid in the Island Elbo during the reign of the Ethiopians Their reign according to Herodotus lasted 50 years & began and ended under Sabachus. But in the Dynasties of Africanus Sabachus reigned only 8 years & had two Ethiopian successors, Sevechus his son who reigned 14 years & Tirhakah who reigned 18. Sevechus seems to be the Sua or So king of Egypt with whom Hoshea king of Israel conspired against the Assyrians in the fourth year of Hezekiah two or three years before the captivity of the ten Tribes 2 King. 17.4. And Tirhakah was that Pharaoh king of Egypt on whom Hezekiah trusted in the 14th year of his reign when Senacherib invaded Iudea & that Tirhakah king of Ethiopia who in the same year came out against Senacherib in behalf of Hezekiah 2 King. 18.21, 24 & 19.9. If we may suppose that Tirhakah succeeded Sevechius about the middle time of these two periods that is about the 9th year of Hezekiah & from thence count backwards the 22 years of Sabacon & Sevechus, the invasion & conquest of the kingdoms of Egypt by Sabacon will fall upon the third year of Ahaz 240 years after the death of Solomon or thereabouts & the end of the reign of Tirhakah upon the 27th year of Ezekiah, after whom some reccon that another king reigned before Egypt was freed from the dominion of the Ethiopians.

Herodotus giving an account of the action between the Ethiopians & Assyrians & how the Asyrians were slain – Egyptians & Ethiopians into captivity Isa 20 at which time they conquered also the Iews & carried Manasseh captive to Babylon 2 Chron. 13.11

After Egypt was freed from the dominion of the Ethiopians (which seems to have been by this victory of the Assyrians) there was – – – – ever since in servitude

These various kingdoms are pointed at by Isaiah where he saith I willl set the Egyptians against the Egyptians & they shall fight every one against his brother & every one against his neighbour city against city & kingdom against kingdom – And the Egyptians will I give over into the hand of a cruel lord & a fierce king shall rule over them. – The princes of Zoan are fools – how say ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of ancient kings – The Princes of Noph are deceived. they have also seduced Egypt, even they that are the stay of the Tribes thererof. Isa 19. Here the Prophet seems to mention two kingdoms of Egypt the one seated at Zoan or Tanis the other at Noph or Memphis, & there might be others in other places.

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When the Ethopian Sabacon or Actisanes invaded Egypt, the Egyptians were divided into several kingdoms. ffor Sabacon took Boccharis & burnt him alive, slew Nechus king of Sais & made Anysis fly into the fenny places of Egypt neare Pelusium where he lay hid in the Island Elbo during the reign of the Ethiopians. Anysis therefore reigned in the Arabic part of the lower Egypt

In Sais reigned Stephanates Necepsos & Nechus successively. Nechus was the father of Psammiticus who reigned afterwards & his predecessor Nicepsos with one Petosiris – by the stars.

At Thebes reigned Gnephachthus & his son Boccharis successively. Gnephachthus –

Besides these three kingdoms of Egypt its probable there might be some others ffor in the canons we find kings of Tanis, Bubaste, & some other cities. & Isaias speaking of this time mentions several kingdoms one of which was at Zoan or Tanis where he saith I will set – thereof. Isa 19. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ So then the Monarchy of Egypt in the reign of those kings who built the Pyramids, became divided into several kingdoms at home & by consequence lost its dominion abroad. & the Ethiopians who were formerly the subjects of Egypt being fallen of from them invaded them & became their Lords.

The reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt according to Herodotus lasted 50 years – – – upon the 27 year of Hezekiah.

Herodotus giving an account –

Cambyses conquered Ægypt in the year of his reign. Reccon backward the reigns of the last six kings of Egypt & the reign of the 12 contemporary Kings will begin in the 13th year of Manasses, & if the conquest of Egypt by the Assyrians was about two years before & the Ethiopians reigned over Egypt about 50 years as Herodotus relates, the reign of Sabacon will begin about the 6t year of Ahaz, or 243 years after the death of Solomon & that of Tirhakah about two years before he routed the army of Sennacherib

[Editorial Note 4]
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Chap. III.
The Monarchy of Egypt at Thebes.

Herodotus[12] in giving an account of the ancient state of Egypt tells us that the Priests of Egypt affirming Menes to be their first king, read to him out of a Book the names of 330 following kings of Egypt who all reigned before Sesostris, & amongst whom were 18 Ethiopians & a forreign woman named Nitocris who acquired the kingdom by a memorable revenge of her brothers death, & that the Priests affirmed nothing done by any of the rest except one who was the last of them & was called Mæris. But Mæris as we shall presently shew reigned after Sesostris, & so did Nitocris if she reigned over both Egypt & Ethiopia as Iosephus mentions & built the third Pyramid at Memphis as affirmed by Manetho. Herodotus therefore justly passes over in a few words all the ages of Egypt before Sesostris as obscure & conteining nothing memorable, & begins his history of the kings of Egypt with this king the former kings (except two or three of his immediate predecessors) reigning not over all Egypt successively but divers of them at once in several parts of Egypt, which renders them the less memorable. In the time of the Monarchy of Egypt Herodotus who has given the best account of this kingdom sets down their kings in this order, if Memnon & Mœris be duly inserted. Sesostris, Pheron, [Memnon & his Viceroy] Proteus, Rhampsinitus, [Mœris,] Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Asychis, Anysis, Sabbachus the Ethiopian, Anysis again, Sethon Priest of Vulcan, Twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus, Necho, Psammis, Apries, Amasis, Psammenitus. Before Sesostris is to be placed his father Belus or Ammon, & before Ammon may be set Tethmosis Thmosis or Amosis the successor of Misphragmuthosis & founder of the Egyptian Monarchy

Iosephus[13] tells us out of Manetho that after the Shepherds went out of Egypt into Iudea, Tethmois or Thummosis who expelled them reigned 25 years & 4 months & then was succeeded by his son Chebron, after whom reigned Amenothis with his sister. Then returning back he names Mephres, Mephramuthosis , Thmosis , Amenophis & Orus as reigning in order with some other Princes of Egypt contemporary to Orus, one of which was Armais or Danaus. And then again returning back he names Armesses Miamun & his son & successor Amenophis & his son & successor Sethosis the brother of Armais or Danaus. The same kings are recited out of Manetho by Africanus & Eusebius with a little variation of the names as in the following Table

[Editorial Note 5] <19v>
AfricanusEuseb gr 1
AmmenemesAmmenemes
Gesongoses fSesonchoris f
AmmanemesAmmenemes
SesostrisSesostris

Manetho in his 11th & 12 Dynasties as he is cited by Africanus & Eusebius names these kings of Thebes as reigning in order Ammenemes, Gesongoses his son, Ammenemes ab Euneuchis suis sublatus & Sesostris. Gesongoses is by Eusebius called Sesonchoris The word should be Sesonchosis. The two first of these four kings Ammenemes & Sesonchosis are the same with the two last Ammenemes & Sesostris. Whence I gather that the father of Sesonchosis or Sesostris was Ammenemes or Ammon as above & was slain by his Eunuchs.

So again Manetho in his 18 Dynasty naming the kings which reigned at Thebes from the expulsion of the Shepherds down to Orus repeats the same kings several times. ffirst he tells us that after the shepherds went out of Egypt into Iudea Tethmosis who expelled them reigned 25 years & 4 months & then was succeeded by his son Chebron, after whom reigned Amenophis & his sister. Then returning back he names Mephres Mephramuthosis, Thmosis Amenophis & Orus as reigning successively & subjoyns some other Princes of Egypt contemporary to Orus one of which was his unkle Armais or Danaus. And then again returning back he names Armesses Mamun & his son & successor Amenophis & his son & successor Sethosis the brother of Armais or Danaus. These kings are recited out of Manetho by Iosephus, Africanus & Eusebius with a little variation of the names as in the following Table.

From him the city Thebes was called No-Ammon & the Ox there worshipped was called Mnevis

He is also called Sesostris, Sesoosis, Sessoses, Sesochris, Sesonchis, Sasyches & in Scripture Sesak.

Orus or Horus.

To him the city No-Ammon & the Ox Mnevis were dedicated.

As Osiris built temples in Thebes to his father Ammon who had reigned in that city before him, so the Egyptians dedicated the city it self to Ammon calling it No-Ammon & Ammon-No that is the city of Ammon, or as the Greeks render the word, Diospolis, the city of Iupiter Ammon. The city therefore being the royal seat of Ammon grew great in his days, tho his son Osiris built it more sumptuously. And thus was this age memorable for the building of new royal cities: David built Ierusalem, Hiram Tyre, [Adad Damascus] & Ammon & Sesak Thebes, [& Theseus Athens.] And at the same time Rezon

built Damascus & erected a new kingdom there. For when David smote Hadadezer ( or Hadad-Asser) king of Zobah & slew the syrians of Damascus who came to assist him, Rezon fled from his Lord Hadadezer & gathering a band of men became their captain & went & reigned in Damascus over Syria 1 Sam 8.3 & 10.18 & 1 King. 11.23, 24, 25) & was an enemy to Israel all the days of Solomon. He is called Hezion 1 King 15.18 & his successors were Tabimon Hadad or Benthadad, Hazael, Ben hadad, & Rezen. In the reign of Rezen Tiglathphulaser captivated the Syrians & put an end to the kingdom Benhadad & Hazael for enlarging the kingdom & adorning Damascus were deified by the Syrians For Iosephus tells us that even till his days <19r> [Editorial Note 6] both Adar (that is Adad or Benadad) & his successor Hazael were worshipped as Gods for their benefactions & for building Temples by which they adorned the City Damascus. ffor they [the Syrians] dayly celebrate solemnities in honour of these kings & boast their antiquity not knowing that they were novel & lived not above 1100 years ago. Thus far Iosephus. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 19r > ‡ Iustin calls the first of these two kings Damascus & saith that the city had its name from him & that in honour of him the Syrians worshipped his wife Arathes as a Goddes using her sepulcher for a Temple. By these instances it appears that the eastern nations of those ages

Nicolaus Damscenus makes Adad a common name of

For Pharaohs daughter staid in Ierusalem till Solomon had made an end of building his one house & the house of the Lord. & the wall of Ierusalem (1 King. 3.1) that is till the twentieth year after the laying of the foundation of the Temple or 24th year of Solomon (2 Chron 8.1) And when she removed from Ierusalem to the house which Solomon had built for her, she was called Pharaohs daughter which implies that her father was then alive & therefore he reigned from before the flight of Adad into Egypt in Davids reign till the 24th year of Solomons reign or above < text from f 19r resumes > And here it appears by a notable instance that the eastern nations of those ages deified such of their kings as were conquerors & benefactors And therefore since Ammon was the first king of Egypt who conquered abroad & his conquests were large & his son Sesostris exceeded all the kings of Egypt in the greatness both of his conquests & of his benefactions to the Egyptians, we need not wonder if the Egyptians worshipped these two above all their kings, or that Sesostris should be the great God Osiris whom the Egyptians chiefly worshipped. ffor since they did not worship him by the name of Sesostris or Sesak, he must be one of the Gods whom they worshipped by another name, & the chief of them.

Sesostris having cut canales from the river Nile into all the lower Egypt the Egyptians consecrated that river to him & worshipped him and the river together & called them both by the same names. So Homer calls that River Ægyptus & Manetho tells us that Sethosis was called Ægyptus. Also the River was called a[14] Sihor b[15] Siris & Osiris : And the king was c[16] called Siris or Sirius & by the Greeks O-siris. Afterwards from the word נהל Nahal a Torrent the River was called Nilus & the River & the king were worshipped together by the same name. For d[17] Diodorus tells us that Nilus was that king who cut Egypt into canales to make the River more useful. Cicero[18] makes Nilus the father of Mercury Minerva Vulcan & Bacchus, but he was rather Bacchus himself.

<20r>

Chap.
Of the Greek & Latin Empires.

Alexander the great having conquered the Persian Empire died at Babylon in spring Anno Nabonass. 425 & was succeeded by his bastard brother Philip Aridæus, but about 12 or 16 years after his death, his brother & other kindred being slain, his captains who governed several Provinces of the kingdom put crowns on their own heads, the chief of which were Cassander, Antigonus, Seleucus & Ptolomy reigning over Macedon, Asia, Syria & Egypt.

Afterwards Demetrius the son of Antigonus slew Alexander the son of Cassander & seized his kingdom, but was six years after succeeded in Thrace & Greece by Pyrrhus king of Epire & he seven months after by Lysimachus one of which was one of Alexanders captains & king of Thrace, by which means the kingdoms of Thrace & Macedon became united. An. Nab. 460 And about the same time Seleucus & Lysimachus assisted by Ptolomy took Asia minor from Demetrius.

Alexander the great died at Babylon in spring anno Nabonass 425, & his captains gave the Monarchy to his bastard brother Philip Aridæus & made Perdiccas Administrator of the kingdom, & Perdiccas made Meleager commander of the army Seleucus Master of the horse & Craterus Treasurer of the kingdom & the rest of the Captains governors of Provinces. vitriol symbol < insertion from lower down f 20r > vitriol symbol of Ægypt & Libya to Ptolomy, of Asia minor Cappadocia & Paphlagonia to Eumenes, of Pamphylia, Lycia, Lycaonia & Phrygia major to Antigonus, of Phrygia minor to Leonnatus, of Caria to Cassander the son of Antipater, of Syria & Phœnica to Laomedon of Armenia to Neoptolemus, of Mesopotamia to Arcesilaus, of Babylonia to Archon , of Media to Atropates &c.

< text from f 20r resumes >

Roxane the wife of Alexander being left big with child was soon after brought to bed of a son whom they called Alexander & saluted king, joyning him with Aridæus in the throne of the kingdom.

About three years after, Perdiccas being slain Antipater was chosen administrator of the kingdom & made a new partition of the Provinces among the captains giving Babylonia to Seleucus, [Mesopotamia & Arbelitis to Amphimachus] & constituted Antigonus commander of the army & guardian of the two kings

About two years after Antipater dying left Polysperchon administrator of the Empire Anno Nabonass 429. And two years after the Greek cities revolt to Cassander and Philip Aridæus with his Queen Eurydice were slain in September by the command of Olympias the mother of Alexander, after he had reigned 6 years & four months.

And a year or two after Anno Nabonass 433, Cassander the son of Antigonus affecting the kingdom of Macedon slew Olympias the mother of Alexander & married Thessalonice the sister of Alexander & imprisoned Roxane the widdow of Alexander with her young son Alexander the king.

<20v> [Editorial Note 7]
<21v>

Chap
Of the Empire of the Greeks under their own kings.

Alexander the Great died at Babylon in May a month before the summer solstice in the year of Nabonassar 425 an 1 Olymp. 114, & his captains gave the Monarchy to his bastard brother Philip Aridæus a man disturbed in his understanding & made Perdiccas administrator of the kingdom, & Perdiccas with their consent made Meleager commander of the army, Seleucus master of the horse, Craterus Treasurer of the kingdom, Antipater governor of Macedon & Greece, Ptolomy governor of Egypt Antigonus governor of Pamphilia Lycia Lycaonia & Phrygia major & the other captains governors of other Provinces. And the Babylonians began now to count by a new aera which they called the Æra of Philip & used it instead of the Æra of Nabonassar recconing the 425 year of Nabonassar to be the first year of Philip. And Roxane the wife of Alexander being left big with child & about 3 or 4 months after his death brought to bed of a son, they called him Alexander & saluted him king joyning him with Philip in the throne of the kingdom.

Philip reigned three years under the adminstratorship of Perdiccas two years more under the administratorship of Antipater & above a year more under the administratorship of Polysperechon, in all six years & four months, & then was slain with his Queen Eurydice in September by the command of Olympias the mother of Alexander the great an 4. Olymp. 115. And the Greeks being disgusted at the cruelties of Olympias revolted to Cassander the son of Antipater.

Cassander affecting the dominion of Greece slew Olympias & soon after shut up the young king Alexander with his mother Rhoxane in the castle of Amphipolis under the charge of Glaucias An. 1. Olymp 116.

The next year Ptolomy Cassander & Lysimachus by the means of Seleucus made a league against Antigonus & after certain wars made peace with him an 2 Olymp 117 upon these conditions that Cassander should command the forces of Europe till Alexander the son of Roxana came to age, & that Lysimachus should govern Thrace, Ptolomy Ægypt & Libya & Antigonus all Asia. Seleucus had possest himself of Mesopotamia Babylonia Susiana & Media the year before. About 3 years after Alexanders death he was made governour of Babylon by Antipater, then expelled by Antigonus & now recovered & enlarged his government over a great part of the east, which gave occasion to a new Æra called Æra Seleucidarum. This Æra according to the Iewish account began in Spring An. Philip. 12. An. 4 Olymp. 116 but according to the Chaldean account it began the next spring & according to the Antiochian & Alexandr account it began in Autumn between

Not long after this peace (Diodorus saith the same Olympic year) Cassander, seing that Alexander the son of Rhoxanæ grew up, & that it was discoursed thoughout Macedonia that it was fit he should be set at liberty & take upon him the government of his fathers kingdom commanded Glaucias the governour of the Castle to kill Rhoxanæ & the young king Alexander & conceale their deaths. Then Polysperchon set up Hercules the son of Alexander the great by Barsine to be king, & soon after at the sollicitation of Cassander caused him to be slain. And soon after that upon a great victory at sea got by Demetrius the son of Antigonus over Ptolomy, Antigonus took upon himself the title of king & gave the same title to his son An 2 Olymp. 118. And after his example Seleucus Cassander Lysimachus & Ptolomy took upon themselves the title & dignity of kings, having absteined from this honour while there remained any of Alexanders race to inherit the crown. And thus the monarchy of the Greeks for want of an heir was broken into several kingdoms, four of which seated to the four winds of heaven were very eminent. For Ptolomus

<21r>

Iustin represents that Hercules was slain before Alexander, & the Canon produces the reign of Alexander to the 19th year after the death of his father Alexander the great, & makes the 20th year of Philip to be the first of Ptolomy. Whether the Monarchy was dissolved & became divided into several kingdoms this year or a year or two before is of no consequence.

At the time of this division Ptolomy reigned over Egypt Libya & Æthiopia, Antigonus over Asia & Syria, Seleucus over Babylonia & all the east from Euphrates to India & Cassander over Macedon Greece & Epire. And thus was the Monarchy of the Greeks at its first dissolution divided into four great kingdoms to the four winds of heaven. Thrace was not absolutely a part of Alexanders kingdom: Lysimachus with a small body of Alexanders forces made war upon the king of the Thracians & subdued them after Alexanders death.

Cassander being afraid of the power of Antigonus combined with Lysimachus Ptolomy & Seleucus against him. Lysimachus invaded the parts of Asia next the Helespont, Ptolomy subdued Cœbyria & Phœnicia & Selecus having newly made peace with Sandrocottus king of India came down with a powerfull army into Cappadocia, & joyning the confederate forces fought Antigonus in Phrygia, & slew him & seized his kingdom an 4 Olymp 119. After which Seleucus built Antioch Seleucia & many other cities in Syria & Asia.

Yet Demetrius the son of Antigonus retained a small part of his fathers dominions & at length lost Cyprus to Ptolomy but killing Alexander the son of Cassander king of Macedon seized his kingdom An 3 Olymp. 121 & sometime after preparing a very great army to recover his fathers dominions in Asia, Seleucus, Ptolomy Lysimachus & Pyrrhus king of Epire combined against him, & Pyrrhus invading Macedonia corrupted the army of Demetrius, put him to flight seized his kingdom & shared it with Lysimachus, & after seven months Lysimachus beating Pyrrhus took Macedonia from him & held it five years & an half, uniting the kingdoms of Macedon & Thrace.

Lysimachus in his wars with Antigonus & Demetrius, had taken from them Cana, Lydia & Phrygia & had a Treasury in Pergamus a castle on the top of a conical hill in Phrygia by the river Caicus & had committed the custody thereof to one Philetærus who was at first faithfull to Lysimachus but in the last year of Lysimachus his reign revolted. ffor Lysimachus by the instigation of his wife Arsinoe slew first his son Agathocles & then those who lamented him. Vpon which the wife of Agathocles fled with her children & brothers & some others of their friends & sollicited Seleucus to make war upon Lysimachus. And Philetærus also grieving at the death of Agathocles & being accused thereof by Arsinoe, revolted & sided with Seleucus. On this occasion Seleucus & Lysimachus met & fought in Phrygia & Lysimachus being slain in the battel lost his kingdom to Seleucus an 4. Olymp 124. Thus the Empire of the Greeks which at first brake into 4 great kingdoms became now reduced into two notable ones henceforward called by Daniel the kings of the south & north. For Ptolomy now reigned over Ægypt Libya Æthiopia Arabia Phœnicia Cœlosyria Cyprus, & the kingdom of Seleucus was mighty & Seleucus was scarce inferior to the Monarchy of the Medes & Persians. And all this is thus described by Daniel The fourth king of Persia [Xerxes] shall stir up all against the realm of Greece. And as a mighty King [Alexander] shall stand up & that shall rule with great dominion & do according to his will. And when he shall stand up his kingdom shall be broken & shall be divided towards the four winds of heaven, , but not to his posterity [ this division not commencing till they were all dead] nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled: for his kingdom shall be pluckt up even for others besides those. And the king of the south [Ptolomy] shall become strong, & one of his Princes [Seleucus one of Alexanders Princes] shall become strong above <20v> and have dominion: his dominion shall be a great dominion.

After Seleucus had reigned seven months over Macedon Greece Thrace Asia Syria & all the east as far as India, Ptolomæus Ceraunus the brother of Ptolomeus Philadelphus slew him treacherously & seized his dominions in Europe & Antiochus Soter the son of Seleucus succeeded his father in Asia Syria & most of the east, & after 19 or 20 years was succeeded by his son Antiochus Theos who having a lasting war with Ptolomæus Philadelphus composed the same by marrying Berenice the daughter of Philadelphus & after a reign of 15 years his other wife Laodice poisoned him & set her son Seleuus Callinicus upon the throne. And Callinicus in the beginning of his reign by the impulse of his mother Laodice beseiged Berenice in Daphne & slew her with her youg son & many of her weomen. Whereupon Ptolomeus Euergetes the successor of Philadelphus & brother of Berenice made war upon Callinicus, Phœnicia Syria Cilicia Mesopotamia Babylonia Susiana & some other regions & carried back into Egypt 40000 tallents of silver & 2500 Images of the Gods amongst which were the Gods of Egypt carried away by Cambeses. All which is thus signified by Daniel. And after certain years they [the kings of the south & north] shall make friendship: for the kings daughter of the south [Berenice] shall come to the king of the north to establish an agreement but she shall not retain the power of the arm & she shall not stand nor her seed, but she shall be delivered up & he [Callinus] that brought her & he whom she brought forth & they that strengthened her in [those] times [or defended her in the siege of Daphne] But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his seat [her brother Eucrastes], who shall come with an army & shall enter into the fortress [or fenced cities] of the king of the north & shall act against them & prevail And shall carry captives into Egypt, their Gods with their Princes & pretious vessels of silver & gold, & he shall continue some years after the king of the north.

<22r>

Chap. V
Of the Empire of the Greeks.

1. When the Heraclides returned into Peloponnesus under the conduct of Temenus Cresphontes & Aristodemus, Temenus became king of Argos & was succeeded by his son Cisus, & then the kingdom ceased & became divided among the posterity of Temenus untill Phidon conquered them & reunited the kingdom ffor Phidon subdued to himself the whole possession of Temenus till then divided into many parts. 3 Strabo tells us that Phidon was the tenth from Temenus not the tenth king (for between Cisus & Phidon they reigned not ) but the tenth by generation from father to son inclusively, so that there were 9 generations (or about 243 years{)} from the birth of Temenus to the birth of Phidon recconing 27 years to a generation & about as much from the expedition of Temenus with the Heraclides to the wars of Phidon upon his kindred. And therefore the Heraclides returning about 45 years before the beginning of the Olympiads, the wars of Phidon will fall upon the 50th Olympiad or thereabouts, Or perhaps a little earlier ffor some tell us that Phidon was the seventh from Temenus. Now the posterity of Iphitus presided in the Olympic games till the 26th Olympiad, & so long the Victors were rewarded with a Tripus. Then the Pisæans getting above the Elians began to preside & rewarded the victors with a crown & instituted the Carnea to Apollo & continued to preside till the wars between the Pisæans & Eleans which happened in 48 & 49 Olympiads. In the 48th Olympiad the Elians entred the country of the Pisæans with an army suspecting their designes, but were prevailed with to return home quietly. Afterwards the Pisæans confederated with several other Greek nations viz Phidon & those under him) & made war upon the Eleans & in the end were beaten. In this way I conceive it was that Phidon presided in the Olympic games, suppose in the 49th Olympiad. ffor we are told that <22v> he presided; & in the 50th Olympiad, for putting an end to the contentions between the kings about presiding, two men were chosen by lot out of the city of Elis to preside, & their number in the 65th Olympiad was increased to nine & afterwards to ten, & those judges were called Hellenodicæ. Pausanias tells us that the Eleans called in Phidon & together with him celebrated the eighth [he should have said, the 49th] Olympiad, but Herodotus that Phidon removed the Eleans. And both might be true. The Eleans might call in Phidon against the Pisæans & upon overcoming them claim the presiding in the games & be refused by Phidon & then confederate with the Spartans & by their assistance overthrow the kingdom of Phidon & recover from the Pisæans their ancient right of presiding & set up the Hellenodicæ So then Phidon overcame his kinsmen who reigned as Princes in several parts of the kingdom of Tisamenus & reunited their Principalities into one Monarchy under himself a little before the 48th Olympiad, suppose in the 43th or 44th Olympiad or thereabouts. And at that time the conquered Princes Caranus his brother & Perdiccas his kinsman & others fled from Argos with Colonies into Emathia & there founded the kingdom of Macedon. ffor Iustin tells us that Caranus with a great multitude of Greeks sought new seats in Emathia afterwards called Macedon & by the command of the Oracle following a flock of Goats took the city Aedessa made it the seat of a new kingdom & from the Goats called the city Aegeas, & subdued the neighbouring Princes Midas & others & was succeeded in the kingdom by Perdiccas

4. Herodotus tells us that three brothers who were of the posterity of Temenus & whose names were Gauanes, Æropus, & Perdiccas fled from Argos into Illyricum & thence into the upper Macedonia to the city Lebæa where they served the king of that city some time & then retired into another part of Macedonia neare the Gardens of Midas the son of Gordius, & there made war upon the neighbouring people & thereby Perdiccas came to the kingdom of Macedon & was succeeded therin by Argæus, Philippus, Æropus, Alcætas, Amyntas, Alexander, the last of which was contemporary to Xerxes. Now the reign of Carneus & these seven kings at about 18 years a piece amounts to 144 years which counted backward from the death of Xerxes will place the beginning of the kingdom of Macedon upon the 43th Olympiad or thereabouts as above. After Alexander reigned Perdiccas Archelaus Orestes & others unto Philip the father of Alexander the great.

2. The kingdom of Macedon was founded by Caranus the brother of Phidon & some make Phidon as ancient as Iphitus & tell us that the kingdom of Macedon was founded before the Olympiads: but Phidon was not so ancient by 200 years. The Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Almæon – – – – – – – – or 240 after the return of the Heraclides

5 Alexander the great &c.

<24r>

Mæris is set immediately before Cheops three times in the Dynasty of the kings of Egypt composed by Eratosthenes & once in the Dynasties of Manetho & in the same Dynasties Nitocris is set after the builders of the great Pyramids. And thence I gather that the kings of Egypt mentioned by Herodotus ought to be placed in this Order. Ammon, Sesostris, Pheron or Orus,

The Egyptians originally lived on the fruits of the earth & absteined from animals & fared hardly. Menes taught them to adorn their tables & beds with rich carpets & brought in amongst them a sumptuous delicious & voluptuos way of life, & about an hundred years after his death was cursed for it by Gnephaitus one of his successors cursed him for it & caused the curse to be entred in the Temple of Iupiter Ammon at Thebes: & by this curse the honour of Menes was diminished among the Egyptians.

Si corpus vi tertia P in loco A impressa dato illo tempore ferretur ab A ad E: motus ex tribus viribus impressis resultans is esset qui coponeretur ex motibus AD et AE, & sic deinceps in infinitum.

Et motus composito vis insita quia corpus in motu illo perseverat, proportionalis est.

<24v>

Dn Legatus, Exemplaria 2

ProfessorAstronomiæ Pollenus Paduensis. 1
Manfredus Bononiensis 1

Nobilis Venetus D. Trivisanus, Senator 1.

Christinus Martinellus Nob. Venetus, Astronomiæ studiosus, 1

Vrsatus Discipulus Reinaldini et Montenari, Astronomiæ studiosus 1.

Abbas Angloi, Astronomiæ valde studiosus, Parisiensis 1.

Ds Conti Nob. Venetus, Senator, 1.

Pater Grandi Pisanus Professor – 1

Dns Bernoulli uterque – 2.

<25r>

Antæus who governed Libya had his royal seat at Hirassa or Irasa a city of Pentapolis neare the haven Apollonia For Pindar tells us that Hirassa was the city of Antæus. There Battus afterwards built the city Cirene the Metropolis of the Province. In all the sea coasts of Egypt from Ioppa in Palestine to Parætonium in Libya for the space of above 600 miles there was not one safe harbor to be found except Pharus, but from Parætonium along the sea coasts of Marmarica & Cyrene were several good ones & And therefore the Egyptians before the conquest of Libya could not be potent at sea for want of Ports but upon the conquest of Libya meeting there with convenient ports & plenty of timber they set out a potent fleet of long & tall ships & this region being at that time under the government of Antæus he was the Neptune of the ancients. For Neptune was first worshipped in Africa & from thence his worship was propagated into other countries & therefore he reigned in Afric & the Cretans affirmed that Neptune was the first that set out a fleet having obteined this Prefecture of Saturn, whence posterity recconed things done in the sea to be under his government & Mariners honoured him with sacrifices. By Saturn I understand here the father of Iupiter Belus Neptune & Pluto & shall presently shew that Iupiter Belus was Sesostris. Whence it follows that Neptune was the brother of Osiris & by consequence the Typhon of the Egyptians & therefor Ammon their father was the first king of Egypt who set out a fleet in the Mediterranean. ffor Typhon was the husband of Nephtys & was interpreted by the Egyptians to signify the sea & the Priests of Egypt abominated the sea & had Neptune in no honour. They said that Osiris signified the Nile which in overflowing copulated with the land of Egypt signified by Isis & in running into the sea & being dissipated therein perished by Typhon. And in telling the story of the war between the Gods of Egypt & the Giants they sometimes put Neptune for Typhon, where Lucian saith that Corinth being full of fables tells the fight of Sol & Neptune & where Agotharcides relates how the gods of Egypt fled from the Giants till the Titans came in & saved them by putting Neptune to flight. The outmost parts of the earth & promontories & whatsoever borders upon the sea the Egyptians called Nephtys. And in the sea coasts of Marmarica & Cyrene Bochart & Arius Montanus place the Naphtuim a people sprung from Misraim Gen. 10.13. And therefore Neptune & his wife Nephtys are also to be placed there the words Neptune Nephtys & Naphtuim signifying in the language of the Egyptians the King & Queen & people of the sea coasts. Certainly Neptune was contemporary to Sesostris & {Anc}æus; for in the reign of Laomedon king of Troy he & Orus assisted in building the walls of Troy that is fortifyed that city for Sesostris. His son Glaucus took Ariane from Theseus in the Island Dia & lay with her. Others of his sons as Euphemus Erginus Nauplius & Ancæus were in the Argonautic expedition, & his <25v> son Atlas was contemporary to the Argonauts being the father of Calypso who flourished in the time of the Trojan war & after that war convened with Vlisses. Neptune therefore being two generations older then the warriers at Troy & one generation older then the Argonauts was contemporary to Sesostris & therefore was his Admiral & he & Antæus reigned at once over the kingdom of Libya & so must be one & the same king, & his son Atlas must be his successor in the kingdom. For the gardens of the Hesperides were in the kingdom of Atlas & are placed by Ptolomy, Pliny, & Strabo neare Cyrene. And Atlas was skilled in sea affairs & had a potent fleet, for Homer saith of him Θαλάσσης πασης βένθεα οἰδεν He knows the depths of all the sea, & others that Phorcys who reigned over Sardinia & Corsica was overcome by Atlas in a sea fight & drowned, & Clemens Alexandrinus that Atlas was the first that built a ship & sailed upon the seas, that is in the reign & by the direction of his father Neptune. And in the war between the Gods of Egypt & the Titans Atlas was captain of the Titans & in the end of the war had the heavens placed upon his sholders, that is he assisted his father Typhon or Neptune in that war & then succeeded him in the kingdom of Afric. ffor the Ancients represented a kingdom by the frame of the world putting the sun moon & Stars for the king the people & the princes of the kingdom. The country of Cyrene was famous for the breed & management of good horses & Egypt was supplied with horses from thence, especially after the conquest of Libya by Ammon. And thence Neptune Pallas & the Amazons were called eques And Pamphus who is reputed the author of the oldest hymns amongst the Athenians calls Neptune

Ι῾ποσωντε δοτηρα, νεων τε᾽ ἰθυκρηδέμων

The author of horses & of tall ships with sails. Chariots were drawn by horses before his days, but he is reputed the author of riding & fighting on horsback.

For before the conquest of Lybya by Ammon, horsmanship & long ships with sails were not known in Europe Horses were u

Pliny tells that ships of war were first rigged out by Ægæon & others make Ægeon the son in law of Neptune

When the Egyptians applied themselves to Navigation, that they might have the sea coasts by which men had hitherto sailed & guide themslves in the middle of the seas by the Sun Moon & starrs, their kings & Princes & chiefly their Admirals applyed themselves to the observation of the heavens & study of Astronomy . Atlas was eminent for his skill in this science, Antæus observed the course of the Moon which was the hardest part of Astronomy, was Tutor to Bacchus in Libya & came from thence into Greece & in the reign of Ammon, Aristæus who married the daughter of Cadmus, carried Astronomy from Libya into Greece The Atlantides a people of Libya say[19] that Vranus was their first king who reduced them from a salvage course of life & taught them to live in towns & cities & that he reigned over a great part of the world & measured the year by the course of the Sun & the Months by the course of the Moon & divided the days into hours & was familiarly acquainted with the rising & setting of the stars, & after death for his merits & skill in Astronomy was honoured as a God. They say also that he married his sister Titæa or Terra & by her had many children called Titans two of which called Hyperion & Bisilea were the parents of Helio & Selene, & that the Titans asassinated Hyperion & drowned Helio in Eridanus (not in the Po but in the river Nile) & thereupon Selene threw herself from a house top & her mother Basilea went distracted & disappeared, & all of them were deified. By which circumstances its manifest that Cœlus Hyperion Helio & Selene were Ammon, Osiris, Orus & Bubaste, Ammon being deified by the name of Vranus or Iupiter Vranius. And the Cretans reported[20] that Hyperion the son of Cœlus was the first that by his own industry found out the motions of the Sun & Moon & other stars & the seasons & distinctions of time measured out by them, that <26r> is he assisted his father in these matters for advancing navigation being instructed by Aristæus. And hence it appears that he was the Iupiter Belus of the Chaldeans. ffor Pausanias tells us that Iupiter Belus in Babylon had his name from Belus an Egyptian the son of Libya (as he is reputed) who built the temple in Babylon & Strabo: Durat ibi (Babylon) Iovis Beli templum: inventor hic fuit sideralis scientiæ. And Diodorus: the Egyptians report that many colonies out of Egypt were disperst over all parts of the world (vizt by the wars of Sesostris) & that Belus the son of Neptune & Libya led a colony into the Province of Babylon & fixing his seat at the river Euphrates consecrated Priests & according to the custome of the Egyptians freed them from all public taxes & impositions. These Priests the Babylonians call Chaldeans who observe the motions of the stars in imitation of the Priests Naturalists & Astrologers of Egypt. Cheræas wrote that there was wine in Babylon which the inhabitants called Nectar & thence it appears that Bacchus & the Gods of Egypt were at Babylon this wine being their drink.

When Bacchus invaded the nations he found them without weapons of iron which made his conquests easy. When Ammon conquered Libya they used clubs. So Hyginus: Afri et Ægyptij primum fustibus dimicaverunt postea Belus Neptuni filius gladio belligeratus est, unde bellum dictum. In Europe Cadmus first found out Copper in Bœotia & then the Idæi Dactylj found out iron in Crete in the reign of Minos, & by the use of iron tools Minos was enabled to prepare a fleet by which he gained the dominion of the seas, The islands Cyclades were at first uninhabited but Minos & Rhadamanthus peopled several of them & Rhadamanthus giving to each of his captains some Island or City placed Thoas in Lemnus. There Thoas exercised the Smiths trade having perhaps learnt it of the Idei Dactyli in Crete & being furnished with iron from thence. He built & reigned in the city Hephæstion, & when Sesostris the great Mars of the ancients conquered the Greek Islands he made armor for him, & became the Hephæstus or Vulcan of the Ancients. ✝ < insertion from the right margin of f 26r > ✝ Apollonius taking Thoas for the son of Bacchus saith that Bacchus left his purple cloak to his son Thoas & Thoas left it to his daughter Hypsipyle Queen of Lemnus. Apol. Argonaut IV. v. 426. < text from f 26r resumes > He married Calycopis the daughter of Otreus king of Phrygia & taking Mars (that is, Sesostris) in bed with his wife composed the matter so as to obtein the government of Cyprus & Byblus. Then Mars went presently with violence (that is, with his army) over the Hellespont into Thrace & Calycopis sailed in rich apparrell to Cythara & thence to Cyprus & landed at Paphus where she was washed & adorned by her weomen called the Graces & lived splendidly in costly aparrel adorned with gold, & where Vulcan afterward married Agalia the youngest of the Graces. In her way to Cyprus she sailed first to Cythara an Island of Greece between Peloponnesus & Crete. Thoas for his skill upon the harp was called Cinyras. ffor Cinyras lived with Venus in Cyprus & was an inventor of arts & found out tiles, & copper in Cyprus, & the hammer & anvil & tongues & laver, & impoyed workmen in making armour & other things. – – – – – – times of the Trojan war. And after the death of his wife he deified her with lustful Orgia whereby she becam the Cyprian Venus – – – – – – huc appulsam Tacit Hist. 2. p. 238. This Venus before she went to Cyprus lay with Anchises on mount Ida & at Cyprus she lived in adultery with Gingris the son of Cinyras; & when Cinyras deified his Venus he deified also his son by the name of Adonis

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The names of the Gods Moloch Milcom Adramelech Anamelech, Melecartus.

[Editorial Note 8]

building Temples to Venus & Adonis in Cyprus & at Byblus in Phœnicia & instituting their worship with orgia & lamentations for the death of Adonis much after the manner that Osiris was worshipped in Egypt. Or rather, he instituted the worship of his great benefactor Osiris under the name of Adonis & the Cyprians applied the name & worship to his son. ffor Adonis signifies The Lord & so agrees to Osiris but not to Gingris, & Lucian tells us that he saw at Byblus a great Temple of Venus Byblia – – – – – – – – called Dea Syria as well as Dea Cypria. And from the Temples built to her in several places she was called Cytharea, Paphia, Amathusia Byblia &c. So then Sesostris was the Adonis of the Syrians & his mistress was their Venus, & the maker of his armour was their Vulcan

So then the great Gods of Egypt vizt Ammon, Osiris – – – – – – – – – Antæo eripui.

But after some further broiles the war was composed & Isis & Orus reigned in Egypt for some time till the Ethiopians under Hercules invaded Egypt & Libya drowning Orus in the Nile & taking Libya from Atlas & then came out against Asa king of Israel with a very great army of Ethiopians Libyans & Troglodytes & were beaten by him & driven out of the lower Egypt by the revolting Egyptians untill the reign of Amenophis.

Pliny tells us: Ægyptiorum bellis attrita est Ethiopia – – – – – – – – Philstims from Caphtor Amos 9.7. And thus by the civil broiles in Egypt & the revolt of the nations, the great Empire of the Cophtites seated at Thebes, came to a period.

This Empire may be distinguished into four ages according to the reign of their kings Thmosis, Ammon Osiris & Orus. For these were the ages of the great Gods of Egypt these seem to be the four ages of the Gods of Egypt, in imitation of which the Greeks formed the four ages of their Gods.

In those days the Egyptians using to write in Hieroglyphick affected to represent all things by symbols as by putting a trident in the hand of an Admiral to represent the three squadrons of his fleet, a rod writhen about with two serpents for the symbol of an Embassador reconciling two nations, a man with a syth for a king of a corn-country, a man with rams horns for a king a country abounding with sheep a man riding upon an eagle with a thunderbolt in his hand for a great warrior soaring high in dominion, the world for a kingdom, a giant for a man great in power a man with many heads & hands for a king with his kingdom or a Captain with his army water for people a flood for an invasion, &c a new world after a flood for a new kingdom after an invasion, golden apples for {scar}ce & precious & valuable fruit, a Dragon keeping the gardens of the Hesperides for an army keeping a country abounding with fruit-bearing trees, a horn of the sea for a river, the horn of Amalthea for a river with fertile meadows on both sides given by Ammon to his Queen for her maintenance. And So when Hercules took the Globe from Atlas it is to be understood that he took his kingdom from him, & by Deucalion are to be understood the ages of a kingdom erected by an invasion. < insertion from between the lines > a golden age for a happy age golden apples for pretious apples. a man or Beast with two or more faces or heads for a king with two or more kingdoms collateral or successive. And

And from these & such like symbols truly interpreted the history of the mystical ages may receive some light. ffor Saturn has a sith to signify that he conquered the lower Egypt, a country abounding with corn. The Egyptians painted him with two faces becausse he reigned over two kingdoms an old one & a new. Iupiter Ammon has ram's horns because he conquered Libya a country abounding with sheep. Iupiter Belus has a thunderbolt in his hand to signify that he was a great warrior. He rides upon an egle to signify his soaring high in dominion. Mercury has an Embassadors rod writhen about with two serpents in memory of his composing the wars between the nations of Egypt & Libya. Hercules has a club because he was of the nation of the Megabar Ethiopians next above Egypt who fought with clubs. He took the sphere from Atlas, that is the kingdom of Libya A dragon kept the gardens of the Hesperides, that is, an army kept the kingdom of Libya. Amalthea the mother of Bacchus had a horn filled with flowers & fruit, that is a river with fertil meadows on each side given her by Ammon for her maintenance. Greece was overflowed in the days of Ogyges & Deucalion that is overspread with forreigners.

< text from f 27r resumes > <27v>

before Psammiticus reigned over all Egypt. Menes & his succesors reigned afterwards at Memphis & built that city sumptuously. And therefore Menes was Amenophis the Ethiopian called Amenophis. Memphis was by the Egyptians called Menoph, Moph, Noph, from the founder whose name Amenoph easily passed into Menoph & Menoph into Menes.

After the death of Asserhadon (or soon after) reigned at Babylon Saosduchinus, Chiniladon Nabopolassar & Nebuchadnezzar, at Ecbatane D{illeg} Phraortes, Astyages Cyaxeres & Darius & at Nineveh I think Nebuchadonosor, Anacyndaraxis, & Sardanapalus. ffor the history of Nebuchadonosor king of Assyria mentioned in the book of Esther suits with these times. For Nebuchadonosor in the 12th year of his reign &c.

And by his reigning next after the Gods of Egypt & placing his throne at Memphis you may know that he is the Menes of the Egyptians who reigned next after the Gods & built Memphis. As Thebes was called by the Egyptians No-Ammon from Ammon who made it the seat of his Empire, so Memphis was by them called Menoph, Mnoph, Moph Noph from Amenoph who first reigned there. And Menoph by an easy change became Menes. He was succeeded by Ramses or Rhampsinitus, Mœris, Cheops Cephren, Mycerinus, Nitocres, Asychis Anysis & perhaps some other intermediate kings. All these reigned at Memphys & adorned the city & there built

Menes built the

[Editorial Note 9]

enter ino open rebellion & become false churches called in scripture Synagogues of Satan & Antichrists. These are they that separate themselves, saith Iude of

– on the other side Iordan, & there they began first to be called Ebionites

They gloried in this name & said that they knew of no such man as Ebion – – – a poor man. This is the account which they gave of themselves, but Epiphanius Ierome & some others took Ebion for the name of a man. Vpon the commencing of the Iewish war the Christian Iews or Nazarens fled from Ierusalem into other countries & chiefly into Peræa on the other side of Iordan And there by the number of those who refused to communicate with the uncircumcised beleivers, the name of Ebionites became at length appropriated to the Nazarenes of this opinion.

Sect. II.

I have hitherto considered the Church of God or host of heaven as an aggregate of men united into one body by mutual friendship love & charity & into one kingdom by subjection to the laws of one God their supreme king & of one Christ their Lord. It remains that I say something of their unity in the forms & ceremonies of worship & government. For the Iews had but one Tabernacle & one Temple & one High Priest for sacrificing & one Sanhedrim or great Council of seventy Elders seated in the Temple for governing the whole nation, & under these were synagogues in every city for praying & preaching & in every synagoge a Council of Elders for governing the city, & the Council anciently sat in the Gate of the city Ruth 4.1, 2, 11.

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omnia regit cum potentia cui resisti non potest.

Pag 433 l 1, 2, 3. Æternus est et Infinitus, Omnisciens & Omnipotens id est, durat ab æterno in æternum omnia cognoscit quæ fiant & sciri possunt & omnia regit quæ sunt. et adest ab infinito in infinitum. Non est æternitas vel infinitas sed æternus & infinitus. Non est duratio vel spatium sed durat & adest Durat semper & adest ubique & existendo semper et ubique durationem et spatium æternitatem & infinitatem constituit. Cum unaquæque spatij particula sit semper, & unum quodque durationis indivisibile momentum ubique; certe rerum omnium Fabricator ac Dominus non erit nunquam nusquam. Omnipræsens est non per virtutem solam sed etiam per substantiam. Nam virtus sine substantia subsistere non potest. In ipso *[21] continentur et moventur universa, sed absque mutua passione Deus nihil patitur ex corporum motibus: illa nullam sentiunt resistentiam ex omnipræsentia Dei. Deum summum necessario existere &c.

Pag 484 lin. 17. Adjicere jam liceret nonnulla de Spiritu quodam subtilissimo corpora crassa pervadente & in ijsdem latente; cujus vi et actionibus particulæ corporum ad parvas distantias se mutuo attrahunt & contiguæ factæ cohærent, &

[Editorial Note 10] <28v>

After this war Nebuchadonosor in the 18th year of his reign sent his captain Olofernes with a great army to avenge himself on all the west country because they had disobeyed his commandment, & Olofernes went forth with an army of 12000 horse & 120000 foot & reduced Cilicia & Mesopotamia & Syria & Damascus & part of Arabia & Madian & then came against Iudæa. And this was done when the government was in the hands of the High Priest & ancients of Israel (Iudith 8) & by consequence when Iosiah was a child. In times of prosperity – – – from danger. When the king of Assyria was reducing the western nations & prepared to come against Iudea, then were the Iews terrified & they fortified Iudea – – – – Ierusalem from Idolatry. Herodotus tells us that the Medes revolted before the rest

Gold symbol Misphragmuthosis was the first man who reigned over all Egypt including Thebais. Ammon or Amenemosis extended the Empire over Libya thence called Ammonia & over Ethiopia & the coasts of the red sea on both sides. Sesac added the rest. Sesac or Sesostris going westward to the straits mouth & eastward to Persia & Media & northward into Syria Assyria Mesopotamia Anatolia Thrace & setting up pillars in all his conquests. ✝ < insertion from lower down f 28v > ✝ He built Temples & set up Oracles to his father Ammon at Thebes & in Libya & Ethiopia # < insertion from lower down f 28v > # & perhaps in Arabia Felix. For all these nations worshipped Iupiter Ammon. He divided Egypt & Thebais into Nomes, cutt channel < text from higher up f 28v resumes > & divided Egypt & all Thebais into Nomes &, cutting channels from the Nile to the head cities of all the Nomes, raised the cities high with the earth dug out, built a Temple in every city for the nome, appointed the God, the religion & the annual festivals of every nome, & sett up an Oracle in the Temple to the God of the Nome causing his several Princes to be worshipped in the several Nomes & himself & his wife in them all. Whence came the several Gods & religions of the several Nomes of Egypt. Some of their Oracles remained till the days of Herodotus. < text from f 28v resumes > After this death of Sesac Libya revolted & invaded Egypt but was repelled repulsed by the army of Egypt & Ethiopia. Then the Ethiopians invaded Egypt slew the Son & successor of Sesak, & under Zera came out against the Iews. For while these things were doing Asa revolted & had rest ten years & fortified Iudea & raised a great army Zerah being beaten by Asa so that he could not recover himself the people of the lower Egypt under the conduct of Osarsiphus called in a great body of the victorious Iews, & drove back the Ethiopians. But after 15 years Amenophis with his son Ramesses came down from Ethiopia with a great army, subdued all Egypt & drave out the Iews And this was the second expulsion of the shepherds. Amenophis by this conquest founded a new Dynasty of Kings of Egypt who reigned at Memphis. ffor he is Menes who reigned next after the Gods or deified kings of & Thebes who built Memphis from him called by the Egyptians Menoph, Mnoph, Moph, Noph. Menoph is Menes. After him reigned Ramesses or Rhampsinitus, Mœris, Cheops – – – at Memphis & there they built the sumptuous temple of Vulcan & the Labyrinth & the Pyramids & made the great lake of Mœris with two Pyramids in it. In the reigns of Asychis & Anytis – – – – by Asserhadon.

For it was hitherto in fashion for the eastern nations to deify the founders of their kingdoms. An instance of which we have in the kings of Damascus founded by Rezon or Hezion in the latter end of Davids reign. [After Hezion reigned Tabrimon, Benhadad, Hazael, Benhadad, ** Rezin successively at Damascus till the Assyrians conquered Rezin. And the Syrians of Damascus] & enlarged by Benhadad & Hazael. For Iosephus lets us know that the Syrians worshipped Adad & his successor Hazael as Gods for their benefactions. And so by the Gods of the other nations <28r> conquered by the Assyrians are to be understood their kings who founded or enlarged their kingdoms. / in these & some other institutions he seems to have copied from those of the Iews, his sister having been Solomons Queen. The High Priest of the nome judged the people & ware a badge hanging about his neck by a golden chain adorned with gemms & named Truth.

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Iosephus tells us out of Manetho & Choeremon that in the reign of Amenophis the son of Rhampsis & grandson of Sethos a great body of leprous Egyptians revolted at Pelusium & had their polity & laws given them by Osarsiphus priest of Heliopolis & called in the Iews from Ierusalem to their assistance & that Amenophis fled to Ethiopia where the King of Ethiopia was freely subject to him & after thirteen years returned & with his young son Ramasses (so called from his Grandfather Rhampses) drave out the rebells & Iews to the borders of Syria This story Manetho & Cheremon have distorted applying it to the time of Moses as if Moses was Osarsiphus & the Israelites which Moses led out of Egypt were the Iews & Egyptians now expelled by Amenophes. Let the story be purged from what belongs to that fiction & it will amount to this that after the Ethiopians were routed at Maresah, the Egyptians called in the victorious Iews to their assistance & then Amenophis leaving a competent force at Pelusium pursued the flying Ethiopians with his main army as far as Ethiopia staid in those parts 10 or 12 years till he had reduced them to obedience & then returned & with his young son Rhampses [either by perswasion or by force] obliged the Iews to withdraw into Syria. And to this action Ramesses seems to relate when he inscribed on his Obelisk (according to the interpretation of Hermapion that he had saved Egypt by expelling forreigners.

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[22]In this or the next kings reign & in the 14th year of Asa Zerah king of {Egypt} with an army of a thousand thousand Ethiopians & b[23] Lybyans invaded Iudea Their way was through Egypt & they seem to have made a considerable stay there. ffor Asa king of Iudah had peace 10 years before they invaded him & long expected their coming. ffor while the land was yet before him he destroyed {Idolatry &} sought the Lord & fortified the cities of Iudea with walls & towers & gates & bars & prepared an army of 500000 This he did without any help from the Egyptians & they had work enough at home. & At length when they advanced from Eypt Asa met & routed them, so that they could not recover themselves. Azariah the Prophet went out to meet him & said [24]Hear ye me Asa & Iudah & Benjamin. The Lord is with you while ye be with him & if ye seek him he will be found of you but if you forsake him he will forsake you. Now for a long season Israel hath been without a true God & without a teaching Priest & without Law. And in those times there was no peace to him that went out nor to him that came in but great vexations were upon all the inhabitants of the countries & nation was destroyed of Nation & city of city: for God did vex them with all adversity [vizt during the wars & dominion of Sesack.]. But when Israel in their trouble did turn unto the Lord & sought him he was found of them. Israel was therefore in trouble about the Ethiopians when asa sought the Lord & fortified the Cities of Iudah. Thus did the King of Iudah shake of the dominion of Egypt For now he brought into the Temple the silver & gold & vessels which he & his father had dedicated since the spoiling of the temple by Sesak: & henceforward – he & his son Iehosaphat had peace & flourished in power & wealth for 50 years together. The Ethiopians & Libyans being thus routed were probably expelled by the Egyptians. ffor Ramestes inscribed on an Obelisk (according to the interpretation of Hermapion) that he had saved Egypt by overcoming forreigners. Yet by this invasion the dominion of Egypt was shaken so that Herodotus was not much out when he wrote that Sesostris was the only King that enjoyed the Empire. However a considerable part of the nations conquered by Sesostris continued still in subjection to Egypt.

By this action Iudah shook of the dominion of Egypt. ffor whereas Sesak had taken away all the treasures of the Temple Asa now brought into the Temple the silver & gold & vessels which he & his father had dedicated in the room of what Sesak had taken away & henceforward he & his son Iehosaphat – – – together.

The Ethiopians & Libyans being thus totally routed were probably expelled by the Egyptians ffor Ramestes –

His mother was a Queen & therefore we may reccon him of the royal race of Sesostris. By the riches of his predecessors – – musical voice.

He built also the Labyrinth – – end of which was a square – – –

structure like a temple ten furlongs in circuit with several stately Porticos & Galleries. At the entrance of one of the Porticos were three very great statues, his own his mothers & his daughters with this Inscription

I am Osimandes King of Kings

If any would know how great I am & where I lye

let him excell me in any of my works.

Iosephus tells a story out of Manetho & Chœremon of a body of leprous Egyptians revolting at Pelusium in the reign of Amenophis ~ ~ ~ ~ the son of Rampses & grandson of Sethos & calling in the Iews from Ierusalem to their assistance & that Amenophis fled with his army from them into Ethiopia because the king of Ethiopia was freely subject to him & after some time returning with his young son Remesses out of Ethiopia vanquished the rebells & drave them out of Egypt to the borders of Syria.

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– – – – – – – – greatness of their tribute & their army of a thousand thousand. But these inscriptions being upon seveal structures & {Obelisks} in the City Thebes & giving an account of the power & dominion of that city are to be understood of the power & wealth of more kings then one & chiefly of the kings which reigned in Thebes before the translation of the Empire to Memphis & Ramesses here may be Sesostris: for Sesostris is sometimes called by that name.

Pliny tells us that the first Obelisk was made by Mitres who reigned in Heliopolis & afterwards other kings – – – – – – – one of 80.

Herodotus who travelled into Egypt & is the oldest author who has given us an account of the kings of that place, tells us that the Priests of Egypt read to him out of a book the names of 330 kings who reigned after Menes, amongst which was Nitocris a famous Queen & that nothing memorable was told him of any of the rest except the last of them called Mœris, & that after Mœris reigned Sesostris, Pheron, Proteus, Rhampsinitus, Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Asychis, Anysis, Sabacus, Anysis, Sethon, twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus Nechus, Psammis, Apries, Amasis. This is the best account of the kings of Ægypt now extant, but not without some faults. Menes Nitocris & Mœris were later then the Gods & reigned at Memphis, & there did great works & therefore are to be placed after Sesostris & his son Pheron who reigned at Thebes & were two of the Gods. Menes built the magnificent temple of Vulcan at Memphis & Mœris built the northern Portico of that Temple & therefore reigned soon after Menes so that there is not room for 330 kings between them. For it is not to be imagined that the temple of Vulcan could be 5 or 6 thousand years in building. The last of the three great Pyramids was built some say by Nitocris others by Rhodope others by Mycerinus. Mycerinus died before it was finished & therefore she is to be placed after him. Proteus reigned in the time of the Trojan war & therefore was contemporary to Memnon. Proteus is not an Egyptian name but a Greek word translated from the language of Egypt as Herodotus tells us. It signifies a Prince & so may be either Memnon himself or his deputy governour of Egypt. Proteus reigned at Memphis & if he was the father of Remphis as Diodorus affirms, he must be Memnon himself. As Memnon built the temple of Vulcan so Proteus on the south side of that temple built the Temple of Venus Kospita the wife of Vulcan & the relation between those Temples & time of their building import that they were works of the same king, but Memnon might imploy his Vice-roy to see the buildings erected. Instead of Sabacus Anysis & Sethon Manetho has Sabacon, Sevechus & Taracus which names agree better with Scripture. ffor when Senancherib lost his army Sethon reigned over Egypt according to Herodotus & Tirhakah according to scripture & the predecessor of Tirhakah was So or Sua according to Scripture that is Sevechus. Let all these corrections be made, & the Canon of the kings of Egypt set down by Herodotus will be as follows. Sesostris, Pheron, Menes, Rhampsinitus, Mœris Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Nitocris, Asychis, Anysis, Sabacon, Seoschus, Taracus, twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus, Nechus, Psammis, Apries, Amasis. And according to this recconing there reigned 18 kings between the death of Sesostris & the beginning of the reign of Amasis, that is in the space of about 390 years, which one reigne with another making about 21mathML formula years to a reign, answers to the course of nature, especially if another king or wo be inserted.

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Between Osimanduas & Miris, that is Memnon & Mœris, Diodorus places Vchoreus – – – – – – – – – – By these works Vchoreus seems to be the same man with Echerophes the first king of Memphis in the Dynasties of Manetho. Memnon built Memphys but resided for the most part in other places, as at Susa, & Abydus: Vchoreus enlarged & beautified the place & made it his seat. Vnder Echerophis the Libyans revolted but upon an extraordinary increase of the Moon out of {relief} returned to obedience.

Among the stupendious works of – – – – – long staff.

After these kings reigned Gnepharthus – – – – under his dominion.

Anysis was blind & in his reign & the reign of Boccharis Sabacon the Ethiopian – – was called Rhinocolura.

The reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt according to Herodotus b

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Tatian in his book against the Greeks relates that amongst the Phenicians flourished three ancient historians Theodotus Hypsicrates & Mochus who all of them delivered in their histories (translated into Greek by Lætus) that under one of the kings happened the rapture of Europa, the voyage of Menelaus into Phœnicia & the league & friendship between Solomon & Hiram when Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon & supplied him with timber for building the Temple, & that the same is affirmed by Menander of Pergamus. Vnder one of the Kings, that is within the compass of the age of a man. For so the phrase is used by Isaiah, chap. XXIII.15. Iosephus lets us know that the Annals of the Tyrians from the days of Abibalus & Hiram were extant in his days, & that Menander of Pergamus translated them into Greek, & that Hiram's friendship to Solomon & assistance in building the Temple was mentioned in them. And by the testimony of Menander & the three ancient Phenician historians the rapture of Europa happened not long before the building of Solomons Temple . The voyage of Menelaus might be in pursuit of Paris and Hellena twenty years before the destruction of Troy. Solomon therefore reigned in the times between the raptures of Europa & Helena. And

Europa & her brother Cadmus flourished in the days of David & Minos the son of Europa flourished in the days of Solomon & the children of Minos namely Androgeus his eldest son, Deucaleon his youngest son, Ariadne the mistress of Theseus & Bacchus, & Phædra the wife of Theseus flourished in or neare the days of Rehoboam, [Phlias & Eumedon the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts, & Idomeneus the son of Deucaleon was at the war of Troy, & therefore the Argonautic Expedition was] & Phlias & Eumedon the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne being also Argonauts the

The great conquerors Osiris & Bacchus agree in their actions Dicæarchus represents them two generations older then Sesolstris, saying that after Orus the son of Osiris & Isis reigned Sesonchosis.

Osiris was also king of all Egypt & a great conquerour & conquered Thrace & there killed Lycurgus, & his history agrees with that of Bacchus. B

Osiris was also king of all Egypt & a great conquerour & reigned not above three generations before the Arg exp as above & the sacred history admits not of such a conquering king of Egypt in the days of Samuel Saul David & Solomon. Sesac is the first king of this kind.] Osiris conquered Thrace & killed Lycurgus & therein he agrees with Bacchus, & by the consent of all antiquity both Egyptians & Greeks Osiris & Bacchus were one & the same king of Egypt. The histories of Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris agree with one another. All three by the relation of historians were kings of all Egypt & there were no kings of all Egypt including Thebais before the expulsion of the shepherds. All three reigned at Thebes about the same time, & were very potent by land & sea. All thre were great conquerors & conquered the same regions & carried on their conquests by land through Asia as far as India. All three came over the Hellespont & were there in danger of losing their army

[Editorial Note 11]

Apollodorus tells us that Cinyras married Metharme the daughter of Pygmaleon king of Cyprus, & th

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1Celeus was the son of Rharus the son of Cranaus the successor of Cecrops 2Car the son of Phoroneus the son of Inachus built a temple to Ceres in Megara 3Arcah the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon the son of Æzeus received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people to make berad of it. 4Myles the son of Lelex was the first who set up a hand mill or Quern in Greece to grind corn, & 5Polycarn the brother of Myles married Messene the daughter of Tropas the son of Phorbas the brother of Pirasus. 6Pelops came into Peloponnesus in the reign of Epeus the son of Endymion the son of Aethlius the son of Æolus & Ætolus the brother of Epeus slew Apis the son or grandson of Phoroneus. And by these circumstances Cecrops, Inachus, Æzeus, Lelex, Phorbas Pirasus & Æolus flourished two or three generations before the coming of Cadmus & Europa into Europe. Certainly they could not be earlier because Cadmus brought in letters & it is not likely that any thing done in Europe could be remembred above three generations before the use of Letters. These men came with colonies from Egypt & began to build towns soon after their coming & these towns seem to be the oldest in Europe. ffor before the seas were navigated, Europe could be peopled only by Scythians from the north side of the Euxine sea, & the Scythians long after those days lived without towns or houses.

The ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods relate that Io the daughter of Inachus was carried into Egypt & there became the Egyptian Isis & that Apis the son of Phoroneus after death became the God Serapis. And others represent that Epaphus, that is Osiris, was the son of Io. And therefore Osiris & Isis in the opinion of the ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods, were not above two or three generations older then the Argonautic expedition. // The ancients, both Egyptians & Greeks, agree that the great conquerors Osiris & Bacchus were one & the same king of all Egypt & they agree in their actions. Both conquered {illeg} came over the Hellespont conquered Thrace slew Lycurgus king of Thrace & there put a stop to their victories. Now this Bacchus loved two weomen, Venus & Ariadne Venus {in her youth} was the mother of Æneas & thus was not above or 60 or 70 years before the destruction of Troy, & the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts as above. This Bacchus was potent at sea – – – – – – one & the same man.

Plutarch tells us that the people of Naxus, contrary to what others wrote, pretended that there were two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & that the first Ariadne married Bacchus & the last was carried away by Theseus. This opinion seems to have arisen from hence that some of the Greeks made Osiris & Isis three generations older then the Argonautic expedition as above. But Homer Hesiod – – – – – were Argonauts. Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris were contemporary, & by the relation of historians were all of them kings of all Egypt, & were very potent by land & sea. All three were great conquerers & conquered the same regions & carried on their conquests by land through Asia as far as India – – – – – – – – – no conqueror of Syria India Asia & Europe before Sesak.

[25]Leek. And this sort of Idolatry was older then the days of Moses as is manifest by the second commandment, & gave occasion to the Thebans & Ethiopians who in the days of Samuel Saul & David conquered the lower Egypt to set up the worship of their own kings in the same manner.

– in Hieroglyphicks. And this way of writing seems to have spread into the lower Egypt before the days of Moses. ffor thence came the worship of their Gods in the various shapes of birds beasts & fishes forbidden in the second Commandment. Now this emblematical way of writing gave occasion to the Thebans & Ethiopians who in the days of Samuel David Solomon & Rehoboam conquered Egypt Libya & Asia & erected a great Empire, to represent their conquering Kings & Princes by various Hieropglyphick figures, as by painting Ammon with rams horns &c.

[Editorial Note 12] <32v>

{illeg}y find in history that a[26] Osiris the first king of Egypt dedicated a Temple to his father Iupiter Hammon. b[27] That his widdow Isis or Balilea Queen of Egypt, after the death of her son & daughter Helius & Selene or Orus & Bubaste required her subjects to worship them as Gods & that the Egyptians so soon as she was dead {ad}ed her worship to that of her children. That Thoth or Mercury who was secretary & Counseller to Osiris & Isis & reigned next after them in Egypt c[28] ordeined the worship & sacrifices of the Gods & d[29] invented the figures of their images . And his institutions were so well observed as to become the religion of that nation till it was succeeded by Christianity. For these Gods & these their figures obteined in Egypt all that time. Thus ready was the ambition vanity or superstition of Princes to introduce &c. Here then we may with more reason place the rise & original of idolatry after the flood then amongst the inferior people as you do without any ground in history. For we shall scarce find any other footsteps of Idolatry so ancient.

* That the solemn worship of Osiris every 4th year by lamenting he death seeking his scattered members & drowning the Ox which was consecrated to him, was nothing else then his funeral solemnity instituted at first to be observed every 4th year in honour of his memory & by consequence that it was instituted by the authority of the nation soon after his death. That when Osiris was drowned by Typhon his wife Isis gathered up his scattered members & entombed them in wooden ox & that g[30] she & Mercury in memory of these things instituted the above mentioned divine honours & sacred rites adding many other things mystically to his worship by which they might magnify the power of this God. That Mencheres the 12th King of Memphis who (according to Marsham) reigned in Egypt about the time that Abraham went from Vr of the Chaldees into Canaan & who is called Mencherinus by Diodorus & Mycerinus by Herodotus, h[31] did in imitation of Isis intomb his daughter in the belly of a wooden guilded Ox & placed it in a room adorned for that purpose that odors might be daily offered to her & a lamp burn in the night. That the same Isis k[32] erected a stately Temple to her parents Iupiter & Iuno that is to Iupiter Hammon & two other temples one of which was to the same Iupiter Hammon & that she erected Temples to other Gods & instituted honours & Priests to them. That Basilea (she is the same Isis) after the death of her son & daughter Helius & Selene (that is Apollo & Diana or Oris & Bubaste) required her subjects to worship them as Gods & that the Egyptians so soon as she was dead added the worship of her to that of her children. And that Thoth or <32r> Mercury – – – – all that time. And thence it became a tradition of Egyptian Priests a[33] that the worship of the Gods was commanded them by their kings from the beginning. So then if the Ægyptian Priests understood the originalls of their own kingdom (& what nation I pray had more ancient records then they?) the Worship of their Gods crept not in by degrees among the inferior people as you conjecture, but was ordeined by their first Kings & conserved by all the rest in honour of their family. So ready was the ambition vanity & superstition of Princes to introduce their predecessor into the divine worship of the people to secure to themselves the greater veneration from their subjects as descended from the Gods & erect such a worship & such a Priesthood as might awe the blinded & seduced people into such an obedience as they desired. Here then we have the true original of the corruption of the religion of Noah & the true cause of its spreading so early & so generally. ffor this policy of the kings of Egypt soon took with the kings of other nations.

Was not the great God of the Eastern nations Baal or Iupiter Belus the first king of Assyria? And which I pray is more likely that the Court should promote the honour of Kings among the people or the people find out these refined ways of doing it & introduce them into Courts? Was it the interest of the people to cheat themselves into slavery by such kinds of state policies or was it not rather the business of the court to do it? Diodorus[34] tells us that Belus brought colonies out of Egypt & instituted Priests there after the manner of the Egyptians. And will you say that he & his successors did not by these Priests introuce the Egyptian superstitions & apply them to their own family for establishing their kingdom?

What Idolatry does your History tell you of among the Greeks before Phoroneus & Danaus kings of the Argivi, Cecrops & Theseus kings of Attica, Cadmus king of Thebes Epopeus king of the Sicyonij & some others introduced it? And why did they introduce it but to deify their ancestors by applying to them the ffables & worship of the Egyptian Gods? For what else were the Gods of the Greeks but their ancient kings? And whence came that custome of the ancient Greeks of calling even their living Kings ἰσόθεοι & ἰσα Θεω but from the state polity of raising their estimation among the people by an opinion of divinity?

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And if any Plate shall be bespoken eleven ounces ten penny weight fine the same may be then made of that fineness & not coarser upon the penalty aforesaid, & it shall be marked with                                                    & the Diet thereof shall be kept in a Box of Diet apart And as often as the Diets of the Goldsmiths of York, Bristol, Exeter, Norwich, Chester, & Newcastel have not been tried at the trial of the Pix of the new coined moneys within two years before; the Assaymasters of those towns shall annually upon notice in writing from the Wardens of the said Company of Goldsmiths or any three of them, bring or send their several Diets to the Hall of the said Company in London, to be there tryed by the Committee of the said Company at the same time & in the same manner with the Diet of the said Company: all which Diets shall be of one & the same standard

shall not be made unless

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became Tutor to the child & then travelled into Crete & Asia till the child grew up & brought back with him the Poem of Homer suppose about the 21 or 22 Ol. & the public by his {Rams} suppose about the 22 Oymp [& this was in the reign of Agesilaus the son & successor of Dosissus or Doriagus in the other race of the kings of Sparta.] And therefore Lycurgus might publish his laws about the 22th Olympiad. Terpander < insertion from lower down f 33v > [Editorial Note 13] & then travelled into Crete & Asia till the child grew up, & brought back with him the Poesy of Homer & published it in Greece, suppose about the 20 or 22th Olympiad, & soon after published his laws. Terpander was a Lyric Poet < text from f 33v resumes > Torpender was a Lyric Poet & imitated Orpheus & Homer & sung his own verses & Homers & wrote the Laws of Lycurgus in verse & therefore flourished after Lycurgus returned out of Asia This Poet was the first who distinguished the modes of Lyric music by several names. And Ardalus & Clonas soon after did the like for wind music. And from henceforward several eminent Musicians & Poets flourished in Greece as Archilochus, Polymnestus, Thaletas, Xenodamus, Xenocritus, Sacadas, Tyrtæus, Tlesilla, Alcman, Arion, Stesichorus, Mimnermus, Alcæus, Sappho, Theognis, Anacreon, Pindar, by whom the Musick & Poetry of the Greeks was brought to its perfection.

Lycurgus published his laws in the reign of Agesilaus the son & successor of Dorissus or Doriagus in the other race of the kings of Sparta From the return of the Heraclides – – – Olympiad as above.

When Lycurgus

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God & altars for offering oyle & drink offering. For as we build temples & set apart the places so its reasonable to beleive that the Ancients before they began to build such temples set apart certain places for Gods worship & marked the places by erecting only stones or altars. For when God had appeared to Iacob in his way to Haran Iacob said surely the lord is in this place & I knew it not. How dreadful is this place. This is none other but the house of God & this is the gate of heaven. And then to mark the place he took the stone he had slept upon & set it up for a pillar & poured oyle upon it & called not only the stone but the whole place & the adjacent city Bethel, that is the house of God & vowed that if he returned in peace that stone should be Gods house & he would there give the tenth of all he had to God. This offering of tenths shews that he set the place apart for Gods worship by continual sacrifices as in the prytaneum or temples of those days. ffor after his return he went & dwelt there & built an altar to God that is he built a prytaneum. And indeed the pillar it self was nothing else then an altar for such things as could be offered upon it. ffor when Iacob was returned thither & God appeared again to him, he set up another pillar of stone & poured a drink offering & oyle upon it, & called the place Bethel as before. Now the heathen Betyls or Bethels were no doubt originally of the same kind with Iacobs as the name imports & therefore they were at first nothing else then marks of places set apart for the worship of the true God & altars set up for drink offerings & oyle offerings to him And the erecting such altars seems to have been in use from the beginning. ffor such no doubt were the pillars erected by Hercules & Bacchus & from this practise the name Bætylus was given to Canaan & to the stone which Rhea gave Saturn instead of her son Iupiter. But when the heathens began to worship fals Gods they abused these Bethels & feigned them to be the houses of their fals Gods animated by them λίθους ἐμχύχους animated stones as Sanchoniatho calls them that is animated by the souls of their Gods dwelling in them, & on this account they made them the objects of their worship. These Bethels were at first such rude stones as Iacob found in the feild but afterwards they gave them regular Geometrical figures forming them either a conically or b square or c Oval & at length & when men grew still better artists they shaped them like men & weomen & sometimes like bruit beasts. And this I take to be the true original of the worship of Idols. For Porphyrius tells us Gold symbol < insertion from the left margin of f 34v > Gold symbol Porphyrius tells us that Damascans a people of Arabia did every sacrifice a boy & bury him υπὸ βομὸν χρωνται ὡς ξοάνης under the altar, which they used as a statue. This altar was therefore a Betyl. ffor < text from f 34r resumes > And because the nations turned this sort of Altars into Idols Moses commands that the great Altar should be made of unhewn stones.

Now whilest the Nations feigned the stars & elements & columns & statues & certain Beasts & Birds & other things to be inhabited by the souls of their Gods & by means of those souls to be Gods & govern the world, they recconed that these things by their motions & operations were significative of things to come & thence invented divers divinatory arts (as Astrology Augury Haruspicine Necromancy, conjuring Southsaying) by which & the crafty artifice of Oracles & figments of statues & columns fallen from heaven & such like tricks the superstition of the people toward these Gods was extreamly increased & the whole world deceived. I name conjuring because that seems to have had its rise from the practice of animating pillars & statues by certain forms of consecration. And these were the heathen superstitions from which Moses made a reformation.

Chap. III.
The History of the first Ages.

The passage in the Recipe symbol is to be thus mended. – et hujus sublimati partes tres abstrahantur primum a duabus Vitrioli deinde a tribus vel quatuor cerussæ. Postea de cerussa illa cum aqua pluvialia (addito si opus est aceto destillato q.s. sed præstat aceto non uti) extrahatur saccharum. I have seen Mr Craigs new piece but had not time to read it. If your friend should go into fflanders or any thing else should fall out so that you cannot go to work this winter, what if you should spend the winter here. About a fortnight since I was taken ill of a distemper which has been here very common, but am now pretty well again.

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Gods: but the worship of statues was of a later date. Bardesanes Symbol (cross surmounted by 3 circles arranged in a triangle) in text < insertion from f 34r > Symbol (cross surmounted by 3 circles arranged in a triangle) in text For g[35] Bardesanes who lived in the reign of the Emperor Marcus tells us that the Taini & Saracens & those of the upper Lybya & the Moorers & inhabitants of the Mouth of the Mediterranean Sea & those in the further parts of Germany & in the upper Sarmatia & Scythia & the nations on the north of the Euxine Sea & those in all Alania Albania, Otenes Saunia & the golden Chersonesus had neither Carver nor Painter nor Architect & by consequence neither Pictures nor images nor Temples but contented themselves with; such Prytanea as the Persians used. < text from f 34v resumes > ffor the a[36] Romans worshipped them not till after the reign of Numa and the Greeks not till the reign of Theseus king of Attica & Lucian tells us that anciently the temples not only amongst the Assyrians but also amongst the Egyptians were without Statues. Their original in Europe & Asia minor is thus described by Athenagoras. The Images of the Gods saith he were not so much as named until the plastic arts or art of forming images of clay, that of painting & that of making statues were found out, Saurias the Samian, Craton the Sicyonian Cleanthes the Corinthian & Core a Corinthian woman then flourishing. ffor Saurias found out the way of delineating by the shaddows of things, describing a horse by his shaddow in the Sun; & Craton found out painting describing in a white table the shadows of a man & woman & Core found out the Coroplastick art for when she had described in a wall the picture of one whome she was in love with while he slept, her father who was a Potter, being delighted with the exact likenes of the piece, copied it & filled it out with clay. And this effigies is still conserved in Corinth. After these came Dædalus & Theodorus the Milesian & found out the statuary & plastick arts. And so little a time is it since the invention of Statues that we can recite even the very names of the Artificers who made the Gods. ffor the old statue of Diana in Ephesus & that old one of Minerva made of an olive tree & sitting were made by Endyus the scholar of Dædalus. The Pythian Apollo is the work of Theodorus & Telecles. The Delian Apollo & Diana of Idectæus & Angelion. The Iuno in Samos & Argos of Smilis. The rest of the Statues were made by Phidias. Venus Hetæra in Chydus was the work of Praxiteles The Æsclapius in Epidaurus of Phydias. And in short all statues every where were made by men. So then there were in those regions no Statues in Temples before the age of Dædalus who was contemporary to Minos king of Crete & Theseus king of Athens. Yet by the golden calf & the Cherubims in the tabernacle & the Images of Laban we find that the Statuary art was grown to sufficient perfection in the East before the days of Iacob c[37] Epiphanius tells us that in the days of Serue the son of Rehu Idolatry began in pictures & that afterwards Thara the father of Abraham found out the art of making statues of clay & proposed them to be worshipped.

But the worship of Idols began first in rude stones. ffor Clemens tells us[38] that before the making of statues accurately the ancients erected columns & worshipped them as the statues of the Gods. And e[39] Pausanias gives us some instances of rude stones anciently worshipped by the Greeks, one for the statue of Hercules another for that of Cupid others for those of the Graces. Symbol (obelus with 4 uprights) in text < insertion from the right margin of f 34v > Symbol (obelus with 4 uprights) in text And q[40] speaking of a certain statue of Mercury he saith: Neare the statue of this God are erected slmost 30 stones of a quadrangular figure They worship each of them calling them by certain names of the Gods. ffor indeed anciently rude stones instead of images were honoured as Gods by all the Greeks < text from f 34v resumes > Such stones they worshipped also at first in Syria calling them Bætyls & saith f[41] Damascius they dedicated several Bætyls to several Gods, Saturn, Iupiter, the Sun & others. And Cedrenus tells us that in the age of Serach when solid Images were not yet invented Men began to honour their ancestors ἀνδριάσι στηλων with statues of columns & to adore them as Gods & sacrifice to them. And such pillars as these Moses forbids in Levit. 26.1. These stones seem to have been originally nothing else then marks of places set apart for the worship of the true

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Alania, great Russia, Chersonesus, Dacia, Poland, Germany Denmark Sweden Vntill the times of the Council of Constantinople the Bishop of Cæsarea sent bishops to govern the Christians in the regions of Caucasus & beyond it, the principal of which regions was Alania seated upon the river Tanais: & the bishop of Heraclea in Thrace did the like to the Christians in great Russia & Chersonesus. ffor the Christian religion had been propagated into these regions by the Christians who in the times of persecution & particularly in the persecutions of Decius, Dioclesian & Maximinus had fled out the Empire into those parts & continued in subjection to the Churches from which they fled.

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About two years after the death of Codrus was the Ionic migration under his sons Neleus & Androclus into Asia, & about 20 or 30 years after was a common Council called Panioniun set up over these new Colonies, & convened from the twelve cities Miletus, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos Clazomenæ, Phocea, Samus, Chius & Erythrea. Herod. l. 1.

About two years after the death of Codrus was the Ionic migration into Asia under his son Neleus & soon after also under his younger sons Androchus & Cyaretus. And about 26 years after his death, these new colonies set up over them a common council called Panionium composed of Counsellours sent from the twelve cities Miletus, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomenæ,Phocea, Samus, Chius, & Erythrea.

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And the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus king of Athens might be about 186 years earlier [or about ] & the death of Codrus about twelve fifteen twenty years earlier then that migration or about 16 years after the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus.

And the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus might be about ten or 15 years after their fathers death, at which time Ephesus was built by Androclus the son of Codrus.

[Editorial Note 14]

So Arnobius: Tyrine Hercules in finibus sepultus Hispaniæ.

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An Account of the Observations upon the Chronology of Sir I. Newton

Pharamund
X Claudian
Meroveus
Childric
Clovis X
ClothaireChildibert
ChurcartClaudimer
ChilstericThierry
Clothaire
Dagobert.
Clovis
Clothaire
Childeric.
Thierry.
Clovis
Childebert
Dagobert
Chilsteric
Thierry
Childeric
Pepin
Charlemaine
Lud. Pius
Carolus
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the fables of the Gods, have feigned that Apis the son of Phoroneus & Io his sister went into Ægypt & became the Apis & Isis of the Egyptians that is their Osiris & Isis. ffor the Egyptians worshipped Osiris in the Ox Apis & feigned that his soul resided in the Ox. So then Osiris, Isis, Apis & Bacchus of the Egyptians in the opinion of the ancient Greeks were not above two generations older then Sesostris or Sesac, & by consequence they could not be older then the reign of David. And if their wars & conquests suit not with his reign nor with Solomons they must be those of Sesac in the reign of Rehoboam. //9. And yet the fabling Egyptians have made them older then the world, feigning that their Gods 9000 years before the days of Solon shared the earth & that in the history of the wars of those Gods mention was made of many Greeks as Cecrops Erechtheus Erechthonius Eripichthon & others whose names resembled theirs who flourished long after in the times next before Theseus, & that the habit & statue of Pallas (the foundress of Sais & Athens) was also there described the weomen in those days warring with the men & in the division of the earth between the Gods the Island Atlantes (a part of which seated at the straits mouth was called Gador) fell to the lot of Neptune who left it to his son Atlas. But Homer lets us know that Calypso the daughter of Atlas reigned there in the times of the Trojan war; & therefore the wars of the Gods of Egypt in the days of her grandfather being but two generations older, must fall in with the wars which Sesostris & his Princes made upon the earth. Homer places Calypso in the Ogygian island 18 or 20 days sail westward from the island Pheacia or Coryra. And so many days sail Gades or Gadin is from Corcyra, recconing with the ancients a thousand stadia to a days sail. Her grandfather Neptune had several children who were either Argonauts or contemporary to them & he with Apollo ( or Orus the son of Osiris) built the walls of Troy in the days of Laomedon the father of Priamus.

10 The great Bacchus loved two weomen Venus & Ariadne. Venus was the mistress of Anchises and mother of Æneas both which lived till the destruction of Troy, & two of the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts. This Bacchus was potent at sea, conquered eastward as far as India, brought his army over the Hellespont, conquered Thrace & killed Lycurgus the king thereof & killed also Pentheus the son of Echion the contemporary of Cadmus & gave the kingdom of Lycurgus to Tharops, & one of his minstrells called by the Greeks Calliope to Oeagrus the son of Tharops & of Oeagrus & Calliope was born Orpheus who sailed with the Argonauts in his youth. And by all these arguments this Bacchus was but one generation older then the Argonauts & so was contemporary to Sesostris or Sesak; & both being kings of Egypt & potent at sea & great conquerors & carrying their conquests into India & Thrace they must be one & the same man. And the same thing is to be said of Osiris. The Egyptians relate that he was king of all Egypt & a great conquerour & subdued Thrace & there killed Lycurgus & therefore his expedition falls in with that of Bacchus. Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris were all of them by the relation of historians kings of all Egypt & reigned about the same time & were very potent by land & sea: All three were great conquerors, & conquered the same regions, & carried on their conquests by land thro' Asia as far as India. All three came over the Hellespont & were there in danger of losing their army: All three conquered Thrace & there put a stop to their victories & returned back from thence into Egypt: & all three left pillars with inscriptions in their conquests: & therefore they must be one & the same king of Egypt, & this king can be no other then Sesak. All Egypt including Thebais, Æthiopia & Libya had no common king before the expulsion of the Shepherds, no conqueror of Syria India Asia & Europe before Sesak. The sacred history admits of no Egyptian conqueror of Palestine before this king.

11 The Greeks reccon Osiris & Bacchus to be the sons of Iupiter, & the Egyptian name of Iupiter is Ammon. – – – – – – – & all three one & the same king with Sesak.

12 The lower part of Egypt being yearly overflowed

<41r> < insertion from the left margin >

Et vice rectæ HX duci potest per punctum I recta ipsi BD parallela.

< text from f 41r resumes >

Hypermnestra the daughter of Danaus Priestess of Iuno Argiva.

1 Callithyia

*

3 Alcinoe in tertia ante Troica ætate

4 Hypermnestra Danai filia

5 Admeta Eurysthai filia.

6 Cydippe.

7 Chrysis

8 Phainis

[Editorial Note 15]

The first Priestess of this Goddess was Callithyia the daughter of Pirasus or Piranthus called Criasus by Castor. And Pirasus was the son of Argue the son or brother of Niobe the daugher of Phoroneus. Callithyia was succeeded by Alcinoe about three generations before the taking of Troy, that is about the middle of Solomons reign. In her days the Siculi passed out of Italy into Sicily. Then Hypermnestra the daughter of Danaus became Priestess of this Goddess. She flourished in the times next before the Argonautic expedition And Admeta the daughter of Eurystheus was Priestess of this Iuno about the times of the Trojan war.

<41v> < insertion from the left margin of f 41v >

In pag. 19. l. 11. after Lemmate XXIII, add the words ejusque Corollina

Pag. 22 l. 15 for hujus ætatis write ætatis novissimæ

Pag. 23. lin 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 may stand.

Pag. 23. lin 32. for corpus B put corpus B quiescens

Pag. 24. lin. 32. for in write In

< text from f 41v resumes >

where Phemonoe became Priestess of Apollo & gave answers in

Bochart (in Canaan l 1. c 15) deduces them from Palestin & thinks that they had the name of Curetes from the people among the Philistims called Crethim or Cerethites Ezek. XXV.16 Zeph. 11.5, 6. 1 Sam. XXX.14, 16.

And so Curtius lib. 5: Semiramis eam condiderat, vel ut plerique credidere Belus, cujus regia ostenditur And b[42] Abydenus Fama est Babylonem Belum mœnibus cinxisse, quæ cum tempus abolerisset, nova mœnia struxisse Nebuchadonosorum. And Abydenus Ferunt, inquit, [loca hæc omnia jam inde ab initio aquis obruta fuisse, marisque nomine appellata: verum suam singulis regionem &c] Belum Babylonem mœnibus cinxisse ac deinceps mortalium oculis ereptum esse: postea vero Βηλον Βαβυλονα τείχει περιβαλειν τω χρόνω δὲ ἰχνευμένω ἀφανισθηναι. τειχάσο() δε ἀυθις Ναβουχοδονοσορον &c Belum, ferunt, Babylonem, mœnibus cinxisse, quæ tempora abolita fuerunt, & Nebuchadonosorum deinceps nova mœnia æneis portis distincta struxisse quæ ad usque Macedonum imperium steterunt. Euseb. Præp. l. 9

<42r>

But the Greeks had corrupted their Chronology before the Marbles were made, so as to add to the antiquity of all things done before the wars of the Persians against them . And therefore the war against Cyrrha may have been a little later suppose an 1 Olymp. 52 & the message of Crœsus to the Oracle at Delphos an 1 1 Olymp 58. & the expulsion of the sons of Pisistratus an. 1 Olymp. 68 or bef{ore} And suitably to these recconings the Legislature of Draco may bee in the 50 Olympiad, that of Solon in the 54th Olympiad & the taking of Sardes by Cyrus in the 59th Olympiad The first annual Archon of Athens in the 48th Olympiad. The first decennial Archon of Athens about 40 years before, some of these Archons dying in their regency. And the Ionic migration under the conduct of the sons of Codrus 20 years before the Olympiads, & the death of Codrus 5 or 10 years before that migration

And therefore the war against Cyrrha may have been a little later suppose an. 1. Olymp. 53 & the message of Crœsus to the Oracle at Delphos an. 1 Olymp 58 & the expulsion of the sons of Pisistratus an 1. Olymp. 69. And suitably to these recconings the Legislature of Draco may have been in the 51 Olympiad, that of Solon in the 55th Olympiad & the taking of Sardes by Cyrus in the 59th Olymp. The first annual Archon of Athens in the 49th Olymp. The first decennial Archon in the 39th Olymp. or not long before, some of the 7 Archons dying in their regency. The death of Codrus may have been about 30 or 40 years before the Olympiads. And the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus within 5 or 10 years after his death.

Diodorus tells us that the Egyptians sent many colonies out of Egypt into other countries & that Belus the son of Neptune & Libya carried colonies thence into Babylonia & seating himself on Euphrates instituted Priests free from Taxes & publick expences after the manner of Egypt, who were called Chaldæans & who after the example of the Priests & Astronomers of Egypt might observe the starrs. By calling him the son of Neptune he is here represented a seaman like Oannes; Gold symbol < insertion from f 42v > Gold symbol And by his being King of Egypt & Lord of Chaldea & that Belus who was the son of Neptune & Libya, he can be no other then Ammon or Sesac. For Apollodorus tells us that Belus the son of Neptune & Libya & king of Egypt was the father of Ægyptus & Danaus, & this Belus was Ammon. He tells us also that Busiris the son of Neptune & Lisianassa [lege Libyanassa] the daughter of Epaphus was king of Egypt: & Eusebius calls this king Busiris the son of Neptune & Libya the daughter of Epaphus: & here by Busiris they seem to mean Osiris. Ammon went not out of Egypt, & therefore the Bel{us} who carried colonies into Chaldea & seated himself upon Euphrates must be Osiris. And hereby it appe{ars} why the Chaldeans made Oannes older then the flood of Xixuthrus: for the Egyptians made Ammon & Sesac as old. So then Astronomy, Letters, Agriculture, Architecture cohabitation in cities & erecting of temples to the dead were carried into Chaldea by the Edomites who fled by sea from David & Egypt in the days of David & Solomon, that is about the same time that the same things came from the same countries into Libya Asia minor & Europe. In Persia they erected no Temples to the Gods till above 500 years after these days.

By his being the son of Neptune he was a seaman like Oannes. By his being the Belus of the Chaldeans & the son of Neptune & Libya & a king of Egypt which carried Colonies thence into Chaldea he must be either Ammon or Sesac. For Apollodorus & this was in the days of David & Solomon. < text from f 42r resumes >

[Editorial Note 16] <43r>

– the beginning of his reign

Astyages a[43] married his daughter Mandanes to Cambyses a Persian & of them was born ✝ Cyrus < insertion from the right margin of f 43r > ✝ who commanded the armies of the Medes & Persians & after various warrs first overcame Crœsus King of Lydia < text from f 43r resumes > who commanded the armies of the Medes & Persians overcame Crœsus king of the Lydians & thereby added all Asia minor to the kingdom of the Medes & Persians. For Crœsus reigned at Sardes over all Asia minor on this side the river Halys except Cilicia & Lycia & his kingdom was rich & flourishing as well as large & potent. At that time Nabonedus reigned in Babylon. Herodotus calls him Labynitus the son of Labynitus & Nitocris King & Queen of Babylon & by Labynitus the father understands that king of Babylon by whose meanes peace was made between Abattes king of Lydia & Cyaxeres king of the Medes that is the great Nebuchadnezzar. In the 17 year of Nabonidus the son, Cyrus invaded Babylonia, beat the army of the Babylonians & beseiged Babylon & took it either that year or the next (Ier. 51.46) in Summer (v. 39) in the time of a ffeast when the Babylonians were dissolute & in drink (Herod. l. 1 Xen. Cyrop. l 7 Ier. 51.39, 57) by diverting the river Euphrates & entring the City through the emptied Channel (Herod. l. 1. Xenophon Cyrop. l 7.) & by consequence after midsummer. ffor the river – – – – – designe in execution.

<43v>

Herodotus Ctesias & the Author of Bel & the Dragon make Cyrus the immediate successor of his Grandfather Astyages in the kingdom of the Medes, Daniel makes him the immediate successor of Darius the son of Achsuerus of the seed of the Medes that is of the race of their kings And Xenophon makes Cy-Axeres or Achswerus the son & successor of Astyages. Whence there seem to have been six kings of the Medes Dejoces, Praortes, Cy-Achswerus, Astyages, Cy-Achswerus & Darius. ffor Darius might well be the grandson of Astyages, being contemporary to Cyrus.

Cyrus therefore took Sardes & Babylon during the reign of the Medes ffor Babylon was destroyed by a nation out of the North (Ier 50.3, 9, 41) by the kingdoms of Ararat Minni & Ashchenaz (Ier 51.27) by the Medes (Isa 13.17, 19) by the Kings of the Medes & the captains & rulers thereof & all the land of his Dominion (Ier. 51.11, 28) And accordingly Daniel (chap. 5) told Belshasser that his kingdom was divided (from him) & given to the Medes & Persians, first to the Medes under Darius the Mede who after Belshazzer was slain took the kingdom being about 62 years old, & then to the Persians under Cyrus & his successors. And the Angel told Daniel (chap. 10.20 & 11.1) that he returned to fight with the Prince of Persia, for when he was gone forth the Prince of Greece should come & that in the first year of Darius the Mede he stood to confirm & to strengthen him, that is he stood to assist Darius in conquering the kingdom of Babylon as he should afterwards assist Alexander the great in conquering the kingdom of Persia. And this is further confirmed by the laws by which Darius reigned over Babylonia. ffor he preserved not the laws of the Babylonians but introduced the immutable laws of the conquering nations the Medes & Persians (Dan 6.8, 12 15) & the Medes in his reign are set before the Persians (Dan. ib. & 5.28) as the Persians were afterwards set before the Medes (Esther 1.3, 14, 18, 19) which shews that Cyrus & the Persians reigned not over the Medes till after the death of Darius but warred under him at the taking of Babylon. And therefore Xenophon (who having learnt some things concerning Cyrus feigned all the rest so as to write his life as particularly as if he had lived in his court) was not mistaken in producing the reign of the Kings of the Medes till after the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, & making Cyrus king of neither Media nor Persia till after that conquest but only the Commander of the armies of those nations under their kings. And if many of the Greeks have recconed him king of those nations before, it was because he was most known to them & in those early ages the name of King was usually given to every head Commander of an army.

This Darius the Mede (not the father of Xerxes but another earlier king) coyned a great number of four square pieces of pure gold called Darics or Stateres Darici each worth twenty Attic drachms of silver & five of them worth a pound of silver. & he was the first King of the Medes or Persians who coyned such money. They had the Effigies of Darius on one side & an Archer on the other. The following kings of Persia coyned only silver money. See Brissonius de Regn. Pers. Lib 11. pag 277, 278. The occasion of this coynage seems to have been the example of the Kings of Lydia conquered by the Medes & Persians. ffor the Lydians coyned money before the Medes invaded them, & being very rich might not only teach their conquerers the art & use of money but also supply them with gold. Whence it's probable that they were conquered by Cyrus in the reign of Darius.

<44r>

For the antiquity of these institutions appears by the names & founders of the cities of Egypt & also by the ancient fable of the Egyptian Gods hiding themselves from the Gyants in the shapes of various beasts at the death of Osiris the father of Hermes in which shapes they were afterwards worshipped by the Egyptians ffor whereas the Gods are by Homer & the Mythologists accounted to be born out of the Ocean Diodorus tells us that the Egyptians account their Nile to be that Ocean. ffor in Egypt only, saith he, among all the countries in the world are many cities built by the ancient Gods, as by Iupiter Sol Mercury Apollo Pan Elithia & many others. Diodor l. 1. c. 1. It appears also by the ancient fable of the Gods hiding themselves from the Giants in the shapes of various beasts at the death of Osiris the father of Hermes in which shapes they were afterwards worshipped by the Egyptians.

[45]Bella canit superum.

[Editorial Note 17] <44v>

Iosephus (Antiq. l.    ) makes Babylon overthrown by Darius King of the Medes & Cyrus of Persia.

– the beginning of his reign.

Astyages married his daughter Mandanes to Cambyses a Persian & of them was born Cyrus who leading the armies of the Medes & Persians conquered the Kingdoms of Sardes & Babylon. By the first conquest he added – large & potent.

About 40 or 50 years before the overthrow of Crœsus the Medes had invaded this kingdom & after five years warr uppon a great eclips of the Sun which was predicted by Thales & turned day into night in the time of a battel, they made peace by the meanes of Labynitus king of Babylon as Herodotus relates. This Labynitus was the great Nebuchadnezzar as is manifest by the {ti}me of the action. And in the reign of another Labynitus the son of this Labynitus & Nitocris an eminent Queen of Babylon, (as Herodotus also relates) in the 17th year of his reign Cyrus invaded Babylonia routed the army of Labynitus beseiged Babylon & took it – execution. This Labynitus is by Iosephus called Nabonidus & Naboandel & Balthazar Some reccon Laboasardach the predecessor of Labynitus to have been Belhassar but he was a child when he reigned whereas Balhasar was born before the 5t year of Zedekiah (Baruch 1.11, 12) & therefore was above 33 years old at the death of Nebuchadnezzer.

Herodotus Ctesias & the author of Bel & the Dragon & most of the Greeks make Cyrus the immediate successor of his Grandfather Astyages: according to which recconing the dominion of the Medes must have ceased before the taking of Sardes & Babylon. And yet by the scriptures tis certain that the Medes reigned till after the taking of Babylon as Xenophon also writes. ffor Babylon was destroyed by a nation out of the north (Ier 50.3, 9, 41) by the kingdoms of Ararat Minni & Ashchenaz, (Ier. 51.27) by the Medes (Isa 13.17, 19) by the kings of the Medes & the captains & Rulers thereof & all the land of his dominion (Ier 51.11, 28) & Darius the Mede reigned over Babylon before the kingdom came to Cyrus the Persian (Dan.      ) The kingdom of Belthasar was broken & given to the Medes & Persians (Dan      ) first to the Medes under Darius & then to the Persians under Cyrus & his successors. ffor Belthasar making a great feast was slain that night & Darius the Mede took the Kingdom (Dan 5.31 & 6.28) & reigned like a conqueror for he observed not the laws of the Babylonians but like a conqueror introduced the forreign laws of the reigning nations the Medes & Persians (Dan 6.8, 12, 15) & the Medes in his reign are set before the Persians (Dan ib & 5.28 & 8.20) as the Persians were afterwards in the reign of Cyrus & his successors set before the Medes (Dan 10.1, 20 & 11.2 & Esther 1.3, 14, 18, 19)

Darius was therefore king of the Medes & by the assistance of Cyrus conquered Babylon & this is further confirmed by the Angel who told Daniel that he would return to fight with the Prince of Persia for when he was gone forth the Prince of Greece should come, & that in the first year of Darius the Mede he stood to confirm & to strengthen him (Dan. 10.20 & 11.1) that is to say he assisted & strengthened Darius in the conquest of Babylon as he was afterwards to assist Alexander the great in the conquest of Persia.

Vpon the overthrow of the Kingdom of Babylon Daniel in the first year of Darius understood by books the number of years whereof the word of the Lord came to Ieremiah that he would acomplish 70 years in the desolations of Ierusalem Dan 9.2. ffor upon the overthrow of that kingdom the Iews were to be released Ier 24.12.

Iosephus tells us that Cyrus king of the Persians & Darius king of the Medes made war upon Belthasar in the 17th year of his reign & that while Babylon was beseiged Belthasar made a great feast & saw the hand-writing upon the wall which Daniel interpreted to him, & then the city was taken. Ioseph. Antiq. l 10. c 12.

Xenophon writes that Astyages left the kingdom of the Medes to his son Cyaxares & that Cyrus only led the Armies of Media & Persia against Babylon & was not king of either nation till after the taking of Babylon & that he entred Babylon through the river in the night of a great feast when the Babylonians were in drink & slew the king of Babylon the same night. Xenophon produces the reign of Cayxires to the taking of Babylon, but Daniel tells us that the king of the Medes who then reigned was Darius the son of <44r> {Achswerus} that is of Oxyares or Cy-Axeres. So that there were six kings of the Medes before Cyrus namely Dejoces, Pharaortes, Cy-Achswerus, Astyages Cy-Achswerus & Darius. ffor Darius might well be the grandson of Astyages being contemporary to Cyrus.

This is that Darius who coyned a great number of square pieces of pure gold called Daricts or stares Darici. ffor these were coyned not by the father of Xerxis but by an earlier Darius, the first king of the Medes or Persians who coyned such money. They had the Effigies of Darius on one side & an Archer on the other & were of the same value with the Attic stater or piece of gold money weighing 2 Attic drachms or with 20 Attic drachms of silver. Its probable that he learnt the art & use of money from the conquered kingdom of the Lydians, & coyned their gold. ffor they were exceeding rich. See Brissonius de Regn. Pers. Lib. 11. pag. 277, 278.

In those early ages the name of Kings was more common then at present being given to commanders of armies & inferior Princes. The King of Persia stiled himself King of Kings & the great King. In this sence Cyrus might be recconed a king from the time that he first began to command the army of the Medes & Persians. And this might give occasion to many of the Greeks to reccon him the successor of Astyages tho he reigned not till after the taking of Babylon & death of Darius. Then he succeeded in the throne of the kingdom & set the Persians above the Medes & from that time (saith Xenophon) spending the seven winter months at Babylon the three spring months at Susa & the two winter months at Ecbatane he came the seventh time into Persia & there died. Xenophon Cyrop. l. 8.

By the Canon & consent of all Chronologers Cyrus died in the year of Nabonassar 218 & therefore since he reigned seven years he succeeded Darius in the year 211. And thereby it may be understood how Daniel continued (or lived) to the first year of Cyrus (Dan 1.21) & yet prophesied in the 3d year of the same king, Dan 10.1. ffor the year 212 was the first year of Cyrus alone & his third year in common with Darius. ffor as the Iews recconed the reign of Nebuchadnezzar from his conquest of Iudea in the life time of his father, so they might sometimes reccon the reign of Cyrus from his conquest of Babylon in the life time of Darius, & so Ptolomy reccons it in his Canon.

<45r>

By Belus I understand Ammon. For

Whom the Phœnicians Syrians & Babylonians call Belus & the Europeans Iupiter & the Egyptians call Ammon. And thence I seem to gather that Ammon was king of Egypt when Cadmus came into Europe.

Ægyptus & Danaus are by the Greeks recconed among the sons of this Belus & therefore they flourished after the coming of Cadmus into Europe. Manetho tells us that Ægyptus & Danaus were Sethosis & Armais & that Sethosis having forces by sea & land left the government of Egypt to his brother Armais while he invaded & conquered Cyprus Phenicia Media, Persia & other Nations. Whence its plain that Sethosis was the same conqueror with Sesostris. The Greeks have transmitted to posterity many things concerning the wars & actions of Sesostris, all which must have been forgotten had those warrs been ancienter then the use of letters brought in by Cadmus. And therefore Sesostris reigned after ✝ < insertion from f 45v > ✝ reigned after the days of Samuel, & by consequence after the Days of David & Solomon. For Herodotus saw some of Sesostris his Pillars erected in Palestine in memory of his conquering that country, & such a conquest cannot agree to the warlike & victorious reign of David nor to the peaceable & flourishing reign of Solomon, nor is there any mention of an invasion of Iudea by the Egyptians in the days of the Iudges or at any time before the fift year of Rehoboam. Nor could it be long after: for all antiquity make Sesostris older then the Trojan war; & I reccon him a little oder then Argonautic expedition because the Greeks built the Ship Argo in imitation of the long ship in which Danaus upon the return of Egyptus or Sethosis into Egypt sailed with his 50 daughters to Greece. Sethosis therefore returned into Egypt about 10 or 20 years before the Argonautic Expedition & by consequence invaded the nations in the reign of Rehoboam, & so can be no other king then Sesak.

Well therefore doth Iosephus[46] affirm that Herodotus ascribes to Sesostris the actions of Sesak & particularly his invasion & conquest of Iudea erring only in the name of the King. Which is all one as to say that Sesak was that conqueror whom Herodotus calls Sesostris. < text from f 45r resumes > the coming of Cadmus into Europe ✝. All Antiquity make him older than the Trojan war & I reccon him a little older then the Argonautic expedition because the Greeks built the ship Argo in imitation of the long ship in which Danaus upon the return of Ægyptus or Sethosis into Ægypt sailed with his 50 daughters to Greece. So then Sethosis or Sesostris lived in the age of Solomon & Rehoboam & therefore can be no other king then Sesak.

We are told in Scripture that Sesak – – – – answers to it. Sesostris in memory of his victories set up pillars in the conquered countries with the genitalls of a man if the conquered people resisted & behaved themselves valiantly, otherwise with the genitals of a woman & Herodotus tells us that he saw pillars in Iudea with the genitals of a woman. Iudea therefore submitted with little or no resistance & this cannot agree to the warlike & victorious reign of David nor to the flourishing & peaceable reign of Solomon. Nor is there any mention of an invasion of Iudea by the Egyptians in the times of the Iudges or at any time before the 5t year of Rehoboam but in that year Sesak came out of Egypt with an army of Libyans Troglodites & Ethiopians which had been subdued before & subdued Iudea & the kingdoms of the earth the Iews submitting & thereby preserving their king & government. Well therefore doth Iosephus[47] affirm that Herodotus ascribes to Sesostris the actions of Sesak & particularly his invasion & conquest of Iudea erring only in the name of the king. Which is all one as to say that Sesak was that conqueror whom Herodotus erroneously calls Sesostris.

[Editorial Note 18]

Menes was the first of the kings who reigned at Memphys: those before him reigned at Thebes, & their history is as follows.

<45v>

– – – Volcanus, the God of Canaan

Cinyras having been very beneficial to the kings of Egypt in their wars by making them armour, was after his death honoured by them with a very sumptuous Temple built at Memphys by Memnon, & adorned with magnificent Porticos by following kings. And on the south side of this Temple was built a smaller Temple to his Venus, whom the Egyptians called Venus hopsita because she was a forreigner. The Priests told Herodotus that Venus hospita was Hellena. But if Helena ever was in Egypt she did nothing to merit such a Temple there. The building of this Temple by the Temple of Vulcan discovers that she was Vulcan's Venus.

Diodorus tells us.

– Memnonia & returning into Egypt built several magnificent structures there. He built Memphys & there made a bridge over the Nile turning the river into a new channel & in Memphys he built the magnificent Temple of Vulcan as above. At Abidus he built a stately Palace – –

Whether Zerah was Sardus or one of his captains is not material The names do not much disagree.

<46r>

CHAP. III
The Monarchy of Egypt at Thebes.

Herodotus in giving an account of the ancient state of Egypt tells us that the Priests of Egypt affirmed Menes to be their first king & that they read to him out of a book the names of 330 kings of Egypt who all reigned before Sesostris & amongst whom were 18 Ethiopians & a forreign woman named Nitocris. – – – – – – – of her childhood had no breasts.

After Amosis had expelled the shepherds & established his kingdom at home, Amon sent an army under the command of his son Sesostris into Arabia – – – – –

She had also a Temple at Memphys in Ægypt built on the south side of the temple of Vulcan & dedicated to her under the name of Venus Hospita. Some took this Venus to be Helena

And as he ends the fourth age with the wars of Thebes & Troy, so he seems to end the third age with the invention of iron by the Idei Dactyli in Crete in the reign of Minos, saying that in the third age iron was not yet found out.

Antæus, Atlas, Typhon & Neptune neare kinsmen to Sesostris if not one & the same man.

Sardius & Zerah the same man.

Memphys built by Menes after the expulsion of the Iews & restauration of the Monarchy, & return of Memnon into Egypt from his conquests in Asia.

Asterisms formed between the Argonautic expedition & Trojan war. The beginning of the 12 signes fell upon the middle of the Asterisms of the Zodiac. The story of Perseus in Cepheus, Cassiopea, Andromeda, Perses, Pegasus, Cete; of the Argonauts in Argo, Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Chyron, Ara Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Lyra Orphei, : of Icarus in Auriga, Plaustrum majus, Erigone or Virgo & Bootes; of Hercules in Hercule, sagitta, Vultus Leo nemeus, of Orion in Orion the two doggs the Hare & Scorpio. Ariadnes crown, Ophiuchses Bootes If these were formed by Orpheus soon after the Argonautic expedition, suppose 40 years after the death of Solomon in imitation of the Egyptian Sphere invented a little before by Atlas, or 2640 years ago, the Equinox will be moved backwards (after the rate of 50″ per annum) [2520 + 120] 36gr 40′, & so much the vernal Equinox is now distant from the middle of the Asterism of Aries & the entrances of the rest of the signes from the middles of the other Asterisms of the Zodiac.

The 14th & 15th year of Hezekiah a sabbatical year & Iubile

<47r>

For Helladius[48] tells us that a man called Oes or Oannes who appeared in the red sea with the tail of a ffish (so they painted a sea-man) taught Astronomy & letters And Hyginus[49] that Euhadnes (that is Oannes) who came out of the sea in Chaldea was the first who taught Astrology the he means Astronomy. And Alexander Polyhistor from Berosus[50] that Oannes taught the Chaldeans letters & Arts & agriculture. Oes, Oannes & Euhadnes are the same man, & therefore Letters & Astronomy & arts & agriculture came into Chaldea from the red sea.

<47Br>

When navigation was so far improved that the Phenicians began to leave the sea shore & sail through the Mediterranean by the starrs it may be presumed that they began to discover the Islands of the Mediterranean & for the sake of traffic to sail as far as Greece, & this was not long before they carried away Io the daughter of Inachus. And Eratosthenes a[51] tells that Cyprus was at first so overgrown with wood that it could not be tilled; & that they first cut down the wood for melting of copper & silver, & afterwards when they began to sail safely upon the mediterranean, they built ships & even navies of it; & when they could not destroy the wood they gave every man leave to cut down what wood he pleased & to possess all the grownd which he cleared of wood So Europe at first abounded very much with woods, one of which called the Hercynian took up a great part of Germany being ful nine days journeys broad & above 40 long in Cæsar's days. And yet the Europeans had been cutting down their wood to make room for mankind ever since the invention of iron in the days of Minos,

Diodorus tells us further that the Cyclade Islands (those neare Crete) were at first desolate & uninhabited, but Minos the son of Europa having a powerfull fleet sent many Colonies out of Crete & peopled many of them & particularly that the Island Carpathus was first seized by the soldiers of Minos. Syme lay wast & desolate till Triops came thither with a Colony under Chthonius. Strongyle or Naxus was first inhabited by the Thracians in the days of Boreas. Samus was at first desert & inhabited only by a great multitude of terrible wild beasts. Aristæus who married Autonoe the daughter of Cadmus, carried a Colony from Thebes into Cœa an Island not inhabited before. The Island Rhodes was at first called Ophiusa being full of Serpents before Phorbas a Prince of Argos went thither & made it habitable by destroying the serpents: in memory of which he is delineated in the heavens in the Constellation of Ophiuchus. The discovery of this & some other islands made a report that they rose out of the sea. In Asia Delos emersit & Hiera et Anaphe et Rhodus: Ammian. l. 17. Claræ jamdudum insulæ Delos et Rhodos memoria produntur enatæ; postea minores, ultra Melon Anaphe, inter Lemnum et Hellespontem Nea, Inter Nebedum et Teon Alonæ &c. Plin. l. 2. c. 87.

Diodorus tells us also that the seven islands called Æolides between Italy & Sicily were desert & uninhabited till Liparus & Æolus about the time of the Trojane war went thither from Italy & peopled them. And that Malta & Gaulus or Gaudus on the south side of Sicily were first peopled by Phenicians, & so was Madera without the straits. And it is not likely that Great Britain & Ireland could be peopled before navigation was propagated beyond the straits mouth.

[Editorial Note 19]

Dionius the Egyptian Hercules recruited his army with the people whom he conquered, & coming fom his war with Gerion in Spain to the costs of Piemont & endeavouring to pass the Alps into Italy was strenuously opposed by the Liguras, but afterward got into Italy & there slew Cacus, & [after the Sicanians had served him in Chuse] made some conquests in which he might seat the Sicanians.]

<47Bv>

Abraham was the fift from Peleg & all mankind lived together & spake one language in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons till the days of Peleg, & so long they were of one language & one religion, & then they divided the earth & began to spread themselves in the several countries which fell to their share, carrying along with the laws & customes & religion under whichthey had till those days been governed by Noah & his sons. And these laws were handed down to Abraham Melchisedec & Iob & for some time observed by the Iudges of the countries Iob 31.11, 28, & at length inserted by Moses into his laws

about the beginning of Solomons reign at which time Minos was 15 or 20 years old. For Minos lived long & was dead above 30 years before that expedition.

– ever since the days of Minos.

All these footsteps there are of the first peopling of Europe. Chaldea Assyria Syria Phenicia & Egypt were peopled some ages before. Abraham was the fift fom Peleg, & all mankind lived together in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons untill the days of Peleg. So long they were of one language & one religion: And then they divided the earth, being perhaps disturbed in Chaldea by the rebellion of Nimrod & forced to leave of building the tower of Babel. And from thence they spread themselves into the several countries which fell to their share carrying along with them the laws customes & religion under which they had till those days been educated & governed by Noah & his sons. And these laws were handed down to Abraham, Melchizedec & Iob & for some time were observed by the Iudges of the eastern countries Iob. 31.11, 28. Several of them are mentioned by Iob chap. 31, vizt not to worship the Sun or Moon or other Gods then the supreme least you should deny the God above, not to deceive, nor steal, nor commit adultery, nor covet, nor trust in riches, nor oppress the poor or fatherless, nor curse your enemies nor rejoice at their misfortunes, nor defraud nor kill, but to be friendly & hospitable & merciful & to releive the poor & needy. This was the morality & religion of the first ages; this was the end of all the Law & the Prophets comprehended in the two great commandments of loving the Lord our God with all our heart & mind & strength & our neighbur as our selves & enjoyned to the strangers within the gates of Israel as well as to the Israelites: & this is the moral law of both Iews & Christians to this day. – this was the religion of Moses & the Prophets comprehended in the two great Commandments of loving the Lord our God with all our heart & soul & mind & our neighbour as our selves, this was the religion enjoyned to the stranger within the gates of Israel as well as to the Israelites, & this is the moral law & religion of both Iews & Christians to this day, & ought to be the standing religion of all nations, & without it all other religions are vain.

God is every where without being seen or felt Iob. 9.8, 11 & 11.7, 8, 9. & 22.12, 14. & 23.8, 9. Omnipotent & omniscient. Iob. 42.2

[Editorial Note 20]

Some of these laws are recited by Moses as not to curse God nor blaspheme his name nor to kill nor injure but to make satisfaction for accidental injuries by paying the price & to loos an eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth a breach for a breach Levit 24.15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22 & Gen 9.6 & to be merciful even to bruit beasts so as not to strangle them or cut of their limbs alive or eat them with the blood but to kill them for food by letting out their blood Gen 9.4. Levit 17.10, 12, 13. nor were they to eat any thing which died of it self or was torn by beasts Levit 17.15. Of the Laws see Selden concerning the 7 Precepts of the Sons of Noah.

These Corybantes danced at the sacrifices in armour as seized like the Idæi Dactyli & [thereby these mysteries appear to be Phenician.] the Godess was drawn by Lyons & had a Corona turrita on her head & a drum in her hand like the Phenician godess Astarte. And in

For Teutamus the father of Asterius went into Crete with a colony from Olympia & upon the flight of Asterius some of his friends might retire into their own country & be pursued & conquered there by Hercules Idæus.

[Editorial Note 21] <48v>

For mankind lived together in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons till the days of Peleg; & then they divided the earth & began to spread themselves into the several countries which fell to their share, carrying along with them the Laws & customes under which they had been governed by Noah & his sons till that time which laws have been since called the Precepts of the sons of Noah [& the laws of nations & were observed by Abraham & his family, Melchizedec & his city Iob & his friends & the Iudges where he lived.] And Abraham was the fift from Peleg.

When the Phenicians began to leave the sea coast & sail through the Mediterranean by the help of the starrs, that is, when they began to sail as far as Greece for the sake of trafic & carried away Io the daughter of Inachus then the Islands of the Mediterranean remote from the continent, began to be discovered. For Diodorus tells us that the Cyclade Islands (those neare Crete) were at first desolate – – – – – straits mouth

I meet with no cities in Crete older then the arrival of the Phenicians there with Europa & her brother Atymnus. The first inhabitants of this Island are called Eteocretans: but whence they were & how they came thither is not said in history. Then sailed thither a colony of Pelasgians from Greece & soon after Teutamus the grandfather of Minos carred thither a colony of Dorians from the parts of Peloponnesus near Olympus. And these several colonies spake several languages & fed on the spontaneus fruits of the earth & lived quietly in caves & huts till the invention of iron in the days of Asterius the son of Teutamus, & at length were reduced into one kingdom & one people by Minos , who was their first Law-giver, & built many towns & introduced plowing & sowing

And the Island Cyprus was discovered by the Phenicians not long before. For Eratosthenes tells us – – – – – in Cæsars days. And Europe must have been much more woody when first discovered by the Phenicians. ffor the Europeans have been cutting down their woods ever since the invention of iron tools in the days of Asterius & Minos

The Laws customes & Precepts by which Noah & his sons governed all mankind in Chaldea till the days of Phaleg, & which upon the first division of the earth were propagated thence into other countries, were those observed by Abraham & his family, by Melchisedeck & his city, & by Iob & his friends & the Iudges of his country. & in general by the nations till they began to worship their dead Kings & Heros. Moses inserted them into his Law; & the strangers within the gates of Israel were to observe them, & the Iews still call them the Precepts of the sons of Noah. And they were, to worship no other God but the supreme Iob. XXV.26, 27, 28 not to blaspheme his name Levit. 24.16. not to commit adultery Iob. 31.9, 10, 11. not to deceive nor oppress nor steale nor covet nor defraud nor kill Iob. 31.5, 7, 13, 24, 25, 38, 39 & Num. 35.15. to be merciful even to bruit beasts so as not to kill them by strangling but only by letting out their blood. Levit 17.12, 13, 14, < insertion from the left margin of f 48v > not to deceive nor steale nor commit adultery nor oppress nor covet Iob. 31.5, 7, 9, 11, 13 24, 25. to be merciful & hospitable Iob. 31.16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 32. not to curse your enemy nor rejoice at his misfortunes Iob 31.29, 30. not to defraud nor kill Iob. 31.18, 39

< text from f 48v resumes >

Sicily was peopled before the death of Minos who was slain there, & the first inhabitants are called Sicani. Philistus saith that they were transplanted from the river Sicanus in Spain. They might be transplanted by Sesostris in the reign of his father Ammon when he returned by Spain from the {Sicani}. ffrom many cities of the Sicani each with its own king it may be gathered that they were not much ancienter.

<48r>

Lesbos lay wast & desolate till Xanthius the son of Triopas a prince of the Pelasgians who came from Argos, sailed thither from Lycia with a colony. Diodor l. 5. c. 4. – till Macarius the son of Crinacus peopled it, as he did also the islands Chius & Coos.

And Tenedos lay desolate till Tennes the son of Cyrnus or Cygnus a little before the Trojan war sailed thither with a colony from Troas & peopled it.

Clemens Alexandrinus (Admonitione ad Gentes) tells us that Dardanus instituted the mysteries of the mother of the Gods He was the brother of Iasion & Harmonia & Cybele was the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & the wife of Iasion, & Corybas the son of Iasion & Cybele, after the death of his father going into Phrygia instituted there the worship of his mother Cybele in the reign of Dardanus. after the manner of the Egyptian Rhea & the Phœnician Astarte.

For Teutamus the father of Asterius & grandfather of Minos carried a colony of Dorians into Crete from the regions of mount Olympus & Laconia in Peloponnesus & this region afterwards (I think upon the expulsion of Saturn) became the Terra Curitum . And then Iupiter had a Temple & Altar erected to him in Olympia where the games were celebrated, & was thence called Iupiter Olympius. And Lucian tells us that it was the Cretan Rhea the mother of this Iupiter who was worshipped in Phrygia. But Diodorus tells us that the Phrygians worshipped Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & the wife of Iasion who was the brother of Dardanus king of the Trojans & of Harmonia the wife of Cadmus; & that Corybas the son of Iasion & Cybele after the death of his father, going into Phrygia, instituted there the worship of his mother Cybele , & gave the name of Corybantes to her Priests, & these Corybantes danced in armour like the Idæi Dactyli. And she was represented in form of woman in a chariot drawn with Lyons & a corona turrita on her head & a drumm in her hand like the Phenician Astarte. And the Corybantes danced in armour like the Idæi Dactyli. When Cadmus came into Europe he landed in Samothrace & there married Harmonia the sister of Dardanus, Iasion; & after the death of Ceres the mistress of Iasion, the Phenicians instituted mysteries there to the Dij Cabyri of whom she was chief. And in the island Thasus where Cadmus left one of his brothers, the Phenicians built a Temple to Hercules not the son of Alcmena but an older whom Cicero calls ex Idæis cui inferias inferunt. And thus the Phenicians &c.

And Diodorus that Dardanus Iasion & Harmonia were born in Samothrace of the same parents, that Cadmus coming into that island married Harmonia, & learnt the Samothracian mysteries that Iasion married Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & of her begot Corybas, that Iasion lay with Ceres & learned the mysteries in Samothrace that after his death Dardanus Cybele & Corybas went into Phrygia & carried thither the mysteries of the mother of the Gods, that Corybas called those that celebrated the sacred mysteries of his mother (in a furious rage like madmen) after his own name, Corybantes; & that Dardanus built the city Darnana afterwards called Troy & founded the kingdom of the Trojans. /But the mysteries of Ceres were instituted Elusis with Egyptian ceremonies by Eumolpus & Melampus, in the end of the reign of Eretheus, & other mysteries were instituted to her & her daughter & Pluto soon after in Samothrace by the Phœnician names of Dij Cabiri, Anieros, Axiokersa, & Axiokers, that is, the great Gods, Ceres, Proserpina & Pluto. ffor Cadmus landed in Samothrace with his Phœnicians & there married Harmonia this sister of Iasion & Iasion lay with Ceres & of her begot Plutus & Cadmus & Iasion were initiated in these mysteries. [Dardanus Iasion & Dardanus & Harmonia were born in Samothrace of the same parents &] Iasion married Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & after the death of Iasion Dardanus Cybele & Corybas went into Phrygia & carried thither the mysteries of the mother of the Gods & Corybas called those that celebrated the sacred mysteries of his mother, Corybantes.

<49r>

– king of Assyria 1 Chron. V.26

1. The histories of the Persians now extant in the East represent that the two oldest Dynasties of the kings of Persia were those whom they call Pischdadians, & Kaianides, & say that the Dynasty of the Kaianides imemediately succeeded that of the Pischdadians. And the three last kings of the second Dynasty they name Ardschir Diraz, Darab his bastard son & Darab who was conquered by Ascander Roumi, that Artaxeres Longimanus, Darius Nothus & Darius who was conquered {by} Alexander the Greek. They omit the kings between these two Darius's which shews that their history of this kingdom is imperfect: but by the names of the kings here mentioned tis certain that by the second Dynasty they mean that of the kings of Media & Persia mentioned in scripture: & by consequence by the first Dynasty they mean either the kings of the Assyrian Empire or others who were contemporary to them & reigned in Persia beyond Assyria. And perhaps this might be the kingdom which carried the Assyrians captive to Kir. Amos 9.7.

2. The Saracen historians who write of the Persian affairs call Ardschir Diraz by the name also of Bahaman & ascribe to Bahaman the actions of Darius Hystaspis & Darius Medus taking perhaps Diraz & Darius for one & the same name. For they say that Bahaman went westward into Mesopotamia & Syria & conquered Balthazar the son of Nebuchadnezzar & gave the kingdom of Babylon to Cyrus his Lieutenant general over Media & Assyria & Chaldea: & there they take Bahaman for Darius Medus. They say also that Bahaman was the grandson of Kishtasp or Hystaspes & that Kishtasp was contemporary to Zaradust or Zoroaster the legislator of the Ghebers or fire-worshippers & established his doctrines throughout all Persia & that father of this Bahaman was not a king: & here they take Bahaman for Darius Hystaspis. And this confusion of persons makes it further appear that the oriental histories of those ancient kingdoms are very imperfect & uncertain.

3. And the same is further confirmed by the long reigns which the Oriental historians ascribe to the kings of these two Dynasties. For they tell us that some of the Pischdadian kings lived a thousand years a piece & that they reigned all together above three thousand years. And to the first king of the second Dynasty they assign a reign of 120 years; to the second a reign of 150 years; to the third a reign of 60 years; to the 4th a reign of 120 years, to the fift as much, & to the sixt called Artaxerxes Longimanus a reign of 112 years. So then as the Egyptians have made the two first Dynastys of the kings of their Empire (those who reigned at Thebes & Memphis) much ancienter then the truth, so the Persians have done the like to the two first Dynasties of their kings. And we are to expect as little of certainty from the records of Persia concerning their two first Dynasties of kings as from the records of Egypt concerning theirs.

5 The Oriental historians tell us also that in those days the Scythians on the north side of the river Oxus having erected a potent kingdom which they call the kingdom of Touran or Turquestan, invaded Persia several times under their king Afrasiab, & that in the reign of the eighth king of the Pischdadians Afrasiab invaded & conquered Persia & reigned over it twelve years together, & then <49v> was repulsed by the tenth king of the Pischdadians & invaded it again in the reign of the 11th & last king of the Pischdadians & was at length slain in the mountains of Media by the third king of the second Dynasty. If for reducing the reign of Afrasiab to such a length as exceeds not the course of nature, we may suppose that the Scythians by their first invasion of Persia gave occasion to that revolt of the Medes & other nations from the Assyrians which is mentioned by Herodotus: there will be but seven kings of the Pischdadians before the reign of Afrasiab & the revolt of the Medes & three more of the Caianides before the reign of Lohorasp or Cyaxeres & the taking of Nineveh by him & Nebuchadnezzar. And these ten reigns being recconed at about 18 or 20 years a piece will place the beginning of the Dynasty of the Pischdadians about 180 or 200 years before the fall of Nineveh. So then the Persians have no memory of any thing done in Persia above 200 years before the fall of Nineveh & the reigns of Cyaxeres & Nebuchadnezzar.

4 The Oriental historians say that the fourth king of their second Dynasty whom they call Lohorasp, was the father of Kischtasp & the grandfather of Cyrus & great grandfather of that Bahaman who was the grandson of Kischtasp that is, of Darius Hystaspis: & by these recconings they make Lohorasp as old as Cyaxes. They say also that Lohorasp was the first of their kings who reduced their armies to good order & discipline & Herodotus affirms the same thing of Cyaxeres. And they say further that Lohorasp went eastward & conquered many Provinces of Persia & had wars with the kings of Touran or Scythia beyond the river Oxus which runs westward into the Caspian Sea & that one of his Generals whom the Hebrews call Nebuchadnezzar & others call Rahan & Gudarz went westward & conquered all Syria & Iudea & took the city Ierusalem & destroyed it. And by these circumstances they take Lohorasp for one & the same king with Cyaxeres, calling Nebuchadnezzar his Generall because he assisted him in the taking of Nineveh before they separated & went, the one eastward against the Provinces of Persia & the other westward against Syria & Phœnicia. The second Dynasty of the kings of Persia began therefore about three reigns or sixty years before the fall of Nineveh & by consequence at that time when the Medes & other nations revolted from the Assyrians.

6 I have hitherto taken a view of the times reputed fabulous by the Greeks & Latines & shewed that before the reign of Pul & the beginning of the Olympiads – – –

<50r>
From Ian. 1. 1714 to May 3d following14.10.7mathML formulaPaid
From May 3d 1714 to March 11 following31.2.6mathML formulaPaid 5 Guin.
From Sept 2 1713 to Decem. 31 following13.9.9mathML formula21.10
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Another3.4.3.
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Many islands of the Mediterranean covered with woods & inhabited only by serpents & wild beasts have been peopled since the coming of Lelex & Cecrops with colonies from Egypt. The Hercynian wood covered a great part of Europe even till the days of the Roman Empire.

So then we need not wonder that the Egyptians have made the kings in the first Dynasty of their Monarchy (those who reigned at Thebes in the days of David & Solomon) so very ancient & so long lived, since the Persians have done the like to the kings who reigned in Persia above 200 years after the days of Solomon.

The earth in those days was overspread with woods, which have been since cut down to make room for mankind. Many Islands of the mediterranean have been {peopled since} the Egyptians & Phenicians brought navigation into Greece.

N{uma} was the first lawgiver of the Romans, Zeleucus of the Locri, Draco of the Athenians, Lycurgus of the Spartans, Phoroneus of the people of Argos, Minos of the Cretans Amon & Sesac of the Egyptians, & Moses of the Hebrews. And by the imposition of Laws {men} were by degrees reduced from a rambling vagabond salvage life to live to{gether} in towns & cultivate arts convenient for life.

{illeg} began to be built in Europe –– – Argonautic expedition. And

{The} first houses were small & rude there being no iron tools & in consequence no artificers in all {illeg} before the days of Minos king of Crete who was contemporary to Solomon {& the} first towns were small unwalled villages. Troy was not walled before the days of Laomedon the father of Priam. Thebes was not walled before the reign of Amphion & Zethus who were contemporary to Laius the great grandso{n} of Cadmus. And it will be difficult to name a town in all Europe which was walled before the death of Solomon. The founder of the town {illeg} first {illeg} [when these kings conquered {illeg} {illeg} which gained dominion over others {illeg} & the first city which reigned over a{illeg} {Rome} – – – – – between Egypt & Euphrates. Numa was the first lawgiver of the Romans – – – – & cultivate arts & imployments convenient for life. The first ships were small round vessels of burden with oars for sailing upon lakes & between the Islands of that shallow sea which lies between Egypt & Arabia: & the first long & tall ships with sails were built by Ammon & Sesostris in the days of David & Solomon & the Ship Argo which was the first long ship built by the Greeks was built 40 years after the death of Solomon in imitation of a ship which Danaus brought from Egypt. The earth in those early ages was overspread with woods & infested with wild beasts, & the first men lived in planes well watred with rivers such as were those upon Tigris & the Nile: & where kingdoms & civility began the beasts have been destroyed & the woods cut down to make room for man Phœnicia & the regions upon Tigris – – – – – – – fled from Ioshua conquered Egypt. Corn was not known in Europe before the days of David. And Diodorus tells us that the Libyans say that Vranus the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helius & Selene that is Ammon the father of Sesac was their first king & caused the public who then wandred up & down, to dwell in towns & cities, & reducing them from a lawless & salvage course of life taught them to use & lay up the fruits of the earth, & do many other things useful for mans life.

& Arabia Petræa & Nabatea as well as Phœnicia have been peopled by the seed of Abraham besides the nations sprung from Keturah whom Abraham sent eastward. And the remoter regions of Libya & Europe were peopled & civilized still later, & a great part of Tartary is not yet civilized. Corn was not known

<51r>

Of the Empire of the Greeks

When Amosis drave the Shepherds out of {illeg} all Egypt, some of them under the conduct of Cecrops Lelex {illeg} Inachus & others fled into Greece. Before that time Europe was peopled only from the north side of the Euxine {sea} {illeg}. Misphragmuthosis made the shepherds {go} out of Egypt into Phenicia where they made the armies of the Philistims very numerous against Saul. The victories of David over the Philistims C{arm}ites & other {nations} round about him, made many of them under the conduct of Cadmus {illeg}blyarius                                          seek new seats in Asia minor Greece & Libya. These nations brought into Greece their arts & sciences & the worship of the dead several of the posterity of Cadmus & his sister Europa being d{eified} [Cadmus brought letters into Greece & it is not likely that any thing done in Europe above an hundred years before the use of Leters could be remembred.] Sesak or Sesostris came out of Egypt in the 5t year of Rehoboam & spent {a year in that expedition} was one {illeg} invaded Asia Thrace & Greece . ffor the ship Argo being the {first} long ship of the Greeks was built in imitation of the long ship in which Danaus with his 50. daughters fled from his {returning} brother Sesostris &           the son of Anymone the daughter of Danaus was one of the Argonauts. By the expedition of Sesostris the Gods & Oracles of the kingdom of Thebes in Egypt were brought into Greece in the days of Theseus & applied to the Heros of Greece. Cadmus was the father of Polydorus the father of Labdacus the father of Laus the father of Oedipus the father of Eteocles & Polynices, who slew one another in their youth in the war of the seven captains at Thebes which happened soon after the Argonautic expedition, suppose about 50 years after the death of Solomon. And therefore recconing about 28 years to a generation by the eldest sons, Cadmus was a young man in the beginning of Davids reign, & a little before the middle of his reign, might fly into Greece with his young son Polydorus The sons of many of the Argonauts were at the Trojan war & therefore that war was one generation later than the Argonautic expedition, & so might happen about 70 or 75 years after the death of Solomon. At that time flourished Memnon Amenophis or Menes the founder of the first Dynasty of the Ethiopian Kings of Egypt reigning at Memphys. Homer wrote soon after & celebrates Thebes, but makes no mention of Memphis. That city was not yet grown famous. The return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus was about 70 or 80 years after the Trojan war, being in the fourth generation from Hercules the Argonaut ffrom the time of that return there reigned two races of kings at Sparta ; in one race nine kings, in the other ten In the end of the first Messenian war, & in the same interval of time there were ten kings of Messene & nine of Arcadia: which at 20 years to a reign one reign with another make up about 200 years. Between the said return & the battel at Thermopyle in the sixt year of Xerxes there were seventeen reigns in each race of the kings of Sparta which at 20 years a piece to a reign make up about 340 years. And therefore the destruction of Troy was about 420 years before the battel of Thermopylæ. For Kings reign one with another only about 18 or 20 years a piece at a Medium according to the course of nature. Accordingly Herodotus reccons Homer & Hesiod but 400 years older then himself But the {last} Greek Chronologers {reccon} the reigns of Kings equal to generations & recconing about 36 years to a generation have made the said 17 reigns equal to 622 years which is about 280 years too long. And this Chronology was feigned by Timæus Siculus sixty years after the death of Alexander the great. The former Chronologers, as Pherecides Athenensis, Epimedicdes, Acusilaus, Hellanicus, digested the antiquities of Greece only by Genealogies & the successions of kings or Priests. Timæus was the first who reduced these antiquities to the Olympiads & in {so} doing {he set do}wn what number of years he pleased to the reign of every {king} & made the number of years much too long for the course of {nature.} {illeg}

<51v>

The Introduction

1 Ctesias & the ancient Greek & Latin writers – – – – – to please his reader. If these fables be layed aside, the Assyrian Empire will appeare no older then the days of Pul

The Greeks have made the kingdom of Sicyon as old as the flood within 200 years & above seven hundred years older then Cadmus, whereas letters were first brought into Europe by Cadmus & it is not likely that the actions or names of kings or any thing done in Europe could be remembred one hundred years before the use of letters. ‡ [ffor making this kingdom ancient the Greks have divided Apis the son of Phoroneus into two kings taking his two names Apis & Epopeus for two men & between them have inserted 12 feigned names of kings who did nothing memorable & made them reign 620 years which is above 50 years a piece one with another: whereas kings according to the course of nature reigne one with another at a medium but about 18 or 20 years a piece; & there is scarce an instance to be found in any kingdom where the reign of 12 kings taken together has equalled 300 years. So instead of one Minos & one Ariadne some of the Greeks have made two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & instead of one Pandion one Erechtheus kings of Athens they have made two, giving the name of Erechthonius to the first Erechtheus. And whereas Inachus had seveal sons Phoroneus                                          reigning in several parts of Argos & these again divided their dominions amongst their sons, the Greeks to make the kingdom of Argos look ancient have reduced several of these collateral into one race of kings reigning successively at Argos.

in the latter end of Davids

2 The kingdom of the Syrians of Damascus was founded in the end of Davids reign, & grew great under its kings Benhadad & Hazael in the reign of Iehosaphat & Ioas & Iosephus tells[52] that they worshipped these two kings as Gods for their benefactions boasting their antiquity & not knowing that they were novel & lived not above 1100 years before his days. And Iustin tells us[53] that the Syrians worshipped also Arathes (the wife of the founder of the city as a Goddes

In like manner the Ægyptians made their deified kings very ancient, though they were no older then the days of David Solomon & Rehoboam. These Gods reigned at Thebes & were the first kings who reigned over all Egypt including Thebais. And the next race of kings reigned at Memphys & adorned that city. Homer celebrates Thebes but makes no mention of Memphys & therefore the Gods of Egypt had adorned Thebes before Homers days but Memphys by the reign of her kings grew splendid & famous afterwards. The Egyptians reccon that Meres reigned next after their Gods & built Memphys & the magnificent Temple of Vulcan therein: & that one of his sons built his palace in that city. Menes was therefore the founder of the Dynasty of kings who reigned at Memphys & so could not be much earlier then Homers days. four of his successors Rhampsinitus, Mœris, Asychis & Psammiticus built four sumptuous Porticos to that Temple, & Psammiticus reigned above 300 years later then Sesak & it is not likely that that Temple could be above 300 years in building. & therefore Menes was not so old as Sesak. But the Egyptians for magnifying the antiquity of their Gods & Kingdom have made him older then the world & for making out this recconing have multiplied the names of their kings & given us a very confused account of their antiquities. Herodotus tells us that the Egyptians read out of their books the names of 330 kings who reigned between Menes & Sesostris who is Sesak, & yet Sesostris reigned at Thebes & Menes & his successors reigned afterwards at Memphis. Gold symbol

In the days of the patriarchs kingdoms were but small & almost every city had its king. The lower Egypt – – – & made the great lake of Mœris with two Pyramids in it. In the reigns of Asychis & Anyses, Egypt became divided into several kingdoms. Gnephactus – – – – – – – – & then Egypt & Ethiopia were invaded & conquered by the Assyrians.

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4 Inachus had several sons who reigned in several parts of Peloponnesus, & there built towns as Phoroneus who built Phoronicum afterwards called Argos from Argus his grandson, Ægialeus who built Ægialea afterwards called Sicyon from Sicyon the grandson of Erechtheus, Phegeus who built Phegea afterward called Psophis from Psophis the daughter of Lycaon. And these were the oldest towns in Peloponnesus. Phoroneus had also several children & grandchildren who reigned in several places & as Car Spartus Apis. And this division & subdivision of territories has made great confusion in the history of the kingdoms of Peloponnesus. But the later Greeks to make the kingdom of Argos look ancient have collected several collateral Princes into one series of kings pretended to reign successively at Argos.

5B Apis was the grandson of Ægyaleus by the fathers side & the grandson of Phoroneus by the mothers side, being the son of Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus & Herodotus tells us that Apis in the Greek tongue is Epaphus. But the later Greeks to make the kingdom of Sicyon look ancient have made two men of these two names Apis & Epopeus & between them inserted 12 feigned names of kings who did nothing, making those kings reign 620 years which is above 50 years a piece one with another: whereas kings according to the course of nature reigne one with another at a medium but 18 or 20 years a piece, & there is scarce an instance to be found in any kingdom where the reign of 12 Kings taken together has equalled one half of 620 years.

6. And as of one Apis or Epaphus the Greeks have made two kings so of one Minos & one Ariadne some of the Greeks have made two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & of one Pandion & one Erichtheus king of Athens they have made two, giving the name of Erechthonius to the first Erechtheus, & of one Inachus & one Io his daughter they have made two, corruptly writing Iasus for the second Inachus.

3 The Greeks before the times of the seven wise men wrote only in verse & had no history or Chronology in prose but recconed times only by genealogies & by the number of kings reigning successively in any Kingdom & the number of Priests succeeding one another in any Temple; & the Greeks who first wrote of these things in prose made it their busines to collect the genealogies of men & the successions of Kings & Priests & Olympic victors: Then they conjectured the number of years by the number of generations or reigns between things done, & at length Timæus Siculus sixty years after the death of Alexander the great adapted these recconings to the Olympiads, & so framed a chronology which with very little alteration has been ever since followed by the Greeks. But in doing these things the Greeks have multiplied the number of reigns beyond the truth & made the reigns of single kings very much too long for the course of nature

5 The kingdom of Sicyon founded by Ægialeus the brother of Phoroneus, the Greeks have made as old as the flood within 200 years & above 700 years older then Cadmus whereas letters were first bought into Europe by Cadmus & it is not likely that the actions or names of kings or any thing done in Europe could be remembred one hundred years without the use of letters. Apis was the grandson of Ægialeus – – – – one half of 620 years.

7 The intervall between the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & the invasions of Greece by the Persians, the Greeks have stated by the reigns of the kings of Sparta in that interval . There were two races of these kings & seventeen successive kings in each race. And recconing a reign equall to a generation, they have made these kings reign one with another about 36 years a piece, & thereby they have made this interval about 370 years too great. ffor kings according to the course of nature reign but about 18 or 20 years a piece one with another at a medium. And by this means all things done in Greece before the return of the Heraclides were represented 270 years older then they would otherwise have been

[Editorial Note 22]

As the churches both Greek & Latin in the days of Tertullian accounted the Montanists guilty of polytheism: so here the Bishops of the Greek Church declare the opinions of Montanus about the Deity to be blasphemous & with relation to the opinions of Sabellius Paul of Samosat & Marcellus & such like heresies call him the ringleader of all the hereticks, that is of all which flourished after him. And this continued to be the opinion of the Greek church concerning Montanism till the middle of the fourth Century.

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Gold symbol The chief of the Gods of Egypt were Osiris & Isis & the ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods recconed that they were not so ancient as Phoroneus. ffor they feigned that Apis the son or grandson of Phoroneus, & Io the sister or daughter of Phoroneus went into Ægypt & there became the Osiris & Isis of the Egyptians. The Gods of Egypt therefore reigned at Thebes & adorned that city between the days of Phoroneus & Homer.

# Because Sesostris cut channels from the Nile to all the cities of Egypt & thereby made that river very usefull, the Egyptians dedicated that river to him & after his death called him by its names Ægyptus, Sihor or O-siris, & Nilus.

decreed the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over all the churches in cases of appeal & thereby actually set it up over their own churches in the west & in Egypt for four or five years. At the end of which time the Emperor Constantius conquered the western part of the Empire, & caused the western Bishops to desist from their pretence of superiority over the eastern – – – – & made him rest contented with his provincial authority over the suburbicarian Churches. An

[Editorial Note 23]

Sesac called by the Greeks Sesonchosis & Sesostris, came of Egypt in the {illeg} of Rehoboam, spent 9 years in invading the nations, came over the Hellespont conquered Thrace & invaded Greece but was repulsed by the joynt forces of the Greeks commanded by Perseus & of the Scythians calling them by them & commanded by                 . Then he returned back into Egypt with many captives amongst which was Tethonius the sister & his brother Danaus at the same time fled from him into Greece with his 50 daughters in a long ship after the pattern of which the ship Argo was built. This was the first long ship built by the Greeks. The builder was Argus the son of Danaus; & Nauplius the son of Amymone one of the daughters of Danaus, born after her coming into Greece, was one of the Argonauts. The expedition or Embassy of the Argonauts was therefore above 20 years after the return of Sesac into Egypt & might happen about 36 or 40 years after the death of Solomon [being occasioned (as I conceive) by the civil wars of Egypt in the reign of Asa & the victory of Asa over Zerah whereby the Theban Empire was boke in pieces, ffor the Expedition looks like an Embassy to all the Princes upon the coasts of the Euxine & Mediterranean seas which had been subject to Egypt.] Cadmus was the father of – – – reigning at Mempys [Hesiod recconed up five ages or generations of men in the first of which Chiron the son of Saturn & Philyra was born, the third ended with the Argonautic expedition & death of Talus the brazen Son of Minos & last man of the brazen age, the fourth ended with the wars at Thebes & Troy & the fift was to end when the men who were contemporary to Hesiod should grow hoary & drop into the grave. Hesiod therefore & his contemporary Homer wrote within one generation after the destruction of Troy, & Homer celebrates the Egyptian Thebes but makes no mention of Memphys. That city was but newly founded by Menes & was not yet grown famous. Herodotus the oldest Historian of Greece tells that Homer & Hesiod lived but 400 years before him : & therefore the destruction of Troy could not be earlier then we have assigned.

The Romans who conquered Carthage & had opportunity to consult the records of that city, tell us that Carthage stood 7 years & was built by Dido who fled from Tyre & Virgil tells us that before her flight she conversed with            w       who in the end of the Trojan war came from that war to Cyprus in the reign of her father. Carthage was destroyed Ann     Olymp.     Count backwards        years & the Encœmia of Carthage will                         & by our recconing, the destruction of Troy was about      years before.]

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l. 2. p. 36 l. 11. – & saw him. He seems to be the same man with Atlas, for both of them were sons of Neptune & reigned over Afric, both of {them} made war upon the Egyptians & contended with Hercules, & the names agree. Antæus might by the Egyptians be called Atal-Antæus cursed Antæus, & by contraction Atlantes, Atlasis, Atlas. In his wars with Egypt Hercules took the Libyan world from his sholders & made him pay tribute out of his golden Orchard the kingdom of Libya & at length slew him. The invasion of Egypt by Antæus Ovid hath relation unto where he makes Hercules say, – sævoque alimenta parentis Antæo eripui

– eastward of Assyria. The name Kaianides or Kaianians, seems to be taken from the word Kai which signified a Giant or great King according to Herbedotius & is put before the names of several kings in this Dynasty recited by him as Kaicobad Kaicaus Kaicosroes. Whence we may reccon Cyaxeres or Kai-Axeres to have been a king of this Dynasty. He conquered the kingdom of the Persians called Elam in scripture & therein set up the Medo Persian Empire which makes it probable that the Dynasty of the Pischdadians was this Kingdom of Elam. For this kingdom & that of the Medes continued distinct till the fourth year of Iehojakim or first of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier. 25.25) but soon after the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah or eighth of Nebucadnezzar Elam with her King & Princes was conquered, Ier. 49.34.

So then the first great Empire in the world was that of Egypt founded by Ammon & Sesac & this Empire began to be shockt by civil wars in Egypt upon the death of Sesac & lost some Provinces upon the Euxin & mediterranean seas about the time of the Argonautic expedition, but kept its dominion over Chaldea, Elam, Assyria Armenia &c till the reign of Mœris or his successor Suphis. And then those nations becoming free set up the kingdoms of Elam, Assyria, Babylon & Media. And these are the first great kingdoms in the world on this side India. Great Empires are always accompanied with great imperial cities

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In Daniels vision of the four Beasts the first Beast agrees to the kingdom of Babylon including Susiana & his Eagles wings agree to the Provinces of Babylon & Susa And the 2d Beast agrees to the Medo-Persian Empire, which raised itself up on one side, the Medes getting up first, & the three ribs in its mouth agree to the kingdoms of Babylon Egypt & Sardes. Those kingdoms were in its possession not as parts of its body but only as bones in its mouth. ffor the kingdom of Babylon was the body of the first Beast that of Egypt & Sardes belonged to the body of the third.

In Daniels vision of the Ram & he Goat the two horns of the Ram agree to the kingdoms of Media & Persia under one Monarch & the higher horn (that of Persia) rose up last.

The seventy weeks determined decided or cut out upon the people & upon the holy city of Daniel, to finish the transgression, & to make an end of sins, & to make reconciliation for iniquity, & to bring in everlasting righteousnes & to seal up the vision & the prophesy, & to annoint the most holy, agree to the intervall of time which ended with the death of Christ & began in the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus (Anno Nabonass 291) when Ezra had a commission to return from Babylon with the captivated Iews & to restore the worship of God at Ierusalem & to set up Magistrates & Rulers which might judge all the people of Iudea according to the laws of God & the king. ffor thereby the Iews, after their body polytick had been dissolved by the captivity, were again incorporated & became again a people & a holy city: And from thence to the death of Christ were seventy weeks recconing a day for a year as was usual among the Iews. (Num 14.34. Ezek IV.4, 5, 6.) & a week for a week of years. For the Iews used a week sometimes for a week of days (Dan. 10.2) & sometimes for a week of years (Gen 29.27, 28.)

Now the history of these kingdoms is consonant to the description given of them by Daniel. In his vision of the four Beasts the first Beast answers to the kings of Babylon including Susiana & his Eagles wings to the Provinces of Babylon & Susa. And the second Beast answers to the Medo-Persian Empire which raised it self up on one side, the Medes getting up first. And the three ribs in its mouth answer to the kingdoms of Babylon Egypt & Sardes, which were in its possession but not as parts of its body, Babylon belonging to the body of the first beast & Egypt & Sardes to that of the third.

In Daniels vision of the Ram & he Goat the two horns of the Ram answer to the kingdoms of Media & Persia under one Monarch & the higher horn (that of Persia) rose up last.

Of all things which happened in the time of the Medo-Persian Empire the most memorable was the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, with an army of a million (some say two or three millions) of people: & this is thus described by Daniel There shall stand up yet three kings in Persia, & the fourth shall be far richer then they all: & by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece.

If from the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus when Ezra came to Ierusalem with a Commission

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Herodotus tells us that all Media was peopled by δήμοι unwalled towns with their villages untill they revolted from the Assyrians & built Ecbatane the first city which they walled about Troy was not walled before the days of Laomedon the father of Priam. Thebes was not walled before the reign of Amphion & Zethus who were contemporary to Laius the great grandson of Cadmus. And it will be difficult to name a town in all Europe which was walled before the death of Solomon. For tools of iron for working in wood & stone were not known in Europe before the days of Cadmus & Europa. The antiquities of Libya were not much older then those of Europe: for Diodorus tells us that the Libyans had a tradition that Vranus the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helius & Selene, that is Ammon the father {of} Sesak was their first king & caused the people who then wandered up & down to dwell in towns & cities & reducing them from a lawless & salvage course of life taught them to use & use & lay up the fruits of the earth & do many other things useful for mans life. And when Ioshua conquered the land of Canaan every city of the Canaanites had it's own king like the cities of Europe before the Olympiads: which is an argument that towns began to be built in Canaan not many ages before For the Patriarchs wandred in Tents through Canaan & fed their flocks wherever they pleased, the fields of Phœnicia being not yet appropriated. The eastern countries which were first inhabited by mankind were in those days so thinly peopled that four kings from the coasts of Shinar & Elam invaded & spoiled the Rephaims & the inhabitants of the countries of Moab Ammon Edom & Amalec & the kingdoms Sodom Gomorrah Admal & Zeboim & yet were pursued & beaten by Abraham with an armed force of only 318 men, the whole force which Abraham & the Princes confederate with him could raise. And Egypt was so thinly peopled before the birth of Moses that Pharaoh said of the Israelites, Behold the people of the children of Israel are more & mightier then we, & to prevent their multiplying & growing too strong, caused their male children to be drowned. [So the countries first inhabited by mankind were very thinly peopled in the days of Abraham, & the building of houses & towns which began upon the rivers Tigris & Euphrates was propagated thence into the neighbouring countries in the days of the Patriarchs & reached not Europe before the days of Eli Samuel & David.] These footsteps there are of the first peopling of the earth by mankind & of the overspreading it with towns & cities & their growing into kingdoms first smaller & then greater untill the rise of the great monarchies of Egypt, Elam, Assyria, Babylon, Media & Persia, Greece & Rome.

In the Vision of Daniels four Beasts the third Beast or Leopard answers to the Greek Empire & reigned with four wings & four heads till the Romans conquered Macedon, & the fourth Beast answers to the conquering Romans. The three first Beasts had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season & time (Dan. 7.12,) that is untill the stone cut out of the mountain without hands falls upon the feet of the Image of four metalls & brake in pieces the iron the brass the silver & gold & they become like chaff & are carried away by the wind & the stone becomes a great mountain & fills the earth, ( Dan. 2.35) that is untill the saints takethe kingdom (Dan 2.44 & 7.18. And therefore all the four Beasts are still alive, the first being still the nations of Babylonia & Susiana, the second all the rest of Persia beyond Euphrates, the third the nations of the Greek Empire on this side Euphrates, & the fourth the nations of the Latine Empire on this side Greece. And the second & third are further represented in another vision by the Ram & He Goat, the four heads & four wings of the third Beast or Leopard denoting the same thing with the four horns of the Goat. Vpon the conquest of Macedon by the Romans the dominion of the third Beast began to be taken away; yet its life was prolonged & then under the type of the little horn of the Goat it grew exceeding great, but not by its own power, & upon the building of Constantinople & division of the Roman Empire between the Greeks & Latines it survived in the Greek Empire & still survives under that of the Turks.

In Daniels vision of the Ram & He Goat, these Beasts denote the same thing with the Bear & Leopard in the former vision. As the Bear raised himself up on one side so the higher horn of the Ram rose up last. And as the Leopard had four heads & four wings so the Goat had four horns which signify the same thing with the heads & wings of the Leopard. The great horn between the eyes of the Goat – into smaller kingdoms.       All Daniels Beasts are still alive & the Goat still reigns in his last horn but not by his own power.

<54v> [Editorial Note 25]

– but Hercules intercepted his recruits & at length slew him. In these wars Hercules took the Libyan world from Atlas & made Atlas pay tribute out of his golden Orchard the kingdom of Afric. Antæus & Atlas were both of them sons of Neptune, both of them reigned over all Afric between Mount Atlas & the Mediterranean to the very ocean, both of them invaded Egypt & contended with Hercules, & therefore they are but two names of one & the same man. [The Egyptians might call Antæus, Atal-Antæus, cursed Antæus, & by contraction Atlantes, Atlans, Atlas.] ② The invasion of Egypt by Antæus Ovid hath relation unto where he makes Hercules say – sævoque alimenta parentis, Antæo eripui. I rescued my fathers country Egypt from Antæus] ① The name Atlas in the oblique cases seems to have been compounded of the name Antæus & someother word put before it. Thu in

As far as the Mediterranean & the river Halys, & then turned their arms against the Persians. For the kingdom of Elam & that of the Medes continued distinct to the 4th year of Iehojakim or first of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier. 25.25) & even unto the first year of Zedekiah or 8th of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier 49.34.)

– at the taking of Babylon & therefore his grandfather Astyages was the father of Cyaxeres & his mother Mandanes was the sister of Cy{ana} & his father. – The Oriental Historians therefore between Cyaxeres & Darius Hystaspis omit Darius Medius Cyrus & Cambysses & confound the actions of Darius Medus with those of Artaxerxes Longimanus. And whilst they

Chap. IV
Of the Kingdom of Elam.

The three first kings of this Dynasty they call Kai Cobad, Kai Kaus & Kai Cosroes, & derive the name Kaianides from the word Kai which in the old Persian language they say signified a Gyant or great king. The three next they call Lohorasp, Kischtasp, & Bahaman & tell us that Bahaman was Ardshir Diraz that is Artaxerxes Longimanus, so called from the great extent of his power. And yet they say that Bahaman went westward into Mesopotamia & Syria & conquered Balthasar the son of Nebuchadnezzar & gave the kingdom to Cyrus his Lieuctenant general over Media Assyria & Chaldea: & here they take Bahaman for Darius Medus. By Kischtasp they mean Darius Histaspis ffor they say that he was contemporary to Zardust or Zoroaster the legislator of the Ghebers or fire worshippers & established his doctrines throughout all Persia.

And by Lohorasp they mean Cyaxeres: for they say that Lohorasp was the first of their kings who reduced – – – – – taking of Nineveh. The oriental historians therefore between Cyaxeres & Darius Hystaspis omit Darius the Mede, Cyrus, & Cambyses, & confound the actions of Darius Medus with those of Artaxerxes Longimanus. They say that Kischtasp was the son of Lohorasp whereas Darius whom they call Kischtasp was the son of Hystaspes a Persian who reigned not. By telling us that Lohorasp was the fourth king of the second Dynasty, they place the beginning of this Dynasty about three reigns or sixty years before the fall of Nineveh – – – an end to the first Dy

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Vpon the revolt of the lower Egypt under Osar{illeg} Council sent the flower of Greece in the ship Argo on an Embassy to {Darius &} many other Princes on the coasts of the Euxine & Mediterranean Seas subject to the king of Ægypt, to signify the distraction of Egypt & perswade them to take that opportunity to revolt & set up for themselves. And thus ended the great Empire of Egypt.

By the manufacturing of brass & iron & making of armour & of edged tools for hewing & carving of wood they brought into Europe a new way of making war & gave Minos an opportunity of setting out a fleet & gaining the dominion of the seas & set up the trades of Smiths & Carpenters in Greece which are the foundation of all other manual arts. ffor at time Dædalus & his Nephew Talus invented the chip-ax, & saw, & wimble, & perpendicular & compass & turning lath & glew, & therefore the trade of Carpenters was not older in Greece then the days of Dædalus who was contemporary to Minos. The fleet of Minos was without sails & Dædalus fled from it by adding sails to his vessel, & therefore ships with sails were not in use before the days of Minos. The Curetes were as active about religion & for their skill & knowledge & mystical practises were accounted wise men & conjurers by the vulgar. In Phrygia their mysteries were about Rhea called also Mater Deorum & Magna mater , & from the places where she was worshipped Idæa Phrygia & Cybele & Berecynthia & Pessinuntia & Dindyxene & Mygonia.

the Curetes who thus introduced Letters & Music & poetry & arts, being a sort of Priests were no less active about religion

& be High Priest before Ezra wrote the sons of Levi in the book of Chronicles (Nehem XII.3) & in his High-Priesthood slay his younger brother Iesus before the end of the reign of the same king (Ioseph. Antiqu. l. xi. c. 7.) & Iaddua might be High Priest before the death of Sanballat (Ioseph. ib) & before the death of Nehemiah (Nehem. XII.22) & also before the end of the reign of Darius Nothus, & thereby give occasion to Iosephus & the later Iews who took this king for the last Darius, to fall into an opinion that Sanballat Iaddua & Manasses the younger brother of Iaddua lived till the end of the reign of the last Darius . (Ioseph. Antiq l. XI c. 7, 8.) And the said Manasses might mary Nicaso the daughter of Sanballat & for that offence be chased from Nehemiah neare the end of the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus (Nehem. XIII.28 Ioseph Antiqu. l. XI. c. 7, 8.) & Sanballat might at that time be Satrapa of Samaria & in the reign of Darius Nothus or soon after build the Temple of the Samaritans in Mount Gerazim for his son-in-law Manasses the first High-priest of that Temple (Ioseph. Antiq. l. XI, c. 7, 8) & Simeon Iustus might be High Preist when the Persian Empire was invaded by Alexander the great as the Iews represent taking him for the same High Priest with Iaddua (Ioma fol. 69. 1. Liber Iuchasis. R. Gedaliah &c) & be dead sometime before the book of Eccleiasticus was writ in Hebrew at Ierusalem by the grandfather of him who in the 38th yeare of the Ægyptian Æra of Dionysius that is in the 77th year after the death of Alexander the great met with a copy of it in Egypt & there translated it into Greek for the use of the Iews in that country Ecclesiast. in Prologo & cap. 50.) & Eliezer

[Editorial Note 26] <56v>

Hesiod reciting the fable of the four first ages of the world calls his own age the fift, & describes these ages to be so many generations each of which ended when the men then living grew old & drop into the grave, & that the fourth age was that of the Demi-Gods & ended with the warrs of Thebes & Troy The last man of the brazen age was Talus the son of Minos a brazen man who was slain in Crete by the Argonauts & therefore this age ended with the Argonautic expedition. Minos is called the son of Iupiter, but this phrase among the ancients signified nothing more then that he was the son of a king. Echemenes an ancient author cited by Athanæus (lib. 13 p. 601) tells us that he was that Iupiter who committed the rape upon Ganimede. He was also that Iupiter who was educated in mount Ida by the Idæi Dactyli & whose Sepulcher was shewn in Crete. Chiron was the Son of Saturn & Philyra, & begotten (according to Apollodorus) while the Curetes Idæi educated Iupiter in the Cretan cave, & by consequence in the golden age & lived to the times of the Argonautick expedition. This Saturn was at length expelled Crete by his son & fled to Greece & thence to Italy where he was received by Ianus & from his lying hid in that country was called Saturn. So then this fable seem to have been a Cretan invention & signifies nothing more then the four first ages of the Phœnician colonies which came with Cadmus & Europa into Europe, the first age comprehnding the reign of Asterius & Europa in Crete, the second that of Minos, the third the survivorship of the children of Minos till the Argonautic expedition & death of Talus, & the fourth the age of his grandsons till the end of the Trojan war, & Hesiod wrote in the fift. And these ages are nothing more then generations of an ordinary length, three of them making about an hundred years.

This is that Iupiter who was famous among the Greeks for justice & dominion & who (according to Echemines committed the rape upon Ganimede (according to Echemenes an ancient author cited by Athenæus lib. XIII. p. 601,) that Iupiter the son of Saturn whose sepulchre (according to Cicero (de natura Deorum l. 3.) was shown in Crete. ffor the Scholiast upon Callimachus lets us know that this was the sepulchre of Minos.

This is that Iupiter who expelled his father from his kingdom & was famous among the Greeks for justice & dominion, & who according to Echemenes a[54] an ancient Author committed the rape upon Ganimede. Lucian b[55] tells us that the Cretans did not only relate that Iupiter was born and buried among them but also shewed his Sepulchre And Porphyrius c[56] that Pythagoras went down into the Idæan cave to see his Sepulchre. {illeg}

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may understand that he reigned in Crete after letters were brought into Europe by the Phœnicians & by consequence was Asterius the father of Minos & first king of Crete. ffor Saturn was a king. Apollonius Rhodius[57] tells us that while Iupiter was educated by the Idean Curetes in the Cretan cave, Saturn then reigning deceived Rhea & of Philyra begat Chiron. Here Saturn & Rhea & their son Iupiter are Asterius & his Europa & their son Minos. Europa dying first was deified first by the Curetes in Phrygia. Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete they deified her under the names of Rhea, Cybele & Magna mater: & after the death of Minos the Curetes in Crete deified him under the name of Iupiter & the Latines deified Asterius under the name of Saturn.

And as the Egyptians Phœnicians & Syrians in those {days} deified their own kings so upon their coming into Asia minor & Greece with Cadmus & Sesostris they taught those nations to do the like. Herodotus tells us that the Phœnicians who came with Cadmus brought many doctrines into Greece. For amongst those Phœnicians were a sort of men called Curetes – – – – instituted their mysteries.

Now Minos King of Crete is that Iupiter who was educate in a Cave by the Curetes & expelled his father from his kingdom & was famous among the Greeks for justice & dominion being in those days the greatest king in all Greece, & who according to Echemenes, an ancient author cited by Athenæus,[58] committed the rape of Ganimede. Lucian tells us – – – – – – deified Asterius under the name of Saturn. In those days all kings were called Iupiters, & in that sense Minos was called the son of Iupiter but Minos himself was the great Iupiter of the Cretans.

And from these originals it came into fashion κτεριζειν parentare, to celebrate the funerals of their dead fathers – – – – them with sacrifices & invocations. The Curetes did it first to all the eminent Phœnicians & after their example the Greeks did it to all the eminent Greeks, & every man might do it to his ancestors. In this manner they honoured Europa the sister of Cadmus as above & Minos & Rhadamanthus his nephews & Ino his daughter & Melicertes the son of Ina, & Bacchus the son of his daughter Semele & Aristæus the husband of his daughter Autonoe & Iasion the brother of his wife Harmonia. & Hercules the son of Alcmena descended from Andromeda & Æsculapius the son of Apollo or Orus & Machaon the son of Æsculapius & Palemocrates the son of Machaon. In this manner they honoured Pandion & Theseus kings of Athens Hippolytus the son of Theseus, Pan the son of Penelope, Ceres, Proserpina Triptolemus, – – – – – – – – so as to be called Dij magni majorum gentium. Sesostris conquered Thrace & Amphictyon who was contemporary to Sesostris brought the twelve Gods from thence into Greece. By the names of the cities of Egypt dedicated to many of these Gods & by their hieroglyphical symbols you may knw that they were of an Egyptian original.

For in those days the writing of the Thebans &c

Europa dying first was first deified. She was deified by her countrimen the Curetes in Phrygia Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete . And about the same time or soon after Ceres was deified in Attica & Samothrace, & Asterius in Italy & Minos in Crete where they were buried & this was the original of Idolatry in Phrygia Greece & Italy.

Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete, Europa was deified by the Curetes in Phry

About the same time that Europa was & Asterius wer deified in Phrygia & Italy the Curetes in {illeg} deified in Attica & Samothrace. And from these originals {illeg} the Baalim & Asteroth, the Gods & Goddesses of the {illeg} Gentiles sometime worshipped by Israel in the {illeg}

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As the Egyptian Priests had the ages of their Gods & these ages lasted during the reign of Amosis, Amnon, Sesac & Orus, the first kings of all Egypt & Menes was recconed their first King who reigned after the Gods; ✝ < insertion from lower down f 55v > ✝ so the Curetes & Phœnician Colonies who came into Crete & Greece with Europa & Cadmus imitating the Egyptians had the ages of their Gods which lasted during the reign of Asterius, Minos, Deucalion & Idomeneus the four first kings of Crete the greatest kingdom then in Greece. For Hesiod < text from f 55v resumes > so the Greeks had the ages of their Gods beginning with the Phenician Colonies & ending with the Trojan war & these they recconed by the reigns of Asterius, Minos, Deucalion & Idomeneus {successive} kings of Crete the greatest kingdom then in Greece. For Hesiod recconing up the four ages of the Gods & Demigods describes them to be so many generations each of which ended when the men then living grew old & dropt into the grave, & tells us that the fourth ended with the wars of Thebes & Troy. And Apollonius Rhodius saith that when the Argonauts came to Crete they slew Talus a brazen man & the last man of the brazen age. Talus was the son of Minos & therefore the sons of Minos flourished in the brazen age & Idomeneus the son of Deucalion & grandson of Minos was expelled the kingdom of Crete at the end of the Trojan war, & Chiron the son of Saturn born in the golden age lived till after the Argonautic expedition & therefore might be born in the reign of Alterius & not before.

Now Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of Crete & therefore the Saturn & Iupiter of the Cretans, ffor Saturn was a king & reigned in the same kingdom with his son & Minos was the greatest king of the Cretans & therefor their Iupiter. And Europa being the Queen of Asterius & mother of Minos, must be their Rhea. She came into Europe at the same time with the Curetes & therefore the Iupiter who was educated by the Curetes in the Idæan cave could not be older then her son. In those days all kings were called Iupiters & in that sense Minos is called the son of Iupiter: but he himself was the greatest king in all Greece in those days & by consequence their greatest Iupiter Apollonius Rhodius tells us that Saturn, while he reigned over the {Trion} Olympus & Iupiter was educated by the Idæan Curetes in the Cretan Cave, deceived Rhea & of Philyra begot Chiron. Now Chiron lived in the reign of Asterius & Europa & not earlier. Lucian tells us – – – – – Europe by the Phenicians & by consequence was not earlier then Asterius Europa dying first was first deified under the name of Rhea. She was deified by the Curetes in Phrygia, Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete. Afterwards Asterius became the Saturn of the Latines & Minos being buried in Crete became the celebrated Iupiter of the Cretans.

Now Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of Crete & Minos was their greatest king, & Europa was the Queen of Asterius & mother of Minos; the Curetes were her country-men & attendants & therefore these three must be the Saturn & Rhea & Iupiter of the Cretans. Minos is usually called the Son of Iupiter but Asterius could not be the Cretan Iupiter the Son of Saturn because he was the first king of Crete. In those days all kings were called Iupiters, & in that sense Minos was called the son of Iupiter, but he himself was the great Iupiter of the Cretans, being the greatest king in all Greece in those days. Europa came into Crete at the same time with the Curetes, if not before them & therefore – – – – – her son. Apollonius Rhodius – – –

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Such was the Moloch whose worship was forbidden by Moses Levit. 20.2, 5. the Baal Peor of Moab whom the Israelites worshipped in Shittim Num 25 & the Baalin & Asteroth or Gods & Godesses.

Such were the Baalim & Asteroth, the Gods & Godesses of the Gentiles in the days of the Iudges                      & the Dæmons or Ghosts whom the Israelites were not to worship       & the Moloch to whom they were not to sacrifice their children.

& people all first worshipped only its own Kings & Queens. Such were their Gods & Godesses caled Baalim & Asteroth, the Dæmons or Ghosts of dead men to whom they sacrificed, & the Moloch to whom they offered their Children, in the days of Moses & the Iudges. Levit. 17.7 & 20.2, 5. Num. 25.2, 3. Iosh. 24.2. Iud. 2.13 The worship of such Gods spread by degrees partly by alliances & partly by conquest untill Sesostris at length by conquest

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doves in the ancient fables of the Greeks are put for Priestesses, as Bochart has shewed. And, saith Herodotus, the Oracle at Dodona is the oldest in Greece & is very like that at the Egyptian Thebes, & the way of divining in Temples came from Egypt. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 57r > ‡ The chief use of Oracles was to back the authority of Lawmakers in matters both civill & religious with divine authority. Minos was a great lawmaker & went every eight years into the cave of the Cretan Iupiter pretending that his laws were at those times dictated to him by that God. Sesach was the greatest lawmaker of Egypt. And he had an Oracle of Iupiter in his royal city Thebes. [This Iupiter the Greeks called the Theban Iupiter meaning Iupiter Ammon. ffor the Egyptian name of Thebes was Ammon-no, which the Greeks translated Διόσπολις. Dio <57v> dorus tells us that the Temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya, where Alexander the great consulted the Oracle of that God, was built by Danaus, & no doubt he built it in the reign of his brother Sesak for governing the Libyans & bringing them under the laws of Egypt. The Pelasgians erected the temple & Oracle of Iupiter Dodonæus, & this Temple was common to the whole nation, that is, the Deputies of their cities met at set times of the year to sacrifice & consider of the common welfare of the cities & consult the Oracle or cause it to be consulted for giving authority to their resolutions Before this Oracle was erected, the Grecians had no particular names of several Gods but called them all by the general name of Gods. By the dictates of this Oracle of Dodona the Pelasgians received the names of the Gods of Egypt & propagated them into all Greece.

One of the most famous Oracles of Greece was the Delphic – – – – Rehoboams when Sesostris was invading the nations but had not yet begun to invade Greece. By the dictates of this Oracle & the prophesying of Pegasus, Melampus & Orpheus the Greeks received the worship of Bacchus < text from f 57r resumes > These being the Oracles of the Egyptian Iupiter were erected after the death of Ammon. For he was the Iupiter to whom the city Thebes (called Ammon-no by the Egyptians & Διος-πολις by the seventy) was dedicated; & Diodorus tells us that the Temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya, where Alexander the great consulted the Oracle, was built by Danaus. And these examples were soon followed by erecting several other Oracles both in Egypt & Greece

One of the most famous Oracles of Greece was the Delphic. Acrisius founding an Amphictyonic Council of about twelve neighbouring cities to meet every spring & autumn at Delphos, built the Temple of Delphus for them to meet & sacrifice & make laws for the cities & set up this Oracle in it & committed the temple to their care. And the first Priestess was Phemonoe or Phanothea the wife of Icarius. She invented hexameter verses & gave her Oracles in them. Clemens saith that she began to give Oracles to Acrisius seven & twenty years before the days of Orpheus Musæus & Linus.[59] She predicted that the God Bacchus should come in the days of Icarius, & when he came he presented Icarius with wine & lay with his daughter Erigona. From which circumstances I gather that this Oracle was erected neare the end of Solomons reign or in the beginning of Rehoboams when Sesostris was invading the nations.

[60] Before Oracles were erected the Greeks had no particular names of Gods but called them only by the general name of Gods. By the dictates of the Oracle of Dodona the Pelasgians received the names of the Gods of Egypt before any other Oracle was erected & propagated them into all Greece,[61] & soon after by the dictates of the Delphic Oracle & prophesying of M{eloipus}, Orpheus & Pegasus, the Greeks received the worship of Bacchus; but under these names they worshipped their own dead men, it being usual to consecrate the dead by new names, as by giving the name of Bacchus to the son of Semele, the name of Hercules to the son of Alcmena, the name of Pan to the son of Penelope, the name of Iupiter to Minos, the name of Neptune to Erechtheus & Æolus, the name of Mars to the father of Alcippa, The name of Mercury to the son of Maia, The name of Thetis to the mother of Achilles, the names of the Muses to the daughters of Pierus. And sometimes they gave them new Greek names, as the name of Leucothea to Ino the daughter of Cadmus & that of Palæmon to {her} son Melicertes. And this confusion of names & persons has very much clouded the history of the ages of the Gods.

The use of Oracles was to give laws to

[Editorial Note 27] <58v>

Oracles were set up to give laws to the people. For this end they were originally set up by kings & great men & used by lawmakers. Zeleuchus pretended to receive his laws from the Goddes Vesta, Numa his from the Goddess Egeria, Minos his from the Cretan Iupiter, Lycurgus backt his laws by the authority of the Delphic Oracle. When the Pelasgians built the Temple of Iupiter Dodenaus for all the cities of Pelasgia, & Acrisius built the temple of Apollo at Delphos for all the cities who met there in the Amphyctionic Council & committed the care of the Temples to the Councils who met in them to consult of public affairs: they would never have erected Oracles in those Temples without knowing how to make use {of} them. For if the weomen who delivered the Oracles should have given other laws to Pelasgia & to the Cities under the Amphictyonic council, then such as were agreeable to the mind of the Councils which met & presided in those Temples, the Counsellours would have met to no purpose. The Councils had the government of the Temples in their hands & were able to inquire into every thing done therin & to put in & turn out any of the Priestesses & therefore could not be imposed upon by them, but knew how by their means to impose upon the people who had it not in their power to inquire into what was done in the Temples. And the same is to be understood of the Oracles in Egypt & Libya from whence the Greeks had the use of them The king of Egypt who built the Temple of Iupiter in his royal city Thebes, & his viceroy Danaus who built the Temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya, would never have permitted weomen to give laws to all Egypt & Libya by delivering Oracles in their Temples, had they not known how to give laws to the weomen. Ammon & Osiris being great conquerors gave laws to their people & so did Isis after the death of her husband by the assistance of Mercury & these Oracles shew what method was used to establish their laws. //Osiris divided all Egypt into 36 Nomes or Provinces & built a Temple for every Nome & ordered the Temples in such manner that the people of every Nome met in their own Temple at set times of the year to worship to their own God with sacrifices & feasting & to buy & sell & consult for the welfare of the Nome & several Nomes worshipped several Gods after several manners: & for Osiris to set up such a constitution of many religions in Egypt required the authority of an Oracle. Or, if you please, it required the authority of an Oracle in every Nome. And therefore he erected Oracles to the several Gods of the Nomes some of which continued in vogue till the days of Herodotus,[62] as the Oracle of Hercules, that of Apollo, that of Minerva, that of Diana, that of Mars, that of Iupiter. But of all the Oracles that of Latona in the city Buti remained most in credit. These Oracles were not all alike, but delivered themselves after different manners. Whence it seems to me that as every Nome had its own God & its own Temple & its own way of worship & its own Council which met in the Temple of its God, so it had an Oracle of its own God by which the Council gave laws to the Nome till the religion of the Nome was established. And these were the means by which Osiris Isis Orus & Mercury set up the worship of their friends in Egypt as fast as they died.

And after the example of the Ægyptians the kings of Greece did the like in their kingdoms. Before Oracles began to be erected in Greece, the Greeks had not several names for several Gods but called them all by the general names of Gods.

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And for the same reason the principal temples of Egypt & Greece which were in the hands of lawmakers had Oracles in them, as the Temples of Delphos where the Amphictyonic Council met to make laws for Greece: the Temple at Dodona built by the Pelasgians for all their nation, the Tem

Oracles were set up by kings & great men for giving laws to the people Zeleucus pretended to receive his laws from the Goddess Vesta, Numa his from the Goddess Egeria, Minos his from the Cretan Iupiter Lycurgus backt his laws by authority of the Delphic Oracle. When Acrisius erected the Amphictyonic council & built a Temple at Delphos for them to meet in, to give credit to the Council he set up an Oracle in the Temple to give credit to the laws of that Council [not for the woman who delivered the Oracles to give laws to the Council, but for the Council by the Oracles to give laws to all the Cities. ffor the Amphictyons or Elders of the Cities who met & composed the Council had the management of the affairs of the Temple in their hands with authority to put in examin & turn out the Priestesses who delivered the Oracles.] And the same is to be understood of all the Oracles in Temples built by public authority such as were the Temple of Iupiter at Dodona built by the Pelasgians for all their cities, the temple of Iupiter Olympus in Olympia neare Elis, the Temple of Iupiter at Thebes built by the king of Egypt, the temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya built by Danaus in the reign of his brother Sesostris, & as many of the Temples of the Nomes or Provinces of Egypt as had Oracles in them. For Sesostris divided Egypt into 36 Nomes & built a Temple for every Nome and all these Temples had their Councils of Elders who met at set times of the year to consult of the affairs of the Nome & government the people of the Nome also comming together to sacrifice & feast & buy & sell. ffor the severall Nomes had their several Gods & several ways of worshipping their Gods & these Gods had their Oracles, some of which continued in vogue till the days of Herodotus as the Oracles of Hercules Apollo in their cities, that of Minerva in the City Sais Diana in the city Bubaste, that of Mars in the city {Pamuretonis} that of Iupiter – {illeg} that in the {illeg} Iupiter: but of all the Oracles that of Latona in the City Buti remained most in repute. And these Oracles were not all alike but delivered themselves after different manners. And in{deed} I do not see how Sesostris could have set up so many religions in Egypt as there were Nomes & Temples if he had not furnished the Temple of every Nome with an Oracle in the beginning.

tells us that Before the Greeks began to set up Oracles they had no variety of names for various Gods, but called them only by the common name of Gods. By the dictates of the Oracle of Dodona – – – history of the ages of the Gods.

When Bacchus invaded Greece he was entertained by Amphictyon the son of Deucalion, & in memory thereof there were set up at Athens in a cell consecrated to Bacchus many earthen statues & amongst them the statue of Amphictyon enterteining Bacchus & the Gods . And that of Pegasus of Eleutheris who first introduced the worship of Bacchus amongst the Athenians, & did it by the authority of the Delphic Oracle. This is that Amphictyon who by the advice of Acrisius erected the Amphictyonic Council, appointing it to meet every spring & autumn both at Delphos in the Temple of Apollo & at Thermopylæ in the temple of Ceres or at one of those places in spring & at the other in autumn. They tell us that when the rain fell which overflowed Thessaly where he reigned & caused his flood, he fled from the rain to Athens & in memory of his escape built there a Temple to Iupiter Phixius. This cannot be understood litterally without a miracle, for Athens where the Temple of Iupiter Phyxius stood was lower then Thessaly & no man without a divine admonition would fly from rain before he was in danger by the rising of the water & then the water would <57v> hinder his flight. Iupiter Phyxius signifies the Iupiter of them that fly, [that is of them that fly from danger] And the flood from which Deucalion fled I take to be the invasion of his kingdom by Bacchus . He fled with his son Amphictyon to Athens & there they made their peace with Bacchus. For there Amphictyon entertained Bacchus & his great men at a feast & erected an altar to him & there Deucalion erected an altar to the 12 Gods of Egypt & in memory of his escape instituted an annual ffestival to [ Iupiter Phyxius ] And by these & such like practises the worship of the Dij magni majorum gentium was set on foot in Greece. Deucalion is reputed a scythian & probably with a body of Scythians invaded Thessaly & erected a kingdom there a little before the expedition of Sesostris. Some tell us that Hellen the father of Æolus Zathus & Dorus (from whom the Greeks were called Hellens) was the son of Deucalion others that he was the son of Iupiter. Certainly he was not the son of Deucalion the father of that Amphictyon who enterteined Bacchus.

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Herodotus tells us[63] that the Phœnicians who came with Cadmus brought many doctrines into Greece. ffor amongst those Phenicians were a sort of men called Curetes[64] who were skilled in arts & sciences above other men & setled some in Phrygia where they were called also Corybantes, some in Crete where from the mountain Ida & the use of their hands in manual arts they were called Idæi Dactyli, some setled in Samothrace where they were called Cabyri, some in Rhodes where they were called Telchines, some in Eubæa where before the invention of iron they wrought first in Copper in a city thence called Chalcis, & some in Lemnos, Imbrus & other places. And a considerable body of them setled in Ætolia which was thence called the country of the Curetes untill Ætolus the son of Endymion invaded it & called it by his own name. Where they setled they wrought first in copper & then in iron, & when they had made themselves armour they danced in it at the sacrifices with tumult & clamour & bells & pipes & drumms & wepaons with which they struck upon one anothers armour in musical time, appearing seized with a divine fury. And this is recconed the original of music in Greece. Studium musicum inde cœptum cum Idæi Dactyli modulos crepitu & tinnitu æris deprehensos in versificum ordinem transtulissent: Solinus Polyhist. c. 11. Studium musicum ab Idæis Dactylis cœptum. Origen l. 14. c. 6 Clemens[65] calls the Idæi Dactyli barbarians & saith that they were reputed the first wise men to whom both the letters which they call Ephesian & the invention of musical rhimes is re
ferred. It seems that when the Phenician letters ascribed to Cadmus were bought into Greece they were at the same time brought also into Phrygia & Crete by the Curetes who setled in those countries. & called Ephesian from the city Ephesus where they were first taught. [66]For the Curetes & particularly the Idæi Dactyli who found out iron, invented & taught many other things usefull to life & for their skill & knowledge & mystical actions were accounted wise men & conjurers. In Phrygia their mysteries were about Rhea called Cybele & Magna mater: in Crete they were about her son Iupiter. They represented that when Iupiter was born in Crete his mother Rhea caused him to be educated in a cave in mount Ida under their care & tuition & that they danced about him in armour with a great noise that his father Saturn might not hear him cry & when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father Saturn, & in memory of these things instituted their mysteries

And hence I conclude that the Iupiter of the Idæi Dactyli was Minos. For they came into Crete with Europa & her brother Atymaus just before Minos was born, attended on him all his life & went with him into Sicily & were left there at his death. Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of all Crete mentioned in history & on that account the Saturn & Iupiter of the kingdom. Minos was the most potent & famous of all the kings of Crete & so deserves the name of the Cretan Iupiter above them all. He was the greatest warrior & most potent of all the kings of Greece in his time & the first who gained the dominion of the seas & therefore deserves above them all to be painted with a scepter in one hand & a thunderbolt in the other. He was the Law maker of Crete & was so famous for justice as to be accounted the judge of hell & hence justice became the chracter of Iupiter. Europa being a Phenician would be apt to commit the care of her child to her countriemen the Curetes who came with her into the Island & by their instructions he became so wise & just. Mount Ida was excavated by art with many walks & <59v> intricate passages which they called the Labyrinth & there they might secure & educate the child. There they might dig minerals & make armour first of copper & then of iron & by the help of this armour after Minos was grown up they might overcome the native Cretans expell Asterius & set Minos on the throne, & then celebrate these actions by dancing in armour at the sacrifices. He was buried in the same cave where he was educated: for d[67] Pythagoras went down into the Idæan cave to see his sepulchre. Whence Lucian e[68] tells us that the Cretans do not only relate that Iupiter was born & buried among them but also shew his sepulchre. And Cicero f[69] in numbring three Iupiters saith that the third was the Cretan Iupiter Saturn's son whose sepulchre was shown in Crete & the Scholiast upon Callimachus g[70] lets us know that this was the sepulchre of Minos. By Saturn Cicero who was a Latine understands the Saturn of the Latines: for when Saturn was expelled his kingdom he fled from Crete by sea into Italy. In those days the Greeks called all kings Iupiters & all their bastard sons the sons of Iupiter & in that sense Minos was called the son of Iupiter. Minos was absolutely the greatest king of the Cretans & their lawgiver they worshipped him above all other kings & his worship under the name of Jupiter symbol remained after their other kings were forgotten. And because his father fled into Italy & there lay hid the Latines called hm Saturn & their country Saturnia Latium & themselves Latines. //About the same time, some other Greeks carried colonies into Italy as Oenotrus the younger son of Lycaon & Ianus who received Saturn into part of his kingdom. And this was the first memory of things done in Italy. For the reign of this Saturn was the golden age of the Latines.

The Saturn who according to the Latine Poets reigned in the golden age & was expelled by his father was the Saturn of the Latines, & therefore the Iupiter who reigned in the silver age was Minos. For Deucalion's flood which preceded the four ages, was, according to the Marble, about 10 years before the coming of Cadmus into Europe that is, just before the reign of Asterius or in the beginning thereof. And Apollonius tells us[71] that Chiron was begot of Phylira by Saturn in the golden age when Iupiter was educated among the Idæi Dactyli, [72]& that Talus who was the son of Minos & guarded the Island Crete in copper armour was the last man of the brazen age & died when the Argonauts in returning home arrived at that Island. These three ages therefore had a particular respect to the kingdom of Crete in the days of Asterius, Minos & the sons of Minos, & by consequence the fourth age was the age in which the grandsons of Minos flourished: for Hesiod tells us expresly[73] that the fourth age ended with the wars of Thebes & Troy.

Hesiod describes these four ages to be four generations of men every one of which ended when the men of the generation dropt into the earth & were deified & a new generation arose, & saith that he himself lived in the fift age which should be destroyed by Iupiter when the men of that age should grow hoary headed; & describing every age to be worse then the former he translates the name of the iron age from the fourth to his own as being the worst of the five. And since Chiron was born in the golden age & lived till the Argonautic expedition or a little longer, the silver age & copper age could not exceed the length of ordinary generations. {ffrom} the coming of Europa & Cadmus & the Curetes into Crete & Greece to the destruction of Troy was about 134 years which being divided into four equal ages allows about 33 or 34 years to an age or an hundred years to three ages & of this length were the two first ages together extending to the death of Minos the third age extending fom the death of Minos to the end of the Argonautic expedition & the fourth extending from thence to the taking of Troy. I begin these ages with the coming of the Idæi Dactyli into Crete because by what has been said above that seems to be a parable {feigned} by them in Crete in honour of their Iupiter.

In the first of these four ages men lived on roots, hearbs, berries apples, peares, acorns & & other spontaneus fruits of the earth without the labour of plowing & sowing. In the second the Greeks began to plow & sow & make bread & grow potent at <60r> sea & by the invention of iron to multiply arts. In the third they grew more warlike but used armour & weapons & utensils of copper, the use of iron, as Hesiod lets us know, being not yet spread abroad. In the end of the third & beginning of the fourth they invented the constellations & built a long ship & began to make long voyages at sea. In the fourth they increased their riches in metalls, improved navigation & grew more injurious & violent then before. And these are the characters of the four ages according to the Poets.

Before the first age men worshipped the supreme Iove. In the end of the first age, out of flattery, they began to call all kings by the name of Iupiters, & continued to do so till the beginning of the third: whence Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus is accounted the first woman & Alcmena the last with whom Iupiter lay. In this interval therefore we are to look for the reign of Iupiter & the silver age.

The people of Elis in giving an account of their own originals say [74]that Saturn reigned first in the kingdom of heaven & that the men who were called the golden age built a temple to him in Olympia, & that his wife Rhea when Iupiter was born committed the custody of the child to the Idæi Dactyli otherwise called Curetes & that five of these Idæi Dactyli (whose names were Hercules, Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasius & Idas{)} coming afterwards from Ida a mountain in Crete into Elis, there instituted the game of racing once in four years, which was the original of the Olympic games. The Iupiter of the Idæi dactyli & the Parable of the reign of Saturn & Iupiter in the golden & silver ages was brought by them into Greece & being formed by them commenced with their first coming into Crete.

And because they brought the celebration of the Olympic games into Greece, it may be concluded that they came from Phœnicia. For those games were celebrated at Tyre in honour of the Tyrian Hercules before the conquest of Phœnicia by the Greeks

And since those games were celebrated at the end of every four years & the space of eight years was the a[75] Annus magnus of Cadmus & b[76] Minos & was used c[77] in many religions of Greece as in celebrating the Ludi Pythici at Delphos we may reccon that the Octaeteris & Tetraeteris were brought from Phœnicia into Crete & Greece by the Curetes. The Dieteris was soon after brought into Greece by the Egyptians in celebrating the Bacchinalia. <60v>

The Greeks kept their monthly festivals according to the course of the Moon & their annual r[79] festivals according to the season of the year, the same festival being always kept at the same season. ffor several of their festivals related to the seasons of plowing & sowing, first fruits & harvest, the gathering of ripe fruits & the vintage, & for knowing upon what days of the year they were to keep their annual festivals, a calendar was necessary. [80] Now the ancient Calendar year conteined twelve months & every Calendar month 30 days, so that there were 360 days in the Calendar year. For they recconned 30 days to a Lunary month & 12 Lunary months to a year, & this is to be understood only of their Calendar Months & Calendar years. And from this form of the year it came to pass that the Athenians whose year was Lunisolar erected 30 statues to Demetrius Phalereus according to the number of days in their year, & that the Zodiac was divided into twelve signes answering to the months & every signe into 30 equal parts answering to the days, so that this Calendar year is as old as the division of a circle into 360 degrees In keeping an account of time they they recconed by the Calendar months when the Moon did not appear as in the time of Noahs flood a[81] but in fair weather dropt a day or two in the Calendar month too long for the course of the Moon & added a month to the year as often as they found 12 months too short for the return of the seasons, & this was b[82] every other year except once in eight years. For they added c but three Lunary months in eight years. ffrom the adding a month every other year came the Dieteris. ffrom the omitting the additional month once in eight years came the Octaeteris & the mean between these was the Tetraeteris. And this I take to be the constitution of the ancient Luni-solar year of the Egyptians Phœnicians Greeks & Latines before the Greek Astronomers began to alter it. ffor the ancient Lunisolar year of the Latines as well as that of the Greeks e[83] consisted of 360 days & f[84] had a month added every other year, .

<61r>

Chap
The Monarchy of Egypt at Memphys.

Herodotus & Diodorus tell us – – – – – for the use of the temples, & was therefore called the second Mercury

Menes reigning next after the Gods & semi-gods & being the sucessor of Orus, lived in the times of the Argonautick expedition & Trojan war & so was contemporary to Memnon. For Memnon being feigned by the Greeks to be the son of Tithonus, was born soon after Tithonus was carried captive into Egypt by Sesostris & being said by the Greeks to come from Susa to Troy {&} to be {there} slain by Achilles in the last year of the Trojan war, he reigned at Susa in the time of that war. And indeed the names Menes, & Memnon are but several names of one & the same king corruptly formed by the Greeks from his Egyptian name Amenoph. From Amenophor (with the Greek termination) Amenophis, were formed Menoph, Moph, Noph, Menphis Memphis, the names of his royal city, & Menes, Memnon his own names. The name Menes is by Eratosthenes interpreted Διόνιος Iovius & therefore came from the word Ammon or Amenoph the Egyptian name of Iupiter. This king is also called Amenephthes by Eusebius, Imandes, Ismandes Isimander by Strabo, Osimandes by Hecatæus, Osimandues & Mendes by Diodorus.

Iosephus tells us out of Manetho that this Amenophis was a contemplator of the Gods as was Orus a former king – – – – – the mistake that Osursiphus was Moses, & it will amount to this, that when the army of Zerah the Ethiopian was beaten at Mareseh by the Iews, the remainder of the shepherds in the lower Egypt (who being originally Phenicians were inclined to the leprousy) revolted from the Ethiopians, were forced by them to retire to Pelusium, called in the victorious Iews to their assistance & under the conduct Of Osarsiphus forced the Ethiopian army then commanded by Amenophis, to retire to Memphis, & that after Amenophis had fortified that pass, & built a Palace there for his Queen & son he left them there & went up into Thebais & Ethiopia {w}here he reigned 13 years. That India or some part thereof being in subjection to Egypt he sent for a body of Ethiopians from thence to strengthen him self & gave them seats above Egypt: for Eusebius tells us, sub Amenophe Æthiopes ab Indo flumine consurgentes juxta Ægyptum consederunt. And that after 13 years he returned with what force he & his young son Ramesses could make & conquered Osarsiphus & drove out the Iews with as many of the shepherds as were in arms against him. And to this action Ramesses seems to relate when he inscribed on his Obelisk (as Hermapion interpreted it) that he had saved Egypt by expelling forreiners.

Manetho saith that the shepherds obteined Egypt 511 years. If 5 or 6 years may be allowed between the victory of Asa & the retiring of Amenophis into Ethiopia for opposing the shepherds & Iews under Osarsiphus & for building & fortifying Memphis & 13 years more till the expulsion of the shepherds & Iews, their expulsion will be about the 33th year of Asa. Count backwards 511 years <61v> and – – – – – by Ioshuah.

Amenophis having recovered – – – – – regulation of the year.

Before men began by astronomical observations to reduce the courses of the sun & Moon to a rule they kept time only by the returns of the Moon & seasons of the year, & this made the years of nations at first to be Lunisolar. But after they began to keep festivals upon certain days of the month & to distinguish days into fasti & nefasti, & by consequence to make Calendars for knowing what those days were, it became necessary to reduce the Calendar year to some certain form & this could not be done without putting a certain number of days for a month & a certain number of months for a year. And hence they framed a Kalendar year of 30 days to a month & 12 months to a year, reserving to the Priests of every nation a liberty of correcting this year by the courses of the sun & Moon so as to omit a day in the month whenever they found 30 days too long for the course of the Moon or to add a month to the year whenever they found 12 months too short for the return of the seasons of the year. And this Kalendar year seems to have occasioned the division of the Zodiac into 12 signes & of every signe into 30 degrees. Then finding by long observation that there were three months to be added in every eight years, they made the years to consist of 12 & 13 Lunary months alternately, omitting the intercalary month once in eight years & thence came the Octaeteris teraeteris & dieteris of the ancients. Afterwards the Greeks found out exacter rules of intercaling . But the Luni-solar years consisting of no certain number of days & so being unfit for Astronomical uses, the Egyptians after they began to apply themselves to Astronomy, tryed to reduce the year to certain length & for that end first took the Calendar year of 360 days, but soon finding that too short, they added five days to the end of it & so composed a year of 12 Kalendar months & five days, & the Romans added a day more once in four years to make this year answer more exactly to the course of the Sun.

For the Israelites brought a Lunisolar year out of Egypt, & Ammon used this year as above, but in the holy Isle of Nile neare Phylas was a sepulchre built to Osiris religiously reverenced by all the Priests of Egypt wherein they laid up 360 bowles – – – time by such a year. And the golden border or circle in the tumb of Memnon being divided into 365 days with the risings & settings of the stars in every day shews that they added 5 days to the 360 either in his reign or upon his death or consecration. For the Egyptians dedicated those five days to Osiris, Isis, Orus, Typhon & Nephthe the wife of Typhon & therefore these days were added to the year after the reign of those five Kings & Queens.

Tis agreed that this regulation of the year was first made by the Egyptians. So Herodotus: The Egyptians – – – – & 12 months & 5 days to a year.

The Lunisolar year of the Israelites in Egypt & by consequence of the Egyptians began in Autumn If upon forming a new year they began it {in} Spring, as Moses did the new year of the Iews, the Æra thereof will commence about the time that Amenophis died. For this Ægyptian year was the same with the year of Nabonassar <62r> and began always on the same day, & therefore in the year of the Iulian Period 3821, & for three years after, it began on the third of April which was then the first day after the vernal Equinox according to the suns mean motion, & that year of the Iulian Period was 55 years after the victory of Asa over the Ethiopians, & so long Amenophis might reign. For his reign in Ethiopia – – – – – reigned 62 years.

Censorinus tells us: Novissime Arminon ad tridecim menses & dies quinque annum Ægyptium produxisse. Here 13 months should be 12 (as Scaliger & Salmasius note) and Arminon should be Ammonem or Amenoph, that is Memnonem.

Next after Amenophis reigned his son Ramesses Rameses or Rhampses above mentioned. He is called Rhampsinitus by Herodotus & Remphis by Diodorus, & Pliny tells us that in his reign Troy was taken, – – – – of a thousand thousand

Pliny tells us that the first Obelisk was made by Mires who reigned in Heliopolis, & afterwards other kings – – – – – – – – one of 80.

Between Osimanduas & Miris (i.e. Memnon & Mœris) Diodorus places one Vchoreus – – – – – – By these works I take Vchoreus to be either Memnon himself or the successor of his son Ramesses.

Among the stupendious works of the kings of Egypt is to be recconed that vast lake of Mœris with two Pyramids – – – – – – – added porticos. He is called – – – – mistakes.

In the Canons, Suphis the founder – – – – of state.

The three great Pyramids – – – – long staff.

After these kings Gaephachthus & his son Boccharis reigned successively at Memphys – – – – – and afterwards by the Assyrians.

Sabacon invaded Egypt about the time that the Æra of Nabonassar began, & its probable that that Æra was set on foot by some Egyptians who fled from Sabacon. For that year is one & the same with the Egyptian & Astrology invented a little before by Nicepsos, was propagated to Babylon with that year & put the Chaldeans upon observing the heavens.

The reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt according to Herodotus – – – – Nabonassar as above.

The dominion of the Assyrians over Egypt lasted two or three years. Diodorus calls it an anarchy of two years. Isaias represents it by going naked & barefoot thee years. The Lord said, Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked & barefoot three years for a sign & wonder upon Egypt & upon Ethiopia: so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners & the Ethiopians captives young & old naked & barefoot Isa. 20.3. And now the Monarchy of Assyria was in its height for in the end of these three years upon a great incursion first of the Cyrreneans & & then of the Scythians into Asia several nations fell off from the Assyrians, Manasses returned from captivity & twelve Princes of Egypt by consent shared that kingdom amongst themselves & reigned 15 years. One of these Princes – – – – – – – became King of Egypt. He beseiged Azot – – – – – ever since in servitude.

In the 12 year of Darius Nothus the Egyptians revolted from the Persians & continued <62v> under their own kings Amyrtæus, Nepherites, Achoris, Psammites, Nepherites II, Nectarebis, Tyos, Nectanebos untill Artaxerxes Ochus king of Persia in the 14th year of his reign conquered the last of them & reduced Egypt to obedience. At that time Artaxerxes carried away the records

The Egyptians in contending with other nations about their antiquities have made their monarchy many thousands of years older then the truth. And Manetho who wrote after Artaxerxes Ochus had carried away the records of the Egyptians, has given us the corruptest account of it. ffor he has set down many Dynasties of kings succeeding Menes, all which take up above five thousand years, & yet all his Dynasties began after the days of Moses.

The first & second Dynasties of Manetho – – – – – to make their nation look ancient.

for which end several kings who reigned after Sesostris are in the Dynasties of Manetho set before him & several names of the same king & even several corruptions of the same name are set down for several kings. Osiris is the same king with Sesostris & Menes reigned after Sesostris but in the Dynasties of Manetho Osiris & Menes reigned above 2000 year

<63r>

Of the Empire of Egypt.

When Ioshua drove out the Canaanites, great multitudes of them fled into Egypt & through Egypt in Libya & Afric & two pillars erected by them in Afric remained there till the days of Procopius with this inscription: We are Canaanites & flee from the face of Ioshua the robber. Was not the kingdom of the sheppherds in Egypt erected by these Canaanites?

At length the Coptites, so called from the city Coptus, growing potent came down from the upper Ægypt & drave out the shepherds. in the days of Eli & Samuel, by which means the armies of the Philistims became exceeding numerous & Greece received also some colonies from Egypt & David afterwards driving out the Philistims Edomites & Syrians made new colonies of Phœnicians fly into Greece & Afric. Ammon in the reign of Solomon conquered Libya & all Ammonia Sesak prepared a fleet of long ships with sails in the red sea & another in the mediterranean & in his fathers lifetime conquered Ethiopia & Troglodytica & afterwards went as far westward as the straits mouth, & in the 5t year of Rehoboam came out of Egypt with a great army & conquered all the East as far as India & past through Asia minor into Thrace

setting up pillars in all his conquests & these conquests God foretold by the prophet Shemajah, 2 Chron. 12.8.

When Sesak had spent 9 years in making these conquests he returned back into Egypt with great multitudes of captives which he employed in cutting channels from the Nile to all the great cities of Egypt, raising the grownd of the cities with the earth cut out of the channels & rebuilding the temples & particularly he rebuilt the City Thebes the seate of his father, calling it No-Ammon that is, the city of Ammon. And when he had spent about 11 years in these works Egypt & Libya were invaded & conquered by the Ethiopians. And then Zerah the Ethiopian came out with an army of a thousand thousand Ethiopians & Lybians. Their way was through Egypt & therefor Egypt was now subject to Zerah. Asa king of Iudah during the intestine broiles of Egypt had respite ten years in which time he built the fenced cities of Iudah & got up an army of 580000 men with which in the 15th year of his reign he met & routed Zerah so that Zerah could not recover himself. And thus the great Empire erected by Ammon & Sesac fell. But the Ethiopians notwithstanding continued to reign over Ægypt & <63v> in the reign of Amenophes or Memnon (which I take to be the son of Zerah) built Memphis making it the metropolis of their kingdom. From him the city had its name Menoph & corruptly Moph or Noph & in the Greek idiom Memphis. The Greeks feigned that x-diamond symbol < insertion from the left margin of f 63v > x-diamond symbol he was the son of Tithonus the brother of Laomedon & therefore he was born soon after Tithonus was carried captive into Egypt & Egypt was invaded by the Ethiopians, that is soon after the {5}t year of Asa. ffor Memnon was an Ethiopian. < text from f 63v resumes > So when David had conquered Syria Hadad       who founded a new kingdom at Damascus was ever after worshipped by the Syrians as their God.

It was the custome of the nations in those days to consecrate & worship their dead kings. The kings of cities were worshipped by the cities & the kings of Nations by the nations. Whence the largeness of their dominion may be conjectured by the extent of their worship. So from the extent of the worship of Ammon it seems probable to me that he subdued not only Libya & all Ammonia but also Ethiopia & the Indians above Egypt & Arabia fælix.

Quamvis Æthiopum populis Arabumque beatis

Gentibus atque Indis unus sit Iupiter Ammon. Lucian.

From his conquering Libya a country abounding in sheep they painted him with ramms horns. The eldest son of Iupiter was Hercules. And by the pillars which Sesostris set up in all his conquests he seems to be the great Egyptian Hercules. The several conquered nations worshipped him by several names. The Egyptians called him Osiris, the Arabians Bacchus, the Chaldeans & Assyrians Belus, the Thracians Mars, the Greeks Ægyptus & (if I mistake not) the Phœnicians Hercules

The Greeks wrote only in verse till the days of the seven wise men & when they began to write history in prose they recconed time only by the generations of men, But at length Chronologers counting the generations one with another to be the third part of an hundred years , & making no difference between the generations of men & the reigns of kings, conjectured at the years in which things were done & the later Chronologers following the conjectures of the earlier they have framed the Chronology now extant: whereas generations by the eldest sons make but about 27 years a piece & the reigns of king one with another make but about 18 or 20 years a piece. Recconing therefore the 4 generations in the family of Hercules till the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus at about 27 years a piece & the reigns of kings in the two races of the kings of the Lacedæmonians & the race of the kings of Corinth at about 19 years a piece till the middle of the reign of Darius Hystaspis when the Chronology of the Greeks began to be certain, the Argonautic expeSalt-of-Antimony symbol < insertion from f 64r > in which Hercules was in his vigour

Salt-of-Antimony symbol And at this rate the four generations in the family of Hercules from the Argonautick expedition to the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus will take up about 108 years, & the                 reigns of kings in each of the two races of the kings of the Lacedemonians & in the race of the kings of Corinth be shortned in the proportion of 33mathML formula to 19 between the return of Heraclides & the battel at Marathon when the Chronology of the Greeks began to be ascertained by that of the Persians that interval of time will take up about 348 years more, & so place the Argonautic expedition upon the middle of the reign of Asa & the Trojan war upon the middle of the reign of Iehosaphat. ffor the Trojan war was one generation later then the Argonautic expedition. And the expedition of Sesostris celebrated by the Greeks being one generation older then that of the Argonauts will fall in with that of Sesak mentioned in Scripture.

Herodotus the oldest historian of the Greeks affirms that Homer & Hesiod were not above 400 years before himself. Homer was the scholar of Demodocus who sung to the woers of Penelope the wife of Vlysses. Hesiod tells us that he lived in the age next after the taking of Troy, which age would end when the men then alive grew grey headed & dropt into the grave. And by this recconing the Trojan war could not be above 460 or 470 years before the age of Herodotus & so will fall in with the reign of Iehosaphat as above.

The Greeks wrote only in verse till the days of the 7 wise men & when they began to write history in prose, they recconed time only by generations of men & after the days of Herodotus they began by degrees to conjecture at numbers of years, & at length framed the Chronology now extant by the years of the Olympiads. This Chronology since the invasion of Greece by the persians & the battel of Marathon is ascertained by the chronology of the Persians but before the times of the Persian Empire there is nothing certain but the number of genealogies & of the kings which reigned in the several cities of Greece.

In framing the Chronology now extant the Greeks have recconed the ancient genealogies & the reigns of kings at about 34 years a piece one with another whereas genealogies by the eldest sons take up but about 27 years a piece & the reigns of kings but about 18 or 20 years apiece one with another according to the course of Nature. Hence it comes to pass that the Greeks have made the times of the expedition of Sesostris, the Argonautic expedition & the Trojan war much too ancient. Let the genealogies by the eldest sons be recconed at about 27 years apiece & the reigns of kings at about 18 or 20 years a piece & 3 the expedition of Sesostris with that of Sesac, & the 2 the Argonautic expedition with the fall of the Empire of Egypt & 1 the Trojan war will fall in with the reign of Memnon, 4 the colonies of Phenicians in the days of Cecrops & Lelex with the flight of the shepherds in Egypt from the Cophtites.

As the Greeks called Moph Memphis so they called Sesach Sesonchosis &            tells us that Sesonchosis left a colony of Egyptians at Colchos under Ætes with Geographical tables of his conquests. And therefore the Expedition of Sesach was not above one generation before the Argonautic expedition. The ship Argo was built after the pattern of the long ship in which Danaus fled with his daughters from Egypt into Greece &          the son of Amymone one of his daughters was an Argonaute & Danaus fled from his brother Sesostris when Sesostris returned into Egypt & Iosephus tells us that what the Greeks relate of Sesostris agrees with the history of Sesack.

The records of Carthage fell into the hands of the Romans & Solinus tells us that Carthage stood 737 years & Virgil that Teucer the son of Telamon & Hesione after the taking of Troy came to Cyprus when Belus the father of Dido the foundress of Carthage was conquering that Island. Therefore Troy was taken a little before the reign of Pigmaleon the Brother of Dido & by consequence in the reign of Iehosaphat as < text from f 63v resumes > the Sesostris of the Greeks who was one generation oldern then the Argonautic expedition, will fall in with the Sesak mentioned in the Scriptures & the Trojan war which was one generation later then the Argonautic expedition will fall in with the reign of Memnon; which synchronism gave occasion to the story of the Greeks that Memnon came to the Trojan war; & the coming of            from the Trojan war to the Island Cyprus will just precede the reign of Pigmaleon the brother of Dido, as it ought to do according to Virgil; & Tithonus the brother of Priam will be carried captive into Thebais at that time when Sesostris returned into Egypt with a great multitude of captives; which might give occasion to the Greeks to fable that he was the father of Memnon And the flight of Danaus with his daughters from his brother Ægyptus will fall in with the return of Sesac into Egypt as it ought to do: ffor          the son of Amymone the daughter of Danaus was one of the Argonauts. And the coming of Cecrops, Lelex & some others with colonies from Egypt into Greece will fall in with the expulsion of the shepherds by the Coptites. And the coming of many colonies of Phœnicians into Greece & Libya in the days of Cadmus will fall in with the flight of the nations from David. And the Argonautic expedition will be synchronal to the fall of the empire of Egypt, & might be an embassy sent by the Greeks to all the nations upon the sea coasts to promote their falling off from Egypt. And the Egyptian Thebes will be in its prime in the days of Homer, & the city Memphys not then grown considerable enough to be celebrated by him nor its Pyramids or labyrinth yet built.

If these things be so, they give some light to the sacred history & confirm it but whether they be so or not I leave to be examined.

<65r>

In the religion propagated with mankind from Noah & his sons men worshipped one God with prayers & praises & giving of thanks accompanied with significant ceremonies, such as were sacrifices expressing praise & thanksgiving for benefits received, or prayer for pardon of offenses & other benefits desired. And as Abraham when he went to sacrifice his son Isaac & Moses in the Wilderness & Æneas in his voyage ‡ < insertion from lower down f 65r > ‡ voyage from Troy & the ancient kings of Persia in their Progresses < text from f 65r resumes > carried with them the sacred fire & Nadab & Abihu were slain for offering strange fire which God commanded them not so it is to be conceived that upon the first peopling of the earth every family in travelling from place to place carried with them a sacred fire for sacrifices, the father of the family being as well Priest as king. Whence it became the custome of all nations to keep perpetual fires in their sacred places. The Iews did it in their Temple, the Egyptians & ✝ ✝ Chaldeans in theirs, the Persians in their Pyrethra, & the cities of the Greeks & Latines in their Prytanies & Vestal Temples. The sacrifices of the first nations were vegetables fit for food & clean beasts & birds. ffor the distinction of Beasts into clean & unclean was as old as the days of Noah. Of vegetables the first fruits & tenths were gods lot & of animals the first born. And this seems to have {been} the religion of the world before the rise of Idolatry. But after cities began to unite into kingdoms, the people began to flatter their kings & at length to carry on the flattery to them after death by supposing that their souls survived & resided about their graves & sepulchres & gravestones & could do men good & hurt & on that account they began to invoke them & build Altars to them & worshipp them with oblations & sacrifices & at length to worship the stones themselves as inhabited by these feigned Deities. And at length when men grew skilful in carving & casting figures, they made the images of the kings & building sepulchres in theform of Temples, set up the Images in the Temples & worshipped them as inhabited by the souls of the dead kings.

<66v>

Before the times of these four ages, the nations of Egypt Syria & Mesopotamia worshipped their kings & benefactors. The Egyptians worshipped theirs in the shapes of Birds Beasts & ffishes as appears by the prohibition in the 4th Commandment. The Syrians of Mesopotamia had their Images Teraphims or household Gods before Abraham went from thence Gen 31 & Ios 24.14, 15 The Midianites had their Baal Peor, The Philistims their Dagon, the Zidonians their Asteroth, the Ammonites their Moloch & Milcom, the Moabites their Chemosh, & the several nations of Canaan their several Baals. But these Gods had not yet spread into Europe. As they were kings of small kingdoms so their worship was of small extent. & the Dij magni majorum gentium were not yet in being. In the times of the four Ages the Phœnicians brought Idolatry into Europe & the Egyptians by their conquests spread the worship of the Egyptian Gods into all their conquests. And about thtat time Amon & his children applying themselves to Astronomy & dividing the Zodiak into 12 signes & 360 degrees & froming the Constellations & twelve Asterisms of the Zodiak & naming them & the sun Moon & Planets after the kings & great men of Egypt, they set on foot the worship of their kings & great men in the Planets, signes & Constellations, as if the souls of those men resided in the Stars & animated them. So they feigned that souls of the daughters of Atlas resided in the Pleiades & Hyades, the souls of Orus & Bubaste or Apollo & Diana in the Sun & Moon, the souls of Ammon & his father in the Planets Iupiter & Saturn those of Hercules Venus & Mercury in the Planets of Mars Venus & Mercury & so of the rest: & according to the temper & disposition of the men they ascribed qualities to the stars. Orion is a tempestuous constellation becuase the man was turbulent, the Hyades signify rain because the weomen died weeping, one of the Pleiades or seven stars is a dull one because the woman married a mortal, the Planet of Saturn is malevolent because the old man was morose, that of Iupiter bengne because Ammon was prosperous & auspicious to the Egyptians that of Mars governs war & valour & that of Venus love because the man was a warrior & the woman amorous & that of Mercury rules Merchandise, Embassies, Thefts the high ways & Arts & Sciences because of the qualifications & actions of the man. At first the Egyptians had but eight celestial Gods, seven of which were the seven Planets , but soon afterwards adding the four Elements they made up the number 12. Without the Elements they recconed the Planets in this order Saturn, Iupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus Mercury Luna, & with the Elements in this; Saturn, Iupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury Sol, Luna, Ignis Aer, Aqua, Terra, putting the sun always in the middle & concealing the earth. The twelve signes they dedicated to the twelve Gods making them their houses. Whence Homer[86] makes all the celestial Gods go to feast with the Ethiopians & after 12 days to return to heaven & sleep in their several houses built for them by Vulcan. And Herodotus says that the Greeks had the 12 Gods from the Egyptians & others that Æneas brought them from Troy into Italy.

<67r>

driven out by the Cophtites or inhabitants of Thebais under the {illeg} {Mephres} or Mephamuthosis & Thmosis Thomotis Amosis or Ammon

Whence Pliny tells us: Ægyptiorum bellis attrita est Æthiopia vicissi{illeg} peritando serviendoque clara et potens usque ad Trojana bella Memnone regnante. Plin l. 6. c. 29. Memnon or Amenophis built Memphis calling it by his own name & there founded the magnificent temple of Vulcan, & his successors Rampses, Vchoreus, Mœris, Suphis, Cephren Mycerinus, Asychis, Gnephactus, & Boccharis did other great works in Memphis Rampses added the western portico of the temple of Vulcan, Vchoreus fortified Memphys & adorned it with palaces whereby it became the seat of the future kings. Mœris built the northern portico of the temple of Vulcan & made the great lake of Mœris with two large pyramids in it & a Labyrinth neare it. Suphis Cephrene & Mycerinus followed his example in building pyramids. & Asychis built the very beautiful eastern portico of the temple of Vulcan In his days Egypt became divided into several kingdoms. Gnephactus & Boccharis succeeded him at Memphis. Stephanates Nicepsos & Nechus reigned successively at Sais, & others reigned at Tanes or Zoan. In the days of Boccharis & Nechus Ægypt was again subdued by the Æthiopians under Sabacon. . . . . . . till the death of Assarhadon. ffor Assarhadon invaded Ægypt about three years before his death.

<68r>

Strabo tells us that Phidon was the tenth from Temenus, not the tenth king, for between Cisus & Phidon they reigned not, but the tenth by generation from father to son including Temenus If 27 years be recconed to a generation by the eldest sons, the the nine intervals will amount to 243 years which being subducted from the 49th Olympiad in which Phidon flourished they will place the return of the Heraclides about fifty years before the beginning of the Olympiads as above. But the artificial Chronologers reccon about 518 years from the return of the Heraclides to the 49th Olympiad & account Phidon the seventh from Temenus, which is after the rate of 86 years to a generation & therefore not to be admitted.

The artificial Chronologers – – –

Macrisi an Arabian historian cited by Vansleb represents that Ischemun, Atrib, Sa & Coptus, four sons of Mizraim reigned over four equal parts of Egypt: Coptus over the upper part of Egypt from Isvan (or Siene) to the City Coptus, Ischemun over all the country below Coptus to the city Menuf (or Memphis, Atrib over the lower Ægypt now called Delta, & Sa over the continent of Libya between the Delta & Barbary. And that Coptus overcame all his brethren & Chose the city Menuf or Memphis for his royal seat, & that from him the race of the ancient Egyptians have been ever since called Coptites, & their country Ægypt or the land of the Coptites the Greeks giving it that name by changing K into G. And that Coptus continued the royal seat of the kings of Egypt untill Nebuchadnezzar sackt it If by the four sons of Mizraim you understand not four single men but four nations sprung from Mizraim whose kings reigned over the aforesaid four regions, there may be much of truth in this history. The people of Coptus might reign over all the uppper Egypt from Isnan or Siene to Coptus & afterwards conquer the middle part of Egypt down from Coptus to Menuf or Memphis, & afterwards the lower Egypt expelling the Shepherds & lastly the people of Libya as far as Barbary & give the name of Coptites to all their conquests. And in the time of these warrs the Coptites might remove their royall seat to Thebes suppose in the reign of their king Ammon, thence calling that city No-Ammon, the people of Ammon; & in the reign of Menes or Amenophis they might remove their royal seat to Memphis thence calling that city Amenoph or Menuf, as above, & continue to reign in that city till first the Ethiopians under Sabacon, then the Assyrians under Asserhadon & lastly the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar invaded them. And the Greeks might give the name of Αἰα Κόφτος Ægypt to all the Kingdom of the Coptites & that of αἰα Θεοφι, Æthiopia & Thebais to the kingdom of Thebes before the Coptites conquered it. For Homer gives the name of Ethiopians to the inhabitants of Thebais above Coptus & that of Egyptians to the people below Thebais, as where he introduces Menelaus speaking thus to Telemachus,

– – – Κὰς Αἰγυπτίους ἐπαληθεὶς

Αἰθίοπας δ᾽ ἐκόμην.

Per Ægyptios vagatus

Æthiopes adij –

i.e. vini in Thebaida. For Homer saith that Menelaus came to Thebas. And the Temple & speaking statue of Memnon which was in Thebais, is placed by Philostratus in Æthiopia

<68v>

– – of the artificial Chronology of the Greeks.

The kingdom of Macedon was founded by Caranus & Perdiccas who being of the race of Temenus king of Argos fled from Argos in the reign of Phidon the brother of Caranus. Temenus entred Peloponnesus with the Heraclides & after him & his son Cysus the kingdom of Argos ceased & became divided amongst the posterity of Temenus untill Phidon reunited it, expelling his kindred. He grew potent, appointed weights & measures in Peloponnesus, & removing the Eleans presided in the Olympic games but was soon after subdued by the Eleans & Spartans Herodotus & Thucydides reccon Perdiccas the first king of Macedon Later writers as Livy Pausanias, Suidas make Caranus the first king Iustin calls Perdiccas the successor of Caranus & Solinus saith that Perdiccas succeeded Caranus & was the first that obteined the name of king. Its probable that Caranus & Perdiccas were contemporaries & fled at the same time from Argos & at first erected small principalities which after the death of Caranus became one under Perdiccas. Herodotus tells us that after Perdiccas reigned Aræus (or Argæus) Philip Aeropus, Alcetas, Amyntas, & Alexander. Alexander was contemporary to Xerxes & after Alexander reigned Perdiccas; & Pausanias tells us that there were eight kings before Archelaus the son of Perdiccas. Now by recconing above 40 years apiece to these kings Chronologers have made Caranus older then the Olympiads. Whereas if we should reccon their reigns at about 18 or 20 years a piece, the first seven reigns counted backward from the death of Xerxes will place the beginning of the kingdom of Macedon under Perdiccas & Caranus, upon the 45 Olympiad or thereabouts. It could not be older because Leocides the son of Phidon, & Megacle the son of Alcmæon an Athenian at one & the same time courted Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes king of Sicyon (as Herodotus tells us) & the Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Alcmæon & Clisthenes & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army in their war against Cyrrha & the Cyrrhæans were conquered an. 2 Olymp. 47, according to the Marbles. ② [87]This Alcmæon enterteined & conducted the messengers which Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos & for so doing was sent for by Crœsus & rewarded with much riches. ① Phidon therefore & his brother Caranus were contemporary to Alcmæon, & all of them to Clisthenes & Solon. Megacles the son of Alcmæon married Agarista, & Pisistratus when he obteined the tyranny married the daughter of Megacles, & Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista expelled the sons of Pisistratus An. 1 Olymp 67, according to the marble. And by all these circumstances, Phidon & Caranus flourished about the 48th or 50th Olympiad –

Iphitus presided both in the Temple – – – – – – right of presiding in the games.

<69r>

480 years from the coming out of Mesopotamia | Egypt to the building of the Temple

A morte
Solomonis
0Solomon, reigns 40 years 1 King 11.42
0Rehoboam 17. 1 King 14.21. 2 Chron. 13.1
17Abijah 3. 1 King. 15.2. 2 Chron. 13.2
20Asa 41 1 King. 15.10 2 Chron. 16.13
61Iehosaphat 25. 1 King 22.42. 2 Chron 20.31
86Iehoram 8. 2 King. 8.17. 2 Chron. 21.5, 20.
94Ahziah 1. 2 King. 8. 26. 2 Chron. 22.2.
95Athaliah
0Athalia 6mathML formula 2 King. 11.3, 4. 2 Chr. 22.12
6mathML formulaIehoash 40 2 King. 12.1. 2 Chr. 24.1
46mathML formulaAmaziah 29. 2 King. 14.2. 2 Chron. 25.2
75mathML formulaAzariah 52. 2 King 15.2. 2 Chr. 26.3
127mathML formulaIotham 16. 2 King 15.33 2 Chr. 27.1
143mathML formulaAhaz 16. 2 King. 16.2 2 Chr. 28.1
159mathML formulaHezekiah 29. 2 King. 18.2. 2 Chr. 29.1
188mathML formulaManasseh 55. 2 King 21.1. 2 Chr. 33.1
243mathML formulaAmon. 2. 2 King. 22.19. 2 Chr. 33.21
245mathML formulaIosiah 31. 2 King. 22.1 2 Chr. 34.1.
276
0Ieroboam 22 years 1 King. 14.20
22Nadab. 2 years 1 King. 15.25
24Baasha 24. 1 King 15.33
48Elah 2. 1 King. 16.8.
50Zimri 7 days. 1 King. 16.15. Tibni 5 Omri 6
50Omri 12. 1 King. 16.23
62Ahab 22. 1 King. 16.29
84Ahaziah 2. 1 King. 22.51.
86Iehoram 12. 2 King. 3.1.
98Iehu
0Iehu 28 2 King. 10.26.
28Iehoadaz 17. 2 King. 13.1
45Iehoash 16. 2 King 13.10
61Ieroboam 41 2 King 14.23
102Zecharaiah 6 months. 2 King. 15.8
102mathML formulaShallum 1 month 2 King. 15.13
102mathML formulaMenahem 10 2 King. 15.17
112mathML formulaPekahiah 2 2 King. 15.23
114mathML formulaPekah 20. 2 King. 15 27
134mathML formulaHoshea 9
143mathML formula

Ieroboam began in the 15th year of Amaziah 2 King. 14.23

Azariah began in the 27th of Ieroboam. 2 King. 15.1.

Zechariah began in the 38th of Azariah. 2 King. 15.8

Shallum began in the 39th of Vzziah or Azariah 2 King 15.13

Menahem began in the 39th of Azariah 2 King 15.17

Pekaiah began in the 50 of Azariah 2 King 15.23

Pekah began in the 52th of Azariah. 2 King 15.27

Iotham began in the 2d year of Pekah 2 King. 15.32

Ahaz began in the 17th year of Pekah. 2 King. 16.1

Hoshea began in the 12th of Azaz. 2 King 17.1

Hezekiah began in the 3d of Hoshea 2 King. 18.1

Abijam began in the 18th of Ieroboam 1 King 15.1

Asa began in the 20th of Ieroboam. 1 King. 15.9

Nadab began in the 2d year of Asa 1 King. 15.25

Baasha began in the 3 year of Asa 1 Kin 15.33

Elah began in the 26t of Asa 1 King. 16.8

Zimri began in the 27 of Asa 1 King. 16.10, 15

Omri reigned after Tibni in 31th of Asa 1 King. 16.23

Ahab reigned in the 38th of Asa 1 King. 16.29

Iehosaphat reigned in the 4th year of Ahab 1 King 22.41.

Ahaziah began in the 17th of Iehosaphat 1 King. 22.51.

Iehoram began in the 2d year of Iehoram son of Iehos. 2 King 1.17

Iehoram son of Ahab in 18th of Iehosaphat. 2 King. 3.1.

Iehoram son of Iosaphat began in 5t of Ioram son of Ahab. 2 King 8.16.

Rehoboam 17mathML formula

Abija 2mathML formula

Nadab 1mathML formula

Baasha 23mathML formula

Elah 1mathML formula

Omri 5mathML formula + 6mathML formula

<69v> [Editorial Note 28]

# And he tells us that from their first king (Menes) to Se{th}on, the Priests recconed 341 kings, So that according to their recconing, there were eleven kings from Sesostris to Sethon. To which if Psammiticus & his five su{ccessors} be added there will be 17 successive kings of Egypt from Sesostris to the invasion of Egypt by Cambyses, according to the recconing of the Priests of Egypt, 19 from Amosis who expelled the shepherds & thereby reduced all Egypt into one Monarchy. The same Priests of Egypt recconed to Herodotus from the reign of Pul to that of Amasis 15000 years & from that of Hercules to that of Amasis 17000 years & in recconing 341 generations from Menes to Sethon Herodotus put three generations equal to an hundred years, at which rate Menes will have reigned above 11300 years before Sethon repulsed Sennacherib & above 11500 years before Cambyses conquered Egypt. But we meddle not with the state of Egypt before it was reduced into a monarchy. Its probable that when the memory of the many little kingdoms into which Egypt (like all other nations) was at first divided began to be lost they collated into one list the names of as many of the old kings as they could meet with in the Archives of the head cities of those little kingdoms & perhaps inserted into the list the names of some famous men who reigned not, & repeated the names of some of the kings with a little variation till they had a list of 330 kings who reigned before Sesostris but did nothing memorable except Nitocris & Mœris & then in honour of their Gods prefixed their names to this list. But the kings who reigned before the Monarchy of Egypt was erected by Misphragmuthosis Amosis Ammon & Sesac we do not meddle with. Sesostris reigned in the age of the Gods being deified by the names of Osiris Bacchus & Hercules as above: & therefore Menes, Nitocris & Mœris are to be placed after him. They reigned over All Egypt & therefore are to be placed amongst the kings of that Monarchy. And being added to the rest will make up the number of 22 kings counted from Amosis inclusively. Mœris is set down – – – Amasis Psammiticus.

While the Shepherds reigned at Abaris over the lower AEgypt, that part of Ægypt anciently called Misraim was called also Aeria I think from the capital city Abaris or (Αούαρις) by a small corruption of the name, And Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt. But after the expulsion of the shepherds the name of Ægypt (Aiam Copti) was extended to the whole. Whence its probable that the kings of Coptos conquered all Thebais

before the reign of Misphamuthosis, who made war upon the shepherds & shut them up in Abaris. Then his successor Amosis made them retire out of Abaris & extended the name of Egypt to his whole kingdom, & then Ammon & Sesostris carried on the conquests westward to the mouth of the straits, eastward to India, & northward to Colchos Caucasus & Thrace.

Pheron is by Herodotus called the son & successor of Sesostris &c.

Archilachus (reputed the oldest of them ) flourished (according to Herodotus) in the reign of Gyges the fourt of the four kings of Lydia, who reigned {next} before Crœsus: & whose reign therefore began after the institution of the Carnea.

<70r>

These are the oldest historical books now extant & the only {illeg} which with the Chronical Canon of Ptolomy, & the books of {illeg} Tobit, Iudith, Herodotus Thucydides, the Annals of Tyre & Carthage, & what has been taken from ancient {command}ments & records by Diodorus, Strabo, Pausanias, Iosephus, & a few others, can give us light into the history & Chronology of the first ages down to the reign of Darius Nothus king of Persia.

History without Chronology is confused, & the Chronology of the first ages

The year of the Greeks consisted therefore of Lunar months & the civil months of thirty days & the last day of the month th

The last day of the civil month was called Τριακὰς by all Greece till the days of Thales. He called it by this name but Solon called it ἕνην καὶ νέαν the old & the new. ffor he introduced months of 30 & 29 days alternately, making the last day of every other month to be the first day of the next month. And this new way of recconing prevailed by degrees in a great part of Greece. To the Calendar-year of 360 days Cleobulus one of the seven wise men alluded in his Parable of one father who had 12 sons each of which had 30 daughters half white & half black. But as the Greeks corrected these months by the course of the Moon as often as they found them too long so they correc{ted} the year by adding a month to the end of it as often as they found it too short for the return of the four seasons. This they did every other year which made their Dieteris (as Herodotus Censorinus[88] mention And because this recconing made the year too long by a month in eight years they omitted an intercalary month once in eight years, which made their Octaeteris, one half of which was their Tetraeteris consisting alternately of 25 & 26 months. And these Periods seem – – –

<71r>

{illeg}s, Gregorius, Barrones, Slusius rem Tangentium tractament per differentias Ordinatas {illeg}m fecit jam a multo tempore. & Cum vero a Newtono didicisset Clar{illeg} {illeg}lodum Tangentium nondum esse absolutam sed corollarium esse methodi generalis quæ {illeg} citra {illeg} ullum calculum ad abstrusiora problematum genera etiam jam Problemata methodi tangentium inversæ alio & ad quantitates surdas, & Curvas Mechanicas minime hæret: cœpit jam {illeg} methodum tangentium per differentias Ordinatarum jam longe generalius tr{illeg} superiore Problemata difficiliora ab æquationibus non pendere scripsit.

in his age & actions he agrees with Neptune {illeg} relation unto where {illeg} The invasion of Egypt by Antæus & his war with Hercules & t{illeg}

Hercules say,

sævoque alimenta parentis

Antæo eripui

But as its difficult to state these things exactly so its of small consequence.

{In} his age dominion & actions he agrees with Neptune himself. The invasion of Egypt by Antæus & {illeg} Ovid has relation unto where he makes Hercules say, – sævoque alimenta pare{ntis } Antæo eripui.

to state these things exactly is difficult & of small consequence.

<71v>

{illeg} Gods or ancient Kings {illeg} Egypt & Syria of Damascus have been made much ancienter then the truth, so ha{illeg} Assyria. For Ctesias & the ancient Greek & Latine writers who copy from him &c. – – – {illeg} & founder of his {illeg}

I have hitherto written of the Ages which the Greeks accounted fabulous, An exact {illeg} {is} not to be expected. If I have mended some of the principal errors {illeg} Chronology, {illeg} shewed that so far as appears in history there {illeg} great Empires in the world before the days of {illeg} it is all I designed. I proceed now to the times which began with the Olympi{illeg} of the Assyrian Empire.

{illeg}

<73r>

that is 100 years before the reign of Darius Hystaspis.

Plutarch tells us that the Philosophers anciently delivered their opinions in verse as Orpheus, Hesiod, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Empedocles, Thales, but afterwards left of the use of verses. And that Aristarchus did not make Astronomy the more contemptible by describing it in prose then Eudoxtes, Hesiod, Thales who wrote of it in verse. Among those that wrote in verse are to be recconed Pythagoras b[89] & Solon c[90] ffor Solon wrote in verse the Atlantic discourse as he had learnt it of the Priests of Egypt but did not finish it. {illeg} the Greeks wrote only in verse & while the {illeg} no chronology nor any other history then such as was mixed with Poetical fancies. Pliny e[92] in recconing up the inventors of things tells us that Pheresydes taught to {illeg} {discoveries} in prose in the reign of Cyrus & Cadmus Milesius to write History & in f[93] in another place he saith that Cadmus Milesius was the first who writte in prose. < insertion from the right margin of f 73r > And Anaximenes the successor of Thales affirmed that all the seven wise men were addicted to Poetry. < text from f 73r resumes > And Iosephus saith[94] that there were no inscriptions in the temples & publick monuments of the Greeks so old as the Trojan war. And that the oldest publick wrting was the laws of Draco a little before the days of Pisistratus. Suidas that Draco made his laws in the 18th Olympiad & that among the Greeks there was no public Table older then these laws. Iosephus saith further that the Greeks who first attempted – – – And that the Greeks who first attempted to write History that is Cadmus Milesius & Acusilaus Argivas & those that followed them were but a little before the expedition of the Persians against the Greeks. And that these first writers varied much from one another about the same things. Hellanicus frequently differed from Acusilaus about the Genealogies, & Acusilaus corrected Hesiod & Ephorus corrected Acusilaus & Timæus Ephorus very often. It seems that these first Historians endeavoured out of the old Poets to {state} the Genealogies of the ancient Greeks formi that by them & the {comi}ssions of kings or Priests conserved in some cities they might recover an account of times past. One of these Historians was Pherecides Atheniensis who in the reign of Darius Hystaspis or soon after wrote of the Antiquities & ancient Genealogies of the Athenians in ten books & was one of the first European writers of this kind, whence he had the name of Genealogus. Another was Epimenides who also wrote of the ancient Genealogies. Acusilaus Hellanicus digested his History by the ages (or successions) of the Priests of Iuno Argiva; others by those of the Archons of Athens or kings of the Lacedemonians & some other cities. And hence it came into fashion in those days to reccon times past either by the number of generations or successions of kings by round numbers of years gathered from thence as you may see in Herodotus. So Diodorus in his {Preface} tell us that from the name of Troy [: as when they tell us that Lycurgus was the 11th from Hercules Pheidon the 11th from Hercules, Archias was the tenth from Temenus, & Battus the 17th from Euphemus, or that Naxus & {Megara} (the first great cities in Sicily) were built in the 10th generation after the {illeg} of Troy, or that the laws of Lycurgus continued in use 500 years during the reign of the 14 kings succeeding him till the reign of Apis. <73v>

But about the end of that Monarchy [when the argument about genealogies & successions of kings was pretty well exhausted] the Greeks began to affect a more artificial sort of Chronology. ffor hitherto they computed by no Æra but now began to use the Olympiads & set down the lengh of every kings reign. And first Hippias, as Plutarch tells us, published a breviary of the Olympiads supported by {illeg} certain arguments. This having no foundation in antiquity was derided by Pla{to} & gained credit but slowly. ffor the Arundelian Marbles were composed 60 years after the death of Alexander the great & yet mention not the Olympiads: so that this Æra was not then received tho it became reputed the principal Æra of the Greeks. It seems the Greeks had no ancient Æra, for this author uses none but reccons upwards from his own He sets down but a few of the more principal periods of time. And in the next Olympiad Timæus a very learned author wrote a History in several books down to his own time according to the Olympiads comparing the Ephori the Kings of Sparta, the Archons of Athens & the Priestesses of Argos with the Olympic victors, so as to make all things suit with {illeg} according to the best of his judgment & where he left off Polybius began & carried on the History. And this seems to be the original of counting by the Olympiads, of the k{illeg}l chronology of the Greeks ffor chronologers were thereby set on work to examin & correct chronology & add to it till it came into the form we now have it: which how uncertain it is & how little credit it gained among the Greeks of those times may be understood by this passage of Plutarch. The congress, saith he, of Solon with Crœsus some think they can confute by Chronology: But a history so illustrius & ratified by so many witnesses &, which is more, so agreable to the manners of Solon & worthy of the greatness of his mind & of his wisdome, I cannot perswade my self to reject because of some chronical Canons, as they call them, which six hundred correcting, have not yet been able to constitute any thing certain in which they could agree amongst themselves about repugnances

Nor was the chronology of the Latines more certain. Numa was the scholar of Pythagoras & yet in the Canons is made much older. Plutarch represents great uncertainty in the originals of Rome, & so doth Servius. The old records of the Latins were burnt by the Gauls 64 years before the death of Alexander the great & Q. Fabius Pictor the oldest historian of the Latines lived 100 years later then that king.

Now it is to be considered that –– – all nations before they began to keep exact accounts of time – – – – – was about 88 years after the death of that king.

Pindar introduces Medea prophesying to the Argonauts that Battus the 17 from Euphemus the son of Neptune should lead a colony from the Island Thera into Liby & there build Cyrene. Euphemus was one of the Argonauts & his 17 successors seem to be reconed by the reign of so many kings. ffor some cities of Greece preserved the names of their kings for many successions, as in the instances abovementioned And the Greeks in the days of Pindar, in recconing times <74r> past took such successions for so many generations the fathers being usually succeeded by their sons. Now Battus was succeeded by Arcesilaus & he by Battus the second in whose days many Greeks sailed to Cyrene invaded the Carthaginians & beat the Egyptians in the last year of Vaphres king of Egypt, that is 49 years before the reign of Darius Hystaspis. ffom that time count backwards nineteen reigns inclusively or 18 intervals recconing 20 years to an interval & the reign of Euphemus & time of the Argonautic expedition will happen 34 years after the death of Solomon & by consequence the destruction of Troy about 65 or 70 years after his death.

Again from Æsclapius to Hippocrates – – – after the death of Salomon. Whereas according to the vulgar account Æsculapius & Hercules flourished about 750 years before the middle of the reign of Darius Hystaspis which make about 43 years apiece to the generations one with another by the fathers side, & 40 a piece by the mothers side, which is surely much too long.

Polydectes & his brother Lycurgus the Lawgiver in the race of the kings of Sparta were the tenth from Hercules inclusively, & according to Pausanias or the ninth if with Herodotus we omit {Sapus} one of the Kings. Polydectes died in the reign of Lebotas the eighth from Hercules in another race of the kings of Sparta, & Lycurgus flourished in the reign of Dorissus the successor of Labotas & ninth from Hercules inclusively & the eight intervals at 21 years a piece make 168 years the intervall from the time that Hercules was in his {illeg} to the time that Lycurgus was in his {illeg} that is from the Argonautic Expedition to the beginning of the Olympiads. ffor Phlegon tells us that the Olympiads were restored by Lycurgus Iphitus & Cleosthenes & together {illeg} that Lycurgus was the companion of Iphitus in restoring the Olympiads Aristotle gathered from the Olympic Dicus in which the name of Lycurgus was written. Now from the first Olympiad count backwards 168 years & the recconing will place the Argonautic expedition 38 years after the death of Solomon & by consequence the destruction of Troy (which was one generation later) about 74 years after the death of that King.

Plutarch tells us[95] that they who collected the times from the successions of the kings of Sparta as Eratosthenes & Apollodorus shewed that Lycurgus was many years older then the first Olympiad. And hence {Eratosthenes} reccons 108 years from the {tuition} of Lycurgus to the first Olympiad & Phlegon reccons the space of 28 Olympiads from Iphitus {illeg} of the Olympiads to Coræbus the victor in the first Olympiad. But this disagreement proceeds from their putting the reigns of the kings of Sparta equipollent to generations & accordingly recconing three reigns to an hundred years, or about 33 years to a reign: whereas if they be recconned at 21 years apiece the history of Lycurgus & reign of Iphitus will fall in with the victory of Coræbus & first Olympiad as it ought to do.

Suidas reccons Homer two ages younger then Orpheus that is one age younger then the Trojan war. Crates saith that he flourished before the return of the Heraclidæ or within less then 80 years after the Trojan war. And Herodotus in the life of Homer tells us that Homers master was Phemio, that Phemio whom Homer in the first of his Odysses mentions to have sung at a feast of Penelopes Lovers within ten years after the Trojan war. He tells us also that Homer's mother <74v> married the same Phemio & that Homer when his sight began to fail lodged for some time with Mentor of Ithaca, that Mentor to whose trust Vlisses when he went to the war of Troy committed the care of his house & family, & that Homer there learnt of Mentor many things concerning Vlisses & in gratitude made an honourable mention of Mentor in his Odysses. ffom all which it follows that Homer lived in the age next after the Trojan war. Now Herodotus tells us that Homer & Hesiod lived not above 400 years before him. Herodotus flourished in the 84th Olympiad. Count 400 years backwards & Homer will flourish not above 67 years before the Olympiads, that is about 140 years after the death of Solomon or about 60 or 70 years after the Trojan war.

Lycurgus the Legislator soono after the death of Homer going into Io{nia there met} with Homers verses copied them & published them in Greece. Some say that Lycurgus met with Homer himself, but this is certain that he was the first who collected his scattered verses & published them & therefore he lived in the times next after Homer. with {illeg} recconing interval of above 400 years between the Trojan war & the first Olympiad when Lycurgus flourished & of above 300 between that war & the Poets next after Homer namely Tyrtæus, Telesilla, Alcmæon, Sesicorus, Mianorinus, Arion, Alcæus &c, which is surely too great For if Homer lived in the age next after the Trojan war his verses would have been lost before the age of Lycurgus & his language grown obsolete before the age of the next Poets.

Altho the Greeks & Latines had no Chronology so old as the reign of Alexander the great, yet the Phœnicians had Annalls as ancient as the days of David. And therefore if we can find any synchronisms of the ancient actions of the Greeks with those of the Phœnicians w{hose} times are stated we shal by that means determine the ancient times of the Greeks with much more certainty then the Greeks could do by arguing only from their Genealogies & reigns of kings. Now some old writers (as {Plinius} – – – coasts of Afric presently after the wars of Troy. At the same time some of the Greeks {sailed} to Cyprus & there built cities. For Teucer after the destruction of Troy being {illeg} – – – call him Matgenus. And upon these & such like grownds Virgil makes Æneas contemporary to Dido & her father Belus. Now in what age Æneas Belus & Dido & {Camisses} lived the Greeks & Latins in the days of Virgil did not know but Iosephus has discovered it out of Tyrian annals. For according to those Annals as they are recited by Iosephus, Matgenus the father of Dido & Pigmaleon reigned nine years & died 83 years after Solomon. Whence it follows that Troy was taken about 70 or 75 years after the death of Solomon.

Again, Tatian in his book against the Greeks – – – before he fled as we shal shew hereafter.

And we

<75r>

Addenda et emendanda

Sect. III. pag. 2. lin. 2 – which rose up afterwards: [add] being only within the fertile planes of Chaldæa & Chalonitis & Assyria watered by the Tigris & Euphrates.

S. I. p. 18. l. 9 – who all of them delivered in their histories (translated into Greek by Lætus or Chetus,) under which king Europa was carried away, & [under which] Menelaus came into Phœnicia. Mention is there made also of king Hiram who gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon, & furnished him with timber for building the temple: & that the same is affirmed by Menander of Pergamus. Now Iosephus a lets us know that the Annals of – in the eleventh year of Hiram. And by the testimony of Menander & the said three ancient Phœnician historians the rapture of Europa, & by consequence the coming of her brother Cadmus into Greece, happened within the time of the reign of the kings of Tyre delivered in these histories & by consequence not before the reign of Abibalus the first of them, nor before the reign of king David his contemporary. The voiage of Menelaus might be after the destruction of Troy. Solomon therefore reigned – – –

Sect. 1. p. 20 l. 26. Then reigned 12 Archons for life successively, which being in a new unsettled government, if we reccon their reigns one with another at about 15 years a piece they will take up 180 years & so end Ann. 1 Olymp. 37. Then reigned seven decenniall Archons some of which dying in their regency; they might altogether take up about 40 or 50 years & so end Ann. 2 Olymp. 48 or thereabout.

Sect. 1. p. 20. l. 21. Ariadne was left in the island Dia by Theseus when Bacchus returned from India & then became his mistress, that is about ten years after the death of Solomon. And from that time reigned eight kings at Athens vizt Theseus, Menestheus, Demophaon, Oxietes, Aphidas, Thymætes, Melanthus, & Codrus, the fift & sixt of which according to chronologers reigned together but nine years . If we should reccon all their reigns one with another at 18 years a piece they would place the death of Codrus about 154 years after the death of Solomon or 51 years before the Olympiads. Then reigned twelve Archons for life successively, which being a new unsetled government if we reccon their reigns at 17 years a piece one with another they wil take up about 204 years & end An. 2. Olymp. 39. Then reigned seven decennial Archons, some of which dying in their regency, they might all together take up about 40 or 50 years & so end about An 3. Olymp. 50. And then followed the annual Archons, amongst whom were the legislators Draco & Solon. Soon after the death of Codrus, his second son Neleus not bearing the reign of his lame brother Medon at Athens

Sect 1. P. 21. l. 28 And to this recconing the Roman history may easily be adapted by shortning the reigns of all their kings in the proportion of about 11 to 6.

Sect. II. p. 3. l. 29. After founder & people add: unless you had rather say that the word signifies the people of the upper & lower Egypt.

I. p. 17. l. 2 relates. ffor Herodotus in the beginning of his first book relates that the Phenicians coming from the red sea to the mediterranean, & beginning to make long voyages with Egyptian & Assyrian wares, among other places came to Argos, & having sold their wares carried away into Egypt some of the Greecian weomen who came to buy them, & amongst those weomen was Io the daughter of Inachus, & . The Phenicians therefore came from the red sea in the days of Io & her brother Phoroneus king of Argos & by consequence at that time when David conquered the Edomites & made them fly into Egypt & Phœnicia & other places; [They would be apt to fly chiefly to the Philistims their next neighbours & the enemies of David] And this flight gave occasion to the Phœnicians to call &c.

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All nations before they began to keep exact accounts – – to Amosis 47000 years And Callisthenes the disciple of Aristotel sent Astronomical Observations from Babylon into Greece said to be of 1903 years standing before the times of Alexander the great. And the Chaldeans boasted that they had observed the starrs 473000 years. And others made the kingdoms of Assyria Media & Damascus much older then the truth.

Someof the Greeks called – for the first 60 or 70 Olympiads.

The Europeans had no Chrononlogy – let us reexamin that computation.

The Egyptians recconed the reigns of kings equipollent to generations as above & so did the Greeks & Latins & accordingly they have made them reign one with another an age a piece recconing three ages to an hundred years – by equalling their reigns one with another to generations.

Whilst Bacchus made his expedition into India Theseus left Ariadne in the island Dia & succeeded his father Ægeus at Athens, & upon the return of Bacchus from India Ariadne became his mistress & accompanied him in his triumphs. And this was about the tenth year after the death of Solomon. And from that time reigned eight kings in Athens till the death of Codrus: which at 19 years a piece one with another might take up about 152 years & end about 44 years before the Olympiads. Then reigned 12 Archons for life which at 16mathML formula | 17 years a piece (the state being changeable) might take up 198 | 204 years & end An. 2 | 4 Olymp. 39 | 40. Then reigned seven decennial Archons which are usually recconed at seventy years but some of them dying in their regency they might not take up above 40 or 50 years & soe end about Ann 2 | 4 Olymp. 50 | 51. Then succeeded the annual Archons amongst whom were the legislators Draco & Solon

<77r>

In this tradition the Egyptians honour their father Osiris with the whole administration. If you correct them in this point & make Ham the Lord of all & conceive that Osyris took this journey southward to search his inheritance you will here have the division of the Countries of Ham amongst his children. For Hercules is Chus, Osiris is Misraim, Antæus is Phut & Busiris is Canaan as I find by other records compared with this. So then with this division begins the brazen age.

Now this was an age of discord & war, as Hesiod & Ovid write, tho not with so much injury & cruelty as the next. For in this age arose the war between the Gods & Gyants. The manner was as follows. Misraim had vitiated Maia the daughter of Phut & on her begotten Thoth. To revenge this injury Phut treacherously drowns Misraim in the river Nile & invades the possessions of his posterity, & thereupon they flee & call Chus to their assistance & the two parties fight with clubs with various success. ffor this is that war of which a[96] Hyginus thus speaks: Afri et Ægyptij primum fustibus dimicaverunt, postea Belus Neptuni filius gladio belligeratus est: unde bellum dictum. And from this flight of the Egyptians arose the fable of the flight of the Gods . ffor Phut & his sons Otus Ophialtes & the rest, are sometimes represented severally by Giants, sometimes collectively by one Gyant with 50 heads & an hundred hands. At length Thoth on whose account this war arose acting the part of a mediator or embassador between them composed the difference by an agreement that Phut should live at a distance. And hence Thoth, whom we call Mercury is said to reconcile two fighting serpents by casting his rod between them. Chus therefore carried Phut as far as the western Ocean & there in memory of this journey erected the pillars called Hercules's pillars. //And now the war being ended, Isis the wife of Misraim by the advice of Mercury governed the whole family as Queen & instituted an annual commemoration of the death of her husband by certain rites of seeking his scattered limbs with lamentations & drowning an ox, which rites at length became a part of the religion of the Egyptians. And this kind of worship being at length propagated into some other countries was applied by the Assyrians to their Gods Venus & Adonis with some alteration of the fable to suit it to those Gods.

<79r> <80r>

360000 ped. Ang. in Iaon. 342360 ped Gall.

These things I mention because they have not been {illeg} understo{illeg} & {Protogenes}

And by these circumstances Aethlius, Sisyphus, {Atlantas} Æolus, Zuthus & Danaus were about the same age with Erechtheus Iasion & Cadmus; & Hellen was about one generation & Deucalion about two generations older then Erechtheus.

And after Bacchus was routed by Perseus & the war was composed, the Greeks did him great honour, & built a Temple to him at Argus & called it the temple of the Cresian Bacchus because Ariadne was buried in it, as Pausanias relates

This Bacchus was therefore one generation older then the Argonauts & being king of Egypt at the same time with Sesostris they are one & the same king. ffor they agree also in their actions. Bacchus invaded Greece & after he was routed by the army of Perseus, & the war

ffor they came with a great multitude of Phenicians not to seek Europa but to seek new seats & being armed routed the natives.

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4 Polydorus the son of Cadmus married Nicteis the daughter of Nicteus & dying left his kingdom & young son Labdacus under the administration of Nicteus. Then Epopeus king of Ægyalus (afterwards called Sicyon) stole Antiopa the daughter of Nicteus & thereupon Nicteus made war upon him & in a battel wherein Epopeus overcame, both were wounded & died soon after. Nicteus left the tuition of Labdacus & administration of the kingdom to his brother Lycus & Epopeus or (as Hyginus calls him) Epaphus, left his kingdom to Lamedon who presently ended the war by sending home Antipa, & she in returning home brought forth Amphion & Zethus. Labdacus being grown up received the kingdom of Lycus & afterwards dying left it again to his administration. When Amphion <82r> & Zethus were but 20 years old, at the instigation of their mother Antiopa they killed Lycus & made Laius the young son of Labdacus fly to Pelops {seized} the city Thebes & compassed it with a wall. Amphion married Niobe the sister of Pelops & by her had several children amongst whom was Chloris the mother of Periclymenus who was one of the Argonauts. Amphion & Zethus, Niobe & Pelops, Lamedon & Laius were therefore two little generations older then the Argonauts, & Epopeus & Nicteus Polydorus was three generations older. Agamemnon & Menelaus the sons of Plisthenes the son of Atreus the son of Pelops were at the Trojan war, & so were Idomeneus & Menones the grandsons of Minos. And Deucalion the Argonaut was the son of Minos & grandson of Iupiter & Europa according to Homer. And by all these circumstances, the coming of Cadmus & Europa into Europe is determined to be about three ordinary generations or an hundred years before the Argonautic expedition & four ordinary generations before the destruction of Troy.

5 In the days of Erechtheus king of Athens & Celeus king of Eleusis, Ceres a woman of Sicily came into Attica in quest of her daughter & taught Triptolemus the son of Celeus to sow corn. She lay with Iasion the brother of Harmonia the wife of Cadmus & soon after her death Erechtheus was slain in a war between the Athenians & Eleusinians, & for the benefaction of bringing tillage into Greece, the Eleusinia sacra were instituted to her by Celeus & Eumolpus & a sepulchre or Temple was built to her in Eleusine & the family of Eumolpus & daughters of Celeus became her Priests. And this is the first instance that I meet with in Greece of deifying the dead with Temples & sacred rites & sacrifices & initiations & a succession of Priests to perform them. Now by this history it is manifest that Erechtheus Celeus, Eumolpus, Ceres, Iasion, Harmonia & Cadmus were all contemporary to one another, & therefore flourished about an hundred years before the Argonautick expedition, & scarce above. For Zetes & Calais the sons of Orithyia the daughter of Erechtheus were Argonauts.

6 Celeus the contemporary of Erechtheus was the son of Rharus the son of Cranaus the successor of Cecrops, & Car the son of Phoroneus the son of Inachus built a Temple to Ceres in Megara & therefore outlived Ceres & Erectheus: & Arcas the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon the son of Pelasgus (or according to Dionysius Halycarnassæus the son of Æleus) received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people to make bread of it. <82Br> {illeg} Gold symbol < insertion from f 81v > Gold symbol to the next page but one And so might Lelex Æolus Phorbas & Pirasus. for Lelex was the father of Eurotas Myles & Polycaon, & Eurotas was the father of Sparte the mother of Amyclas the father of Leucippus the father of Coronis the mother of Æsculapius the Argonaut. Myles was the first who set up a hand mill or Quern in Greece to grind corn. And Polycaon married Messene the daughter of Triopas the son of Phorbas the brother of Pirasus. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 81v > ‡ And Æolus was the father of Aëthlius the father of Endymion the father of Pæon Epeus & Ætolus. And Aethlius was the first king of the Epeans, & Pelops came into Peloponnesus in the reign of Epeus & Ætolus slew Apis the son or grandson of Phoroneus. < text from f 81v resumes > And by these circumstances I gather that Cecrops Inachus Pelasgus Æzeus, Lelex, Phorbas Pirasus & Æolus came with colonies into Greece about 70 or 80 years before the coming of Cadmus & Europa. Certainly their coming from Egypt could not be much earlier, because Cadmus brought in letters, & it is not likely that any thing done in Europe could be remembered above an hundred years before the use of Letters. < text from f 82Br resumes > {illeg}

< insertion from f 81v >

&that Epopeus, Pelops, Polydorus,

< text from unknown resumes > < insertion from f 81v >

Celeus was the Son of Rharus the son of Cranaus the successor of Cecrops & therefore Cecrops was not above two or three generations older then Erechtheus. – He built Cecropia afterwards called Athens. Inachus had several sons who reigned in several parts of Peloponnesus & there built towns & erected little kingdoms, as – – – – – – built towns where there were none before. And Car built a temple to Ceres in Megara & therefore outlived Erechtheus & Ceres, & his grandfather Inachus was of about the same age with Cecrops. Lycaon the son of Æzeus, built Lycosura reputed the oldest town in Peloponnesus, & left his kingdom divided between his four & twenty sons each of which built a town except Oenotrus the youngest who went into Italy & there built towns, & Arcas the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon received corn from Triptolemus & taught the people to make bread of it, & therefore the children of Lycaon were contemporary to Ceres Celeus & Erechtheus, & Æzeus was contemporary to Cecrops. Æolus was the father of Aëthlius the father of Endymion the father of Pæon Epeus & Ætolus, who were contemporary to Pelops & Epopeus: for Pelops came into Peloponnesus in the reign of Epeus & Ætolus slew Epopeus. Lelex was the father of Eurotas the father of Sparte the mother of Amyclas, the father of Leucippus the father of Coronis the mother of Æsculapius the Argonaut & therefore was also contemporary to Cecrops: And so were the brothers Phorbas & Pirasus. ffor Polycaon the brother of Eurotas married Messene the daughter of Triopas the son of Pirasus.

< text from unknown resumes >

7. The Egyptians soon after their coming into Greece, built towns there, & reigned in them as Kings, distributing their territories amongst their children. Inachus had several sons who reigned in several parts of Peloponnesus & there built towns, as Phoroneus who built Phoronicum afterwards called Argos from Argus his grandson, Ægyalus who built Ægyalea afterwards called Sicyon from Sicyon the grandson of Erechtheus Phegeus who built Phegea afterwards called Psophis from Psophis the daughter of Lycaon. Phoroneus had also several sons as Apis, Car Spartus who reigned in several places & built towns where there were none before. And so Lycaon the son of Æzeus or Æolus, built Lycosura recconed the oldest town in Greece & left his kingdom divided between his four & twenty sons each of which built a town except Oenotrus the youngest who sailed into Italy & built towns there. And the like is to be understood of the rest of the Ægyptian colonies. And this seems to be the original of towns in Europe. ffor before the seas began to be navigated, Europe could be peopled only by Scythians from the north side of the Euxine sea & lake Mœotis.

< insertion from the left margin of f 82r > < text from unknown resumes >

8 The Greeks out of vanity have made some of their kingdoms much older then the truth. Acusilaus an Argive made Phoroneus the oldest of mortals even older then Pelasgus, & in favour of this opinion the names of men who reigned in several parts of Peloponnesus have been collected in one series as if they had all reigned successively at Argos, & of one Inachus & one Io they have made two, calling the last Inachus corruptly by the name of Iasus. And in the kingdom of Sicyon founded by Ægialus the brother of Phoroneus, they have divided one Apis into two calling the last Epaphus or Epopeus: & between them have inserted the names of 10 or 12 feigned kings, making them reign one with another above 50 years a piece. And in the kingdom of Athens they have divided one Erechtheus & one Pandion into two, giving the name of Erechthonius to the first Erechtheus. And the people of Naxus have divided one Minos & one Ariadne into two Minoses & two Ariadnes pretending that the first Ariadne married Bacchus & that the last was carried away by Theseus, & by this means they have made the great Bacchus two generations older then the truth. And accordingly Dicæarchus represents that Osiris & Isis were two generations older then Sesostris saying that after Orus the son of Osiris & Isis reigned Sesonchosis. For by the consent of all antiquity & by the testimony of the Egyptians themselves, Osiris & Bacchus were one & the same king of Egypt. So also the ancient Greeks who made

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Regulus-of-Antimony symbol And tho their kings rebelled against him yet it prospered not. Iehojakim served the king of Babylon 3 years & then turned & rebelled (2 King. 24.1) & reigned eleven years incomplete & was succeeded by his son Iehojakin He served him in the 4th 5t & 6t year of his reign & when Nebuchadnezzar was gone back to Babylon rebelled [& reigned in rebellion to {the} 11th year & then was succeeded by his son Iehojakin who reigned only 3 months & 10 days.] so that the death of Nabopolasser happened between the fourth & seventh year of Iehojakims reign, & by consequence in the 2d or 3d of Nebuchadnezzars. When Iehojakim had reigned eleven years incomplete & was succeeded by his son Iehojakin Nebuchadnezzar in the 8th year of his reign in the return or end of the Iewish year sent & beseiged Ierusalem & after Iehojakin had reigned 3m & 10 days captivated him – – – – Vpon Nebuchadnezzars returning back into Chaldea Iehojakim rebelled that is in the year of Nabonassar 144. for Nabopolassar according to the Canon began his reign with the year of Nabonassar 123 & reigned 21 years. Hereupon Nebuchadnezzar in the 8th year of his reign over Iudea, at the return or beginning of the Iewish year, that is in spring, sent against Iehojakim & his son, beseiged Ierusalem, spoiled the Temple captivated Iehojakin & the Princes of the Iews & craftsmen & smiths & all that were fit for war & spoiled the Temple & leaving none but the poorest sort of the people made Zedekiah their king. After this captivity Nebuchadnezzar reigned 37 years (2 King 25.37) which with his first 8 years makes up his whole reign of 45 years . But after the death of his father he reigned only 43 years according to the Canon & Berosus, & therefore he reigned over Iudea about two years before his fathers death as above.

In the 9th year of Zedekiah in the 10 Iewish month about 390 years after the schism & apostasy of the ten tribes according to the prophesy of Ezekiel, Nebuchadnezzar beseiged Ierusalem again & in the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah in the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar in the 4th & 5t months, after a siege of two years & an half took & burnt the city & the temple. This conflagration was one or two years after the sabbatic yeare & therefore in the year of Nabonassar 159 or 160. ffor in the 10 year of Zedekiah Ezekiel was put in prison & continued in prison to the end of the siege & before he was put in prison the Chaldeans went up from Ierusalem to meet Pharaoh who came out of Egypt with an army to raise the siege, & then the Iews being freed from their fear took back into bondage their servants whom they had newly set at liberty . ffor in their affliction they had humbled themselves & made a solemn covenant in the temple that they would observe this law of the sabbatical year .

If from the conflagration of the Temple you count backwards the number of the years of the reigns of all the Kings of Iudah amounting to 430 years & 3 months to the founding of the Temple & also 479 years & one month more unto the Exit or coming of the Hebrews out of Egypt you will have the Æras of the Temple & of the exit placing the exit in the year of the Iulian Period 3217 so that the first sabbatical year may begin in the autumn of the 53d yeare of the Exit as it ought to do. For the Hebrews began to make war upon the Canaanites in the autumn of the 40th year of the exit, warred six years, in the seventh year rested from war & divided the land by lot, in the six following years cultivated every man his own lot & in the seventh (which began in the autumn of the 53d year of the exit rested from agriculture.

Nebuchadnezzar reigned after the death of his father 43 years incomplete & after the captivity of Iehojakin 37 & his son & successor Evilmerodach reigned two years & then for his lust & evil manners was slain by his sisters husband Nergalassir who in the name of his young son Laboasserdach the grandchild of Nebuchadnezzar reigned 4 years (according to Berosus & the Canon) & then Labasserdach (according to Berosus & Iosephus) reigned nine months more, & was slain in a feast by the conspiracy of his friends with Nabonnidus a Babylonian to <83v> whom by consent they gave the kingdom & who reigned 17 years & ended his reign (according to the Canon) in the year of Nabonasser 210 at the taking of Babylon by Cyrus which year was the 70th year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar & his successors over Iudea.

[Editorial Note 29] <84v>

Iudea was now in servitude under the king of Babylon being subdued in the third year of Iehojakim so that the first year of his reign over Iudea was the 4th of Iehojakims (Ier. 25.1) And tho their kings rebelled against him yet it prospered not. ffor after Iehojakim had reigned eleven years wanting a few months & was succeeded by his son Iehojakin who reigned only 3 months & ten days, Nebuchadnezzar in the eighth year of his reign in the return or beginning of the Iewish year sent & beseiged Ierusalem & spoiled the Temple & captivated Iehojakin & the Princes of the Iews & craftsmen & smiths & all that were fit for war & leaving none but the poorest sort of the people made Zedekiah their king, and reigned 37 years longer in all 45 years & then died in the year of Nabonasser 186 according to the Canon & therefore began his reign over Iudea in the year of Nabonasser 141 about two years before his fathers death. ffor after his fathers death he reigned only 43 years, & his father reigned 21 years & died in the year of Nabonassar 143 acording to the Canon. Nebuchadnezzar therefore invaded Iudea & Syria in the 19th year of his father in the year of Nabonassar 141 & after three years hearing of his fathers death returned to Babylon & his armies followed him & then Iehojakim rebelled. [98]ffor Iehojakim served him three years & then turned & rebelled against him.

In the 9th year of Zedekiah in the 10th month Nebuchadnezzar

In the 9th year of Zedekiah the Iews in their distress humbled themselves & made a solemn convenant in the Temple that they would observe the law of the seventh year in letting go their servants & accordingly they did let them go, but soon after the Egyptians raised the siege for a time & then the Iews being freed from their fear took back their servants into bondage & were reproved for it by the prophet Ieremy. All this was done in the ninth year of Zedekiah & beginning of the tenth before Ieremy was put in prison. ffor in the 10th year of Zed. & 18th of Nebuchad. Ieremy was put in prison & continued in prison to the end of the siege, & therefore this sabbatic year was the 9th year of Zedekiah & began in autumn in the year of Nabonassar 157 & the city was taken & burnt in summer in the year of Nabonassar 160, in the beginning of Ann. 1. Olymp. 48.

– and was succeeded by his son Evilmerodach.

Ierome tells us that Evilmerodach reigned in his fathers life time seven years while his father eat grass with oxen, & was after his fathers recovery put in prison with Ieconiah king of Iudah till the death of his father & then succeeded in the throne. Vpon his coming to the throne he brought Ieconiah out of prison in the 27th day of the 12t month so that Nebuchadnezzar died in the end of Winter. In the 5t year of Ieconiahs captivity, Belshassar <84r> was next in dignity to his father Nebuchadnezzar & designed his successor (Baruch 1.2, 10, 11, 12, 14) & therefore Evilmerodach was even then in disgrace. After the death of Nebuchadnezzar Evilmerodach reigned two years – – – Persians.

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Aborigenes who came from the mountains: so they seem to have called those men Pelasgi who came from beyond the seas, the names Pelasgus & Pelagus being derived from one & the same original: unless you had rather say that the Pelasgi had their name from one or two of their kings called Pelasgus.

When Oenotrus the son of Lycaon carried a Colony into Italy he found that country for the most part uninhabited, & where it was inhabited peopled but thinly: & seizing a part of it he built towns in the mountains little & numerous as above. These towns were without walls. But after this Colony grew numerous & began to want room, they expelled the Siculi & compassed many cities with walls, & became possest of all the territory between the two rivers Liris & Tibur. And it is to be understood that these cities had their Councils & Prytanæa. For Dionysius tells us that the new kingdom of Rome as Romulus left it, consisted of thirty Courts or Councils in so many towns, each with the sacred fire kept in the Prytaneum of the Court for the Senators who met there to perform sacred rites after the manner of the Greeks. Whence the Senators were called Curiales. But when Numa the successor of Romulus reigned, he leaving the several fires in their own Courts, instituted one common to them all at Rome.

When navigation was so far improved – propagated beyond the straits

The Sicanians were reputed the first inhabitants of Sicily. They built little villages or towns upon the hills & every town had its own king. And by this means they spread over the country before they formed themselves into larger governments with a common king Philistus saith that they were transplanted into Sicily from the river Sicanus in Spain – – – & left the Sicani. For it was his custome to recruit his army – – – – contemporary to Evander.

The first inhabitants of Crete – – before & scarce above

And the island Cyprus – – – – Asterius & Minos.

All these footsteps there are – – & its islands. The antiquities of Libya were not much older – on this side India. Abraham was the fift from Peleg, & all mankind lived together in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons &c.

<86r>

But Diodorus tells us that the Phrygian Rhe{a} was the daughter of {illeg} king of Phrygia & wife of Iasion [& that Dardanus Iasion & Harmonia w{illeg} in Samothrace of the same parents, & that after the death of Iasion] The {illeg} of Ceres were instituted in Eleusis – – – of the same parents & after the death of Iasion, Dardanus & Cybele went into Phrygia & carried thither the mysteries of the mother of the Gods & Corybas the son of Iasion & Cybele

The first inhabitants of Sicily were the Sicanians. They were there before the death of Minos & by their having many cities on the mountains each with its own king it may be concluded that they came into that Island not very long before. Philistus a[99] saith that they were transplanted from the river Sicanus in Spain, & Dionysius b[100] that they were a Spanish people who fled from the Ligures in Italy. He means the Ligures c[101] who opposed Hercules when he returned from his expedition against Gerion in Spain & endevoured to pass the Alps out of Piemont into Italy. Hercules that year got into Italy & made some conquests there & after winter upon the arrival of his fleet from Erythra in Spain sailed to Sicily, & left there the first inhabitants of that Island. ffor it was his custome c[102] to recruit his army with conquered people & after they had assisted him in making new conquests, to reward them with new seats. This was the Egyptian Hercules who had a potent fleet sailed to the straits set up the pillars. ffor Erythra & the country of Gerion were without the straits. Dionysius represents him contemporary to Evander.

<86v> [Editorial Note 30]

And from the mountains where they first lived, were called Aborigenes.

<87r>

places lying on the western borders of Medee

places in the northern bordes

& placed them in the borders of his Empire in Halal & Habor (or Colchos & Iberia) & in Hara [or Aria] & at the river Gozan places lying in the western borders of Media between

ffor Isaiah in the 14 year of Hezekiah was commanded to walk bare foot 3 years, & in the end of that time he predicted the captivity of Egypt & Ethiopia by the king of Assyria & therefore it came to pass in the reign of Asserhadon./ This

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The Philistims were now grown very strong by the access of the Edomites & by their assistance took Zidon that being a town convenient for those who fled from the red sea by reason of its trade upon the Mediterranean. And then did the Zidonians fly by sea to the Islands Tyre & Aradus. And when they

[Editorial Note 31]

& from him descended Sthenelus & his son Gelanor [who are recconed amongst the kings of Argos] who were succeeded by Danaus in the kingdom of Argus

<88v>

occasion to the tradition which Herodotus in the beginning of his first book ascribes to the Persians & in the middle of his seventh book to the Phenicians themselves, vizt that the Phenicians came from the red sea to the sea coasts of the Mediterranean & presently undertook long voiages.

– occasion to the tradition both of the ancient Persians & of the Phœnicians themselves, that the Phœnicians came

[Editorial Note 32]

in Sir I. Newton's book where the paper is – 518

<89r>

Et propterea si acta recta & secel rectam HK in N rectæ tres NK, AC, BD datas habemus rationes ad invicem.

Corol. Et recta illa HK ipsa Eα æquales (ob datas specie triangula EFC, EFL) datas habebit rationes ad EC et EE vel CD.

Corol: Et ob datam {illeg} figuram EFLC, recta tres EF EL, & EC. id est GD, HK, et EC, datas habeant rationes ad invicem.

untill we see the end of the long captivity of the Iews predicted by Moses & the Prophets. Deut ch XXIX, XXX. Hosea III.5, Ioel ch II.31, & III.1, 2, 17, Amos ch IX.14, 15, Isaiah ch LIX, LX, LXI & ch LXVI.20, Ier. ch XXIII.3, 6, 8 Ezek. ch XXXVI.24, 28, XXXVII.12, 24, 25. & XXXIX.27, 28. Luke XXI.24. Rom. XI.25, 26. Acts I.6, 7 Isaiah II.2, 3, 4 Mica IV.1, 2, 3, 4, 7 Zeph. III.19, 20.

[Editorial Note 33]

untill the Iews shall return from their long captivity as Moses & the Prophets have predicted

untill the coming of the kingdom for which we daily pray.

untill the return of the Iews from their long captivity predicted by Moses & the Prophets & untill the coming of the kingdom for which we daily pray.

<89v>

In the end of the time times & half a time (when the earth shall reel to & fro {illeg} then {shall we} better understand, & still better at the return of the Iews from their long captivity predicted by Moses & the Prophets Deut XXIX, & XXX. Hosea III.5 Ioel ch II.31 & III 1, 11, 17. Amos IX.14, 15. Isaiah II.2, 3, 4, & LIX, LX & LXI, & LXVI.20, 22. Mica IV.1, 2, 3, 7. Zeph. III.19, 20. Ier. XXIII.3, 6, 8. Ezek. XXXVI.24, 28. & XXXVII.12, 24, 25, & XXXIX.27, 28. Luke XXI.24. Acts I.6, 7. Rom. XI.25, 26. Acts I.6, 7. Rom. XI.25, 26. And if there shall then go forth a commandment to restore Ierusalem to its old inhabitants,

[Editorial Note 34]

These things will be better understood

Herodotus makes Astyages the father of {Mansone} & grandfather of to have been the son & successor of Cyaxeres, & Cyaxeres to have been the son & successor of Phraortes & by this recconing inverts the order of the kings Astyages & Cyaxeres, [& makes Cyrus the immediate successor of his great grandfather Astyages] & attributes to Astyages what he should have attributed to Darius the son of Cyaxeres. Let the true order be restored & the kings of Media will have reigned in this order. Phraortes, Astyages, Cyaxeres, Darius, Cyrus: whereof Cyaxeres ordered the military affairs of the kingdom & distinguished the Monarchy into Provinces.

<90r>

– Abia & Asa. And Idomeneus the grandson of Minos was at the war of Troy. And Hiram succeeded – – – – fled to Europe. And thus by the Annales of Tyre & the ancient Phenician historians who followed them Abibalus Atymnus Cadmus & Europa fled from Sidon about the sixteenth year of Davids reign & the Argonautic expedition being about three generations later will be about 300 three hundred years later then where the Greeks have placed it.

And the e Emperor Iulian in his fourth Oration: Nam cum cæteri omnes, ut uno verbo dicam populi menses ad Lunæ cursus accomodentur nos soli cum Ægyptijs ad solaris circuitus annorum dies metimur.

Bacchus the conqueror loved two weomen a[103] Venus & b[104] Ariadne He was a[105] caught in Bed with Venus in Phrygia according to a[106] Homer just before he came over the Hellespont & invaded Thrace, & he married Ariadne the daughter of Minos according to b[108] Hesiod. By the authority therefore of Homer & Hesiod, who wrote before the Egyptians & Greeks had corrupted their antiquities, the great Bacchus was contemporary to Venus the mother of Æneas & to Ariadne the daughter of Minos & mistress of Theseus & mother of Phlyas & Eumedon two Argonauts, & therefore his Expedition into Asia India & Thrace was but one generation before the Argonautic expedition. And by the consent of all antiquity this Bacchus was the same deified king of Egypt with Osiris. Herodotus c[109] tells us that this was the opinion of the Ægyptians themselves & Diodorus d[110] that when Semele brought forth the Grecian Bacchus her father Cadmus referred his birth to Iupiter as if Osiris was born anew & that a report was thereupon spread that Semele the daughter of Cadmus had conceived Osiris of Iupiter.

By the authority of both Homer & Hesiod who wrote before the Egyptians & Greeks had corrupted their antiquities, the great Bacchus made his expedition into Syria, India & Thrace about one generation before the Argonautick expedition, & therefore this Bacchus was one {&} the same king with Sesostris. ffor he was caught in bed with Venus in Phrygia according to Homer just before he came over the Hellespont & invaded Thrace: & he married Ariadne the daughter of Minos according to Hesiod, & by

– who were Argonauts. This Bacchus was caught in bed with Venus the mother of Æneas in Phrygia according to b[111] Homer just before he came over the Hellespont & invaded Thrace; & he married Ariadne the daughter of Minos according to c[112] Hesiod: & therefore by the authority of both Homer & Hesiod who wrote before the Egyptians & Greeks had corrupted their antiquities, this Bacchus was one generation older then the Argonauts. And being king of Egypt at the same time with Sesostris they must be one & the same king. p. 15. l. 28. – – – – – – – – – before the birth of Minos 12, 16. 48. 192

And the builders of the Pyramids reigned at Memphis & by consequence after Mœris.

p. 18. We have shewed that 4 Troy was taken about 79 years after the death of Solomon, 3 that the Argonautic expedition was about 45 years after it & 2 that Sesostris & the great Bacchus & by consequence also Osiris were one & the same king of Egypt with Sesac & came out of Egypt in the fift year of Rehoboam to invade the nations & 6 that the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus was 80 or almost 80 years after the taking of Troy or about 159 years after the death of Solomon ‡ < insertion from lower down f 90r > ‡ & that Cadmus & Europa came into Greece about the sixteenth year of Davids reign & Minos was born in the 20th or 22th year thereof; 7 that Lycurgus reignd at Sparta & gave the Disc ann 1 Olymp 18 or 273 years after the death of Solomon the Quinquertium being at that time added to the Ol. games: 5 that the Phenicians of Tyre were driven from the red sea by the Edomites about 87 years after the death of Solomon, & within a year or two began to make long viages upon the mediterranean sailing to Spain & beyond under Melcartus. And these periods being settled it remains that we shew how the rest of the antiquities of Greece Egypt Assyria Chaldea & Media may suit with these < text from f 90r resumes > : it remains that we shew how the rest of the antiquities of Greece Egypt & Assyria may suit with these recconings.

<90v>

& that the first Messenian warr ended about 350 years after the death of Solomon

We hav now shewed that the Phenicians of Sidon under the conduct of Cadmus & his brothers came into Greece with letters & other arts about the sixteenth year of king Davids reign & that Minos was then born of Europa; that Sesostris & the great Bacchus & by consequence also Osiris were one & the same king of Egypt with Sesac & came out of Egypt in the fift year of Rehoboam to invade the nations; that the Argonautic expedition was about 44 years after the death of Solomon; that Troy was taken about 76 or 78 years after his death; that the Phœnicians of Tyre were driven from the red sea by the Edomites about 87 years after his death & within a year or two began to make long voiages upon the mediterranean sailing to Spain & beyond under a commander whom for his discoveries they honoured with the names of Melcartus & Hercules; 6 that the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus was about 158 years after the death of that king; that Lycurgus reigned at Sparta & gave the three Discs to the Olympic treasury An. 1 Olymp 18 7 or 273 years after the death of that king, the Quinquertium being at that time added to the Olympic games & that the Greeks began about the same time to build triremes; 8 that the first Messenian warr ended about 350 years after the death of that king; & that Phidon was contemporary to Solon & presided in the Olympic games in the 49th Olympiad that is 397 years after the death of that king & that Solon visited Crœsus Ann. 4 Olymp 57 or 431 years after the death of that king. And these periods being settled they become a foundation for building the Chronology of the ancient times upon them: & nothing more remains for setling such a chronology then to shew how the rest of the antiquities of Greece, Egypt, Assyria, Chaldea & Media may consist with these periods.

pag. 21When the Greeks & Latins – – – – originals any further
Whilst Bacchus made his expedition – – – – was the Ionic Migration.
When Sesostris returned from Thrace – – – – – Rehoboam's or thereabouts.

688 Cyrus obit an. 4, Olymp. 62. Marmor structa ann 1, Olymp 129. Cyrus imperat Medis an. 1. Olymp 61. Diff. an 4, 68 = 272 631. 157. 3. 2. 28. 94. 3. / 13mathML formula 53mathML formula

that the Greeks began to send Colonies into Sicily in the 10th or 11th Olympiad & to build &

that the Greek began to build triremes

– added to the Olympic games & that the Greeks began about this time to build Triremes.

But the times set down in the Marbles before the Persian Empire began being collected by recconing the reigns of kings equipollent to generations & three generations to an hundred years, & the reigns of kings one with another being shorter in the proportion of about 3 to 5 or 4 to 7: the Chronology set down in the Marbles before the conquest of Media by Cyrus will approach the truth much nearer by shortening the times before that conquest in the proportion of 3 to 5 or rather in the proportion of 4 to seven. Cyrus conquered the Medes An. 4 Olymp. 60, & the Cyrrheans were conquered An. 2 Olymp. 47 according to the Marbles. And the difference is 54 years. Which being shortned in the proportion of 7 to 4 becomes 31 years. And these years subducted from An 4 Olymp 60 produce an 1 Olymp. 53. And by the like correction of the Marbles Alcmæon enterteined & conducted the messengers whom Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delpos An 1 Olymp. 58. And the tyranny of Pisistratus began at Athens An. 3 Olymp. 57.

297. 29. 16mathML formula

Iphitus a presided both in the temple – – – – & therefore not to be admitted.

Cyprus took Babylon.

And by the like correction of the Marbles Alcmæon enterteined & conducted the messengers whom Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos Ann. 1 Olymp. 58 that is four years before the conquest of Sardes by Cyrus: And the tyranny of Pisistratus which by the marbles began at Athens Ann 4 Olymp 54 began Ann 3 Olym 57, & Solon died before the end of the next year. Ann. 3 Olymp. 57. And by applying the like correction to the Chronology of Eusebius & other ancient Greeks the Legislature of Draco which they place upon the 4th year of the 39th Olympiad will fall upon the 4th year of the 48th Olympiad the 1st year of the 49th And the Legislature of Solon which Plutarch places upon the 3d year of Olymp. 46 will fall upon the 4th year of Olymp. 52, that is, upon the year before the taking of Cyrrha: which makes it probable that Solon was Archon of Athens when the Amphictyons by his advice began that warr.

– latter part of his reign, & we have placed it upon the ninth year thereof, Ann. 3 Olymp. 57, & the legislature of Solon eighteen years earlier & that of Draco fifteen years earlier then that of Solon. When Solon left Sardes – – end of the year, suppose Ann 4 Olymp. 57. And by this recconing the objection of Plutarch –

– be inserted between Ramesses & Mœris

<91r>

The Cyrreans conquered An. 2 Olymp 47 − An. 1. 61 1 = An. 3. O. 13 = 55 An. | 31mathML formula = 3mathML formula. 7 | An 1. O 53

Legislature of Solon An 3 Ol. 46. Diff A. 1. 61 = An 2 O 14 = 58. | 33 = 1. 8 | An 4. O. 52

Crœsus consulted the Oracle at Delph. An 1. Ol. 56. Diff A 1 O 61 = O 5 = 20 | 11mathML formula = 3mathML formula. 2 | An 1 Ol. 58.

Legislature of Draco An. 4. Ol. 39. Diff An 1 Ol. 61 = A 1 O 21 = 85. | 48mathML formula = 10mathML formula. 12 | An. 1 Ol. 49

Tyranny of Pisistratus An 4 Ol. 54. Diff A 1 O 61 = A1 O 6 = 25. | 14mathML formula. = 2mathML formula. 3 | An 3 Ol. 57

Death of Solon

(which is according to the course of nature) the fourten reigns of the kings of Alba which preceded the building of Troy may amount to about 280 years & these years counted from the taking of Troy end in the 37th Olymp. And the seven kings of Rome, , at about 17 years a piece (for five of these seven kings were slain & one deposed) may amount to 119 years which counted backwards fom the Regifuge & the beginning of the Consuls will end in the same 37th Olympiad & there place the building of Rome

– by ages they meant Reigns of the kings of the Latines at Alba, & recconed the first fourteen reigns at about 432 years & the following reigns of – – – – too long for the course of nature. And by this recconing they placed the building of Rome upon the sixt or seventh Olympiad. Varro placed it in the first year of the seventh Olympiad & was therein generally followed by the Romans. But this can scarce be true. ffor I do not meet with any instance in all history since Chronology was certain, wherein seven kings (most of which were slain) reigned 244 years in continual succession. The fourteen reigns of the kings of the Latines at 20 years a piece one with another amount unto 280 years, & these years counted from the taking of Troy end in the 38th Olympiad. And the seven Reigns of the kings of Rome, five of them being slain & a sixt deposed, may at a moderate recconing amount to 14 or 16 years a piece one with another. Let them be recconed at 17 years a piece & they will amount to 119 years which counted backward from the Regifuge will end in the 38 Olympiad. And by these two recconings Rome was built in the 38 Olympiad or thereabout. The whole time of one & twenty reigns at 19 years a piece amounts to 399 years. And these years counted backward from the Regifuge places the taking of Troy 74 years after the death of Solomon. / The 280 & the 119 years together make up 399 years the whole time between the taking of Troy & the regifuge. And the same number of years arises by computing the 21 reigns at 19 years a piece. Let these years be counted backwards from the regifuge & they will place the taking of Troy about 74 years after the death of Solomon. And

The five reigns following vizt those of Samedon, Sicyon, Polybus, Ianiscus, Phæstus Adrastus, after the rate of 18 years a piece take up 90 years & end 65 years after the death of Solomon, & then reigned / And the next king Lamedon was contemporary to Pelops. / Ac/ Sicyon was the son of Pelops as Pausanias reports from Ibicus, Adrastus reigned at Sicyon in the time of the first warr against Thebes

pag 31. lin.

Ægialeus was the first king of Sicyon & yet is made above five hundred years older then Phoroneus by some Chronologers. But Acusilaus & Anticlides an ancient author cited by Pliny & Plato in his Timeus accounted Phoroneus the oldest king in Greece & Apollodorus d[113] tells us that Ægialeus was the brother of Phoroneus. Ægialeus died without issue & after him reigned Europs Telchin Apis Lamedon Sicyon Polybus Adrastus Agamemnon. And Sicyon gave his name to the kingdom – – as he ought to be. For Apis or Epopeus & Nicteus the guardian of Labdacus were slain in battel about the tenth year of Solomon as above; & the first four kings of Sicyon Ægialeus Europs Telchin Apis after the rate of about twenty years to a reign take up about 80 years: & these years counted upwards from the tenth year of Solomon, place the beginning of the reign of Ægialeus upon the twelft year of Samuel or thereabout. And about that time began the reign of Phoroneus at Argos Apollodorus e[115] calls Adrastus king of Argos: but f[116] Homer tells us that he reigned first at Sicyon. He e[117] was at the first war against Thebes. Some place Ianiscus & Phæstus between Polybus & Adrastus, but without any certainty

<91v>

37 345) 20mathML formula 825 − 480 = 345. 912 − 655 = 257.

– Abia & Asa. And Idomæneus the grandson of Minos was at the war of Troy. And Hiram – – – fled to Europe. So then the Argonautic expedition was about thre generations & the taking of Troy about four generations later then the coming of Cadmus & Europa into Greece

The Canaanites who fled from Ioshua retired in great numbers into Egypt, & there conquered Timaus, Thams or Thammuz king of the lower Egypt, & reigned there under their kings Salatis, Beon, Apachnas, Aphopis, Ianias, Assis &c untill the days of Samuel. They fed on flesh & sacrificed men after the manner of the Phenicians & were called shepherds by the Egyptians who lived only on the fruits of the earth & abominated flesheaters. The upper parts of Egypt were in those days under many kings reigning at Coptos, Thebes, This, Elephantis &c which by conquering one an other grew by degrees into one kingdom. And over this kingdom reigned Misphramuthosis in the days of Eli.

Anno ante Christum 1120. About this time Mephres reigned over the upper Egypt from Syene to Heliopolis & his successor Misphramuthosis made a lasting warr upon the shepherds soon after, & caused many of them to fly into Palestine, Idumea, Syria & Libya & under Lelex, Æzeus, Inachus, Pelasgus, Æolus the first, Abas, Cecrops & other captains into Greece. And these strangers built the first houses in Greece.

1070 Abbas the father of Acrisius & Prætus comes into Greece.

625 Nabopolassar commander of the Assyrian forces in Chaldea revolts from the / & the Sidonians under

637 Phraortes slain by the Assyrians. Astyages succeeds him

635 The Scithians invade Media & from thence forward reign over Media 28 years

625 Nabopolassar

608 Nineveh taken

667 Asserhadon dyes & is succeeded by Saosducinus. Manasses is set at liberty

647 Saosduchinus king of Assyria {dies} & is succeeded by Chyniladon.

637 Phraortes slain by the Assyrians & succeeded by Astyages

635 The Scythians invade Media & from thenceforward reign over the Medes 28 years.

625. Nabopolassar commander of the Assyrian forces in Chaldea revolts from Chyniladon king of Assyria & becomes king of Babylon & Chyniladon is succeeded either now or soon after at Nineveh by Sarac

608 Nineveh

* So Diodorus: They say that the Chaldæans in Babylon being colonies of Egyptians, became famous for Astrology having learnt it from the priests of Egypt.       Diodor. l. 1, p. 51, d.

{building}. The reign of Psammiticus began about 655 years before Christ, & I place the founding of this Temple by Menes about 257 years earlier. But the Priests of Egypt.

– from Menes to Mœris (who reigned 200 years before Psammiticus) there were 330 –

The people all the sea coasts of the Philistims as far as Sidon & give the name of Phœnicia thereunto. About this time Abas the father of Acrisius & Prætus came from Egypt.

And Estiæus, who wrote an history of Egypt, said that the priests who survived this disaster, taking the sacra of Iupiter Enyalius came to Sennaar in Babylon p. 26.

Berosus wrote a history of 480 years. Plin. l. 6. c. 55. Biblioth p. 20.

Tyre built 80 or 90 years before the taking of Troy Biblioth. p. 24. 75 years. Boch. p. 860.

Strabo de Phœnicibus: Extra columnas Herculis progressi sunt et urbes condidere & in media Libyæ ora maritima poculo post Trojana tempore. Strabo l. 1. p. 48. Boch. p. 708

Plin. l. 7. cap. 56. Plumbum ex Cassitende insula primus apportavit Midacritus. Legendum Melcartus id est Phœnicius Hercules. Nam Midacritus Græcum nomen est. Boch. p. 723

<92r>

Hercules having killed Augeas held his Olympic at Elis.

Teucer the son of Telamon built Salamis in Cyprus.

Crete so called from Cres one of the Curetes who nursed up Iupiter. Hi Cnosson & Cy{illeg} templum condiderunt Euseb. Chron.

Busiris Neptuni & Libyæ Epaphi filiæ filius in Ægypto regnat. Euseb Chron.

In Creta regnavit I Apteras 0. II Lapis. 40. III Asterius 55. fferum reptum 85. Minos regnat in Creta 97, & Celeus in Eleusine.

Anno Abrahami nati 56 regnavit Cres in Creta vel 128. Anno 451 Cydon. An. 513 Apteras. 544 Lapis. 569 Asterius. 572 vel 587 Europa raptor vel 694 vel 732. 599 ferrum in Ida repertum. 611 Minos regnat. 765 Minos leges dat. 947 Codrus interficitur.

Bochart shews [that the Curetes were a colony of the Philistim &] that the Philistims were called Crethim by the Hebrews & their country Creth, & that the Curetes were a colony of the Philistims & had their name from thence. And Eusebius tells us that Crete had its name from Cres one of the Curetes who nursed up Iupiter. Whence its probable that when the Edomites fled from David & mixed with the Philistims, & the Philistims by their assistance & skill in sea affairs took Sidon, & some of them went thence to Crete with Europa & her brother Atymnus to seek new seats its probable I say that many of the Philistims were mixed with this colony; & that thence came the name of the Curetes & of the Island Crete. Some Egyptians might come to Crete in the days of Eli or Samuel; but I meet with no account of them.

This fable of the four ages seems to have been formed by the Curetes in the time of the fourth age. These Curetes according to Bochart were Philistims. He shews that the Philistims were by the Heberws Called Crethim or Cerethim & their country Creth, & thinks that the Curetes & the Island Crete had their names from thence. And Eusebius saith that Crete had its name from Cres, one of the Curetes who nursed up Iupiter. Whatever was their original they came into Asia minor & Europe with the Phenicians of Sidon & particularly into Crete with Europa & her brother Atymnus & they measured the first four ages of their new world by the reigns of the first four kings of Crete, Asterius, Minos, Deucalion & Idomeneus, giving the name of the iron age to the age in which they lived, as Hesiod called the fift age the iron age because he lived {in} it. And because they came into Europe about the time of Deucalions flood, they seem to have feigned that the world perished by that flood, & was restored by Deucalion & Pyrrha throwing stones over their heads to produce new men & weomen in the beginning of their golden age. This age therefore began about the 16th or 18th year of David. And about thirty years after when Minos was grown up began the silver age [& upon his death began the brazen age which lasted till the Argonautic expedition: for Deucalion the son of Minos was in that expedition.] His son Deucalion was in the Argonautic expedition & his grandson Idomeneus warred at Troy.] Whatever was their original they came with the Phenicians from Sidon into Asia minor & Europe & particularly into Crete under Europa & her brother Atymnus about the time of Deucalions flood, & measured the first four ages of their new world by the reigns of their first four kings of Crete, Asterius the husband of Europa the Saturn of the Latines; Minos her son the Iupiter nursed up by the Curetes, who was celebrated for justice & in whose days the Greeks began to plow & sow & whose sepulchre they shewed as the sepulchre of Iupiter, Deucalion his son who reigned till the Argonautic expedition & Idomeneus his grandson who warred at Troy. So then Deucalions flood was about the 16th year of David. [At that time Lycaon died & [his youngest son Oenotrus went soon after into Italy.] & Hellen the son of Deucalion began his reign in Thessaly] At that time the reign of Hellen the son of Deucalion began in Thessaly, & that of Lycaon ended in Arcadia, Canaus then reigned in Attica & soon after was succeeded by Amphictyon the predecessor of Erechtheus.

– till the birth of his grandson Arcas & some years after.

Herodotus tells us that the Phœnicians who came with Cadmus – & Idomeneus his grandson warred at Troy. So then the <92v> {flood} of Deucalion was about the 16th year of the reign of King David. At that time the reign of Hellen the son of Deucalion began in Thessaly, & that of Lycaon ended in Arcadia. Cranaus then reigned in Attica, & soon after was succeeded by Amphictyon the predecessor of Erechtheus.

I have now carried up the antiquities of Greece as high as to the first walling of cities about –

– the Sun would move from the winter solstice 2deg. 0gr. 9′ & so be in Pisces symbol 0gr. 9′ counting the signs from the Equinox.

Hesiod tells us – – – sunset. Its probable that he had this by tradition from Chiron Musæus & their assistants who had a few years before formed the Asterisms & setled the Equinoxes & Solstices, & for that end observed the heliacal risings & settings of the stars as the Egyptians had done before. The suns Aphelium was then in Taurus symbol 24gr And in the sixty days above mentioned & almost six hours more from noon to sun-set, the sun would move from the winter solstice 2 sig. 0gr 9′           Which added to 2sig. 0gr 9′ gives the Longitude of Arcturus from the summer solstic 2sig 12gr. 1] And the center of the Sun was elevated by refraction 32′. The elevation of the Pole at Mount Helicon where Hesiod lived was 37gr 45′ according to Ptolomy, & in that Latitude an arch of the Ecliptic below the horizon which answers to the altitude of 32′ is 40′.

When the center of the sun sets visibly it is 33′ below the Horizon being so much elevated by the refraction of the Atmosphere & the part of the Ecliptic between the horizon & the center of the sun is an arch of 41'mathML formula. And when the star rises visibly it is 33′ below the horizon being so much elevated by the refraction of the Atmosphere & the arch between the horizon & the star in the parallel of the stars latitude is about 100′ And these 141mathML formula' being added to the longitude of the star found above gives its correct longitude Virgo symbol 13. 44| Which wants but 17mathML formula minutes of the longitude of this star at the time of the Argonautic Expedition set down above vizt Virgo symbol 13.24.52" [Virgo symbol 13.17.37.] And so small a difference was scarce sensible in the coarse observations of the ancients & might arise either from some uneavenness in the visible horizon, or from the dazzeling of the eye by the setting sun so as to disable it from seing the rising star till a minute or two after sunset.

The Council at Thermopylæ included 12 nations of the Greeks without Athens & therefore Amphictyon did not reign at Athens. He might endeavour to succeed Oranous his wife's father & be prevented by Erechtheus.

[Editorial Note 35] <93v>

Eusebius ✝[118] tells us that Meon the father of Cybele reigned in Lydia then called Meonia from him. And Diodorus[119] tells us that Meon was the first king of Lydia & Phrygia. And Herodotus p. 45 mentions him twice by the name of Manis the eldest king of Lydia ancestor to Atys. And Plutarch de Iside mentions him by the name of Manis the Phrygian Hero, from whom they called all Heroic actions Manica. And Dionys. Hal. makes Cotys the son of Manes. And Apollodorus places Electra the daughter of Atlas in Phrygia, & makes Teucer of the same age. Cotys married the daughter of Tullus an Autochthane. And the Autochthons got Phrygia not long after into their own hands & made it a distinct kingdom under Dardanus who married Teucers daughter Batteia & founded the Trojan kingdom. Tyrrhenus the son of Atys the son of Cotys the son of Manis led a colony out of Lydia into that part of Italy now called Tuscany And therefore this colony was not above 4 generations after the coming of Meon or Manes into Mœonia. From Lydus the brother of Tyrrhenus & son & successor of Atys the people were called Lydians & the country Lydia.

The war between the Thessali called Centaurs & the Lapithæ about 20 or 25 years before the Argonautic Expedition. The hunting of the Calydonian Boar about a year or two after that Expedition. The war of the 7 Captains at Thebes about 8 or 10 years after that expedition. The coming of Oenotrus or Ianus into Italy about the 25t year of David The coming of Asterius or Saturn into Italy about the 4th year of Solomon. The coming of Evander & his mother into Italy about the 30 or 35 year of Solomon. The burning of Mount Ida in which the Idæi found iron about the 25 year of David. The rapture of Ganimede by Tantalus about the 25 year of Solomons reign. The coming of Pelops into Greece about the middle of Solomons reign. Lavinium built in Italy about 5 or 10 years after the taking of Troy & Alba about 30 years after Lavinium. The Bœotians being driven from Æna by the Thessali seize Cadmeis & call it Bœotia about 60 years after the taking of Troy Codrus slain about 90 years after the taking of Troy & the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus about 5 or 10 years after. The kingdom of Tyre erected by Abibalus the father of Hirom about the 16th year of David. The reign of Hiram began in the 33th year of David. Zanche built in Sicily 4     years after the flood of Ogyges &       years before the flood of Deucalion afterwards called Messena by the Messenians & then Mamertina by the Mamertines. Isthmian games instituted by Sisyphus King of Corinth in memory of Phryxus & Helle after their deaths about 25 years after the death of Solomon. The second Æolic migration (that under Archelaus son of Penthilus) 90 years after the Trojan war. The first Æolic migration (that under Penthilus base son of Orestes) from Aulis 50 or 60 years after the taking of Troy       The 3d remove of the Æoles under Grays the youngest son of Echelatus 5 years after the death of Codrus.

The kingdom of Tyre erected by Abibalus the father of Hiram about the 16th year of David. The death of Abibalus & beginning of the reign of Hiram in the 33th year of David (             ) The conflagration of mount Ida & invention of Iron about the 22th year of David The coming of Oenotrus or Ianus into Italy about the 25 year of David. The coming of Asterius or Saturn into Italy about the 4th year of Solomon. The coming of Evander & his mother Carmenta into Italy about the 35th year of Solomon. The rapture of Ganimede by Tantalus about the 5t year of Solomon. The coming of Pelops into Greece about the 24th year of Solomon The birth of Perseus & Minos about the middle of Davids reign. The birth of Theseus about the 32th year of Solomon. The end of the golden age & beginning of the reign of Minos & birth of Apis the father of Argus & the son of Iupiter & Niobe the daughter of Inachus she being the first woman with whom Iupiter lay during his reign on earth, was about the 3d or 4th year of Solomon & the coming of Asterius into Italy was about the same time. The death of Minos & end of the silver age & birth of Hercules the son of Iupiter & Alcmena she being the last woman with whom Iupiter lay during his reign on earth, was about the 10th year after the death of Solomon. The birth of Æneas the son of Anchises & Venus & the marriage of Vulcan & the same Venus (or Thoas & Callycopis) & adultery of Mars & the same Venus (or Hercules Ægyptius & Callycopis) & voyage of Thoas & the same Venus into Cyprus, about 10 or 11 years after the death of Solomon. The war between the Thessali called Centaurs & the Lapithæ about 20 or 25 years before the Argonautic expedition. The Isthmian games instituted by Sisyphus king of Corinth in memory of Phryxus & Helle about 15 or 20 years before that expedition. The hunting of the Calydonian Boar about a year or two after that expedition. The war of the seven captains at Thebes about 9 or 10 years after that Expedition. Phemonoe made the first <93r> Priestess of Iuno Argiva about the 12th year of Solomon. The erecting of the Amphictyonic Council at          by Amphictyon about the         year of David & at          by Acrisius at            about the         year of Solomon III 198 (126.

1386

Vpon his coming into Italy he built Lavinium & Alba was built 30 years after Lavinium & became the seat of his successors. When Rome was built a[120] is uncertain. The Romans usually recconed that it was built 244 years before the Consuls. which is after the rate of 35 years a piece to the seven kings of Rome one with another. If the 396 years between the taking of Troy & the Consuls be divided in proportion to the number of the 22 kings reigning in that interval the seven last will take up 126 years which is after the rate of 18 years a piece one with another & by this recconing the building of Rome will be about 126 years before the Consuls that is An. 3. Olymp. 36. It can not be much earlier because five of the seven kings were slain & a sixth was expelled before his death. About the same time that Rome was built, Battus went into Libya & built Cyrene.

1The return of Solon to Athens after a travel of ten years an 4 Olymp 57. 3The commencing of the Tyranny of Pisistratus an 1 Olymp 58. 2The death of Solon an. 3 Olymp. 58. 4The death of Pisistratus an 2 Olymp 65.

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Sennacherib, called Sargon by Isaias (Cap. XX.1) in the 14th year of Hezekiah, invaded Phœnicia & took several cities of Iudah & attempted Egypt; & Sethon or Sevechus & Tirhakah kings of Egypt & Ethiopia coming against him, he lost in one night 185000 men, as some say by a plague or perhaps by lightning or a fiery wind which blows sometimes in the neighbouring deserts, or as others by being disarmed by mise, or perhaps surprized by Sethon & Tirhakah; & returning in hast to Nineveh was there slain soon after by two of his sons who fled into Armenia, & his son Asserhadon succeeded him. At that time did Merodach Baladan or Mardocempad King of Babylon, send an Embassy to Hezekiah king of Iudah.

Asserhadon corruptly called Sarchedon by Tobit (ch. I.21) & Assardin by the Seventy reigned at Nineveh in the year of Nabonassar 34 & at Babylon in the year of Nabonassar 68, & then peopled Samaria with captives brought from several parts of Assyria, the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites, the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, the Elamites (Ezra IV.2, 9) & therefore reigned over all these nations. Pekah & Rezin kings of Samaria & Damascus invaded Iudea in the first or second year of Ahaz, & within 65 years after, that is in the 21th or 22th of Manasseh, Samaria ceased to be a people, (Isa. VII.8) vizt by carrying the remainder of Samaria into captivity & placing these nations in their room. Then he invaded Iudea, took Azot, carried Manasses captive to Babylon, & captivated also Egypt Thebais & Ethiopia above Thebais, & by this war he seems to have put an end to the reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt, anno Nabonass. 77 or 78.

In the reigns of Sennacherib & Asserhadon the Assyrian Empire seems arrived at its greatness, being united under one Monarch & conteining Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldæa, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phœnicia, Egypt, Ethiopia & part of Arabia, & reaching eastward into Elymais & Parætacene. For Strabo reccons these two among the Provinces to which the Monarchy had given the name of Assyria, & Herodotus makes Parætacene a Province of the Medes. And if Chalach & Habor where Salmanasser placed part of the ten Tribes be Colchos & Iberia (as some think & as is probable from the circumcision used in these nations in the days of Herodotus) we are also to add these two Provinces with the two Armenias Pontus & Cappadocia, as far as the river Halys. For Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia as far as to that river were called Syrians by the Greeks both before & after the days of Cyrus.

Yet the Medes revolted from the Assyrians in the latter end of the reign of the reign of Sennacherib, I think upon the slaughter of his army neare Egypt & his flight to Nineveh. ffor at that time the estate of Sennacherib was troubled so that Tobit could not go into Media as he had done before (Tobit I 15) And sometime after Tobit advised his Son to go into Media where he might expect peace while Nineveh, according to the prophesy of Ionah, should be destroyed. Ctesias wrote that Arbaces a Mede being admitted to see Sardanapalus in his palace, & observing his voluptuous life amongst weomen, revolted with the Medes & in conjunction with Belesis a Babylonian overcame him & caused him to set fire to his Palace & burn himself: But he is contradicted by other Authors of better credit. For Duris a[121] & many others wrote that Arbaces <95r> upon being admitted into the Palace of Sardanapalus & seing his effeminate life slew himself, or perhaps was slain. And Cleitarchus[122] that Sardanapalus died of old age after he had lost his dominion over Syria, suppose by the revolt of the western nations. And Herodotus that the Medes revolted first & defended their liberty by force of arms against the Assyrians without conquering them, & at their first revolting had no king but after some time set up Dejoces over them & built Ecbatane for his residence & that Dejoces reigned only over Media & had a peaceable reign, but his son & successor Phraortes made war upon his neighbours & invaded the Assyrians but was slain by them in that war, & that the Syrians also & other western nations at length revolted from the Assyrians being encouraged thereunto by the example of the Medes, who according to Herodotus were the first of the conquered nations that revolted.

Now Asserhadon seems to be the Sardanapalus who died of old age after the revolt of Syria, the name Sardanapalus being derived from Asser-hadon-pul, & his fathers Anacyndaraxis, Cyndaraxis or Anabaxaris being corruptly written for Sennacherib. Sardanap. built Tarsus & Anchiale in one day & therefore reigned over Cilicia before the revolt of the western nations. And if he be Asserhadon he was succeeded by Saosduchinus in the year of Nabonassar 81. And by this revolution Manasses was set at liberty to return home & fortify Ierusalem. And the Egyptians also after the Assyrians had reigned three years over them (Isa. XX.3, 4) were set at liberty & created twelve contemporary kings over themselves as above. The Scythians of Touron or Turquestan beyond the river Oxus began in those days to infest Persia, & by one of their inrodes might give occasion to the revolt of the western nations.

In the year of Nabonassar 101 Saosduchinus was succeeded at Babylon by Chyniladan & I think at Nineveh by that Nebuchadonosor who is mentioned in the book of Iudith. For the history of that king suits best with these times. For there it is said that Nebuchadonosor king of the Assyrians who reigned at Nineveh that great city, in the twelft year of his reign, made war upon Arphaxad king of the Medes & was then left alone by a defection of the auxiliary nations of Cilicia, Damascus, Syria, Phœnicia, Moab Ammon & Egypt, & without their help routed the army of the Medes & slew Arphaxad. And Arphaxad is there said to have built Ecbatane & therefore was either Dejoces or his son Phraortes who might finish the city founded by his father. And Herodotus tells the same story of a king of Assyria who routed the Medes & slew their king Phraortes, & saith that in the time of this war the Assyrians were left alone by the defection of the auxiliary nations being otherwise in good condition. Arphaxad was therefore the Phraortes of Herodotus, & by consequence was slain neare the beginning of the reign of Iosiah – For this war was made after Phœnicia, Moab, Ammon & Egypt had been conquered & revolted (Iudeth I.7, 8, 9.) & by consequence after the reign of Asserhadon who conquered them. It was made when the Iews were newly returned from captivity, & the vessels & altar & temple were sanctified after the profanation (Iudeth IV.3,) that is, soon after Manasseh their king, had been carried captive to Babylon by Asserhadon, & upon –

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When Sabacon had reigned some time in Egypt (Herodotus says 50 years, Eusebius only 12) he quitted the government of Egypt, being terrified, saith Herodotus, by an Oracle & Sethon Priest of Vulcan, saith Herodotus, succeeded him there & in his reign Sennacherib besieged Pelusium called Libnah in scripture & there lost his army. in the time of this siege a great multitude of feild mise eat the Quivers & Bow-strings & straps of the shields of his soldiers & the next day the Egyptians routed them with great slaughter in memory of which the Egyptians made the statue of Sethon with a mouse in his hand & this inscription Let him be pious who looks upon me. This was in the 14th year of Hezekiah & therefore the king of Egypt on whom Hezekiah trusted (          ) was Sethon, & Senacherib made war upon them both as confederates against him & besieged Libnah that is Pelusium at the same time that he sent Rashakeh against Hezekiah, & Tirhakah the successor of Sabacon in the kingdom of Ethiopia came down with an army of Ethiopians to assist Sethon & in conjunction with the Egyptians slew 185000 Assyrians & put the king of Assyria to flight. This victory being in the 33th year of Nabonassar makes it probable that Sabacon invaded Egypt about the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar & that some Egyptians flying then from Sabacon carried the Egyptian year to Babylon & founded that Æra. ffor the years of Nabonassar are Ægyptian.

In the 4th year of Hezekiah, Salmanassar beseiged Samaria becau{se} Hoshea had conspired with Sua king of Egypt & paid no tribute the year before as he used to do year by year, & therefore Sua was king of Egypt in the 3d year of Hezekiah. Sabacon, Sabachus, Sabah, Sua are the same. Africanus places Sevechus after Sabacus but these are also the same.

Tirhakah after this victory over the Assyrians became a considerable conqueror. Strabo calling him Tearco, saith that he went into Europe & as far as the straits mouth.

After these kings reigned Stephinates Niecepsos & Nechus the father of Psammiticus. Herodotus saith that Sabacon slew Nechus & put his son Psammiticus to flight. But this was done rather by the Assyrians the invasion of Egypt by Sabacon being long before the days of Psammiticus. Nicepsos with one Petosiris is reputed the inventor of Iudicial Astrology & the first that wrote the art of predicting by the starrs. And from Ægypt the study of Astrology went into Chaldæa. Iulius Firmicus calls him Ægypti potentissimum Imperatorem.

At this time Ægypt was divided into two or more kingdomes. One kingdom was at Memphys another at Tanis or Zoan & perhaps a third at Sais. the two first are mentioned by Isaias I will set, saith he, the Egyptians – – – – – shall serve the Assyrians.

In the days of these kingdoms Asserhadon king of Assyria invaded Iudea & carried Manasses captive to Babylon 2 Chron. 33.11 & Isa 19.24, 25. This conquest was therefore after Asserhadon became king of Babylon, that is, after the year of Nabonassar 67. The Iews say that Manasseh was captivated in the 22th year of his reign, that is <96v> in the year of Nabonassar 71. Then Asserhadon sent Tartan against Ashdod or Azot a town of Palestine neare Egypt & he took it & afterwards the Assyrians invaded conquered & captivated Egypt & Ethiopia, Isa 20. But the dominion of the Assyrians over Egypt lasted only two or three years. Diodorus calls it an anarchy of two years. Isaias represents it by his going naked & barefoot three years. The Lord said – – – – – – almost ever since in servitude

In the 12t year of Darius Nothus – – – – – At that time Artaxerxes Ochus carried away all the records – – – – – years in that interval.

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The first great kingdom in the world seems to have been that of Egypt. For Pliny – – – – Nineveh & Ecbatane.

Ægypt is a long & narrow tract of land – – – Lord of both Thebais & Egypt. This was the original of that monarchy out of four smaller kingdoms, but how those arose out of smaller is harde to relate by reason of the great antiquity of the kingdoms. Yet some footsteps there are of their first original.

For in the seven years of plenty – – – Δήμοι of Greece.

Now these cities were at first free absolute & independent

The manner how the first cities of Egypt grew into kingdoms will be best understood by the constitution of the kingdom of Athens. ffor the Athenians were a colony of Egypt – – – – – – – – – & by consequence that the Egyptian Cities in time of war convened in common councils to consult of their common safety & solemnized those councils with great sacrifices & festivals for assembling the people & by means of those Councils grew into kingdoms the captains of their armies becoming their kings much after the manner of the Cities of Attica in the reigns of Cecrops Amphictyon & Theseus.

The occasion of the Egyptians growing from free cities into kingdoms so early seems to be the incursions of the Sheepherds or Arabians – – – – – – before the days of Iacob. For to these enemies the new king of Egypt who rose after the death of Ioseph & his brethren seems to have had respect when he said Behold &c – – – – for a long time together.

Artaphanus tells us that Palmonothes king of Egypt was the first that built a Temple in the lower Egypt & that he built one at Heliopolis the Metropolis of that kingdom. Also that his daughter Merrhis was married to one Chenephres king of a region above Memphis. For then, saith he, Egypt had many kings. He adds that this daughter was shee that educated Moses & that Moses found out the arts & philosophy of the Egyptians & divided the kingdom into 36 Nomi or governments & assigned to each their rites of worshipping the deity & the sacred letters. Which he did to that end that he might render the Monarchy firm to Chenephres: because before that time the multitude not being reduced into distinct order did sometimes eject & sometimes create kings & often the same but sometimes others By all which he got the love of the people & was honoured by the Priests with the name of Hermes or Mercury. Here Artaphanus being a Christian ascribes some things to Moses which do not well agree to him, but yet he lets us understand that the kingdoms of Egypt were at first like those of Greece, many in number & free fom Tyranny, the people placing & displacing their kings that is the captains of their armies till the government was new modelled & reduced into the 36 Nomi & that this regulation was as old as the first Temple in the lower Egypt Whence I gather that it was older then the Pyramids whose very accurate & magnificent structures shew that architecture was then grown to a good degree of perfection, & that the first Egyptians worshipped only on Altars without Temples like the Patriarchs & the Persians in their Prytanea, untill their cities began to assemble in common councils & at their common charges for the use of those councils <97v> erected Temples. where the Councills met as the Greeks did afterwards in imitation of the Egyptians, & the Latines in imitation of the Greeks. He lets us understand also that the Egyptians attributed this regulation of their government to him whom they accounted the author of their arts & sacred rites & letters & whom their Priests honoured by the name of Mercury or Hermes, that is to Thoth whom some would have to be Moses or Ioseph, but who was really an Egyptian & reigned in Egypt soon after the days of Osiris & Isis. And indeed it is not at all improbable that Thoth who had seen Egypt afflicted & almost oppressed by two great & very dangerous wars & by whose council they were saved from ruin in them both, should consult how to strengthen his Egyptians against their enemies for the future. He who by his policy had armed their last enemies with iron weapons & sent them against the eastern people to divert them from Egypt, would scarce fail afterwards to arm his own Egyptians & take care that they should be trained up in the use of their arms, for which end it would be requisite that they should meet together at times appointed. While he saw Egypt divided amongst the families of the Sons of Misraim & every family daily dividing & subdividing into several cities it was obvious for so great a politician to consider how to unite & strengthen them by common councils. He that was by all antiquity reputed the author of merchandise was most probably the author of conventions for merchandising ffor what else means his being reputed the God of publick ways but that he was the first who contrived the free communication between the cities of Egypt for uniting them in a good corespondence with one another, & assembling them upon set occasions. And to whom can we better ascribe the sacred rites & solemnities of the several Nomi of Egypt in their solemn feasts then to him who contrived the figures & solemnities of their Gods & in particular instituted the sacred rites & ffestivals of Osiris & Isis which were observed all the Egyptians? ffor he was their great legislator both in things civil & sacred, & no man ever had a greater authority among them. Isis is indeed recconed their first Law-maker, but shee governed them by his counsil, & the Egyptians were so retentive of his institutions that it was difficult for following kings to alter them. [Every Nomus had its proper God [& every God his proper worship & therefore the division of Egypt into Nomi was as ancient as the worship of those Gods] & worshipped]

<98v> [Editorial Note 36]

And whilst in the first ages they placed & displaced their kings at pleasure which could not well be done without assembling together, it is to be conceived that they were originally free & absolute cities & upon the rise of wars whether among one another or against the shepherds their common enemy convened in common Councils to raise armies & place or displace captains over them as they saw occasion, untill their Captains grew potent over the people after the manner of the ancient kings of Greece & this was before the days of Ioseph. ffor the King of Egypt was then grown so potent as to say to Ioseph. According to thy word shall all my people be ruled – I am Pharaoh & without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt. Gen 41. And after this Ioseph reduced them to a further degree of subjection for he bought all their lands & persons for Pharaoh & removed the people to cities from one end of the borders of Egypt to the other end thereof. Gen. 47.21. That is he new modelled the government for establishing the dominion of Pharaoh & for that end either formed or new regulated the division of the Land into the Provinces called the Nomi & removed the people from one city to another for breaking their interests peopling the head cities of the Nomi & bring the whole land into a more regular subjection then before.

– & reduced into Nomi, that the Egyptians attributed this regulation of their government to him whom they accounted the author of their arts & sacred rites & letters & whom the Priests honoured by the name of Mercury, & that this regulation began with the building of the first Temples in the head cities of the Nomi. From whence I seem to gather these two things. ffirst, that this regulation {was} ancienter then the Pyramids; whose very accurate & magnificent structures argue that architecture was grown in Egypt to a great degree of perfection before they were built. And secondly that the Egyptians originally worshipped on altars only without Temples such as were the Prytanea of the Persians & built their first Temples at the common charge & for the common worship of several cities when & where they first began to convene in common Councils, as the Greeks & Latines also did.

Plutarch tells us that One of the Kings of Egypt for establishing his dominion divided the land into various religions according to the number of the Nomi, so that by their differences of religion they might be hindred from conspiring against their kings. But whilst I meet not with any instances of a king setting up more religions than one in his kingdom, it seems more probable that the diversity of religions in Egypt arose from the diversity of kingdoms there in the first ages, as it did in all other places. ffor in Syria & the neighbouring regions several kingdoms had their several Gods & every kingdom trusted in his own God in opposition to the Gods of the neighbouring kingdoms as we shewed above.

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nothing of the trade of Carpenters before Solomon sent to Hiram to supply him with such artificers, saying that there were none in Israel who could skill to hew timber like the Zidonians: nothing of Astronomy before the Egyptians under Ammon & Sesac applyed themselves to observe the heliacal risings & settings of the stars & reduce the year to a certain length for the sake of Navigation unless the Constellations mentioned by Iob were a little older. For he lived among the Edomites in the land of Vz the son of Dishon the son of Seir from whom mount Seir had its name. [For Esaw married Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the son of Dishon the son of Seir, And the red sea had its name not from its colour but from Edom & Erythra the names of Esau. And some tell us that king Erythra was buried in an Island of that sea neare the Persian gulph. Whence it follows that the Edomites navigated that sea from the days of Esau & from them Iob might have his Asterisms & the Egyptians some of theirs. Agriculture seems to have begun in Egypt: & scarce got into Phœnicia before the days of Isaac who sowed corn in Gerar in the borders of Egypt nor into Libya or Europe before the days of Ammon For he taught the Libyans to lay up the fruits of the earth & in his days Ceres brought Agriculture into Greece.] And when all these things spread themselves beyond the bounds of Arabia petrea & came into Egypt Libya Asia minor & Europe, then were they carried also into Chaldea Persia. Agriculture is first heard of in Egypt.

Diodorus tells us – & here by Busiris they mean Osiris. So then Osiris that is Sesac) carried Astronomy into Chaldea. And in those days architecture was also carried thither & beyond For Amenophis in the next age built the Memnonia at Susa. The first instances of good Architecture were the Temples & Palaces of Solomon & Hiram & the next were the Temples built in all Egypt by Sesostris & the Temple of Ceres at Eleusis. And the next were the Memnonia at Susa & the Temples of the Gods & Godesses in Cyprus & at Damascus. In Persia they erected no temple to the dead till above four hundred years after those days.

Agriculture is not mentioned in Phœnicia till Isaac sowed corn in Gerar in the borders of Egypt, nor in Libya till Ammon taught the Libyans to lay up the fruits of the earth: at which time Ceres brought it also into Greece, & Sesostris at the same time might carry it into Chaldea, & Susiana. For he | Bacchus is painted with bulls horns because he taught to plow with oxen.

Letters are by some ascribed to Thoth the secretary of Osiris & Isis & therefore began to be used in Egypt in their days.

So then as Sesostris left colonies of Egyptians at Colchos & mount Caucasus & the river Themodon so he carried Colonies

Sesostris therefore carried colonies into Chaldæa & there set on foot foot the Astronomy & sciences of Egypt. He might begin to do this in the days of Solomon in coasting Arabia felix & Persia with his fathers fleet & so be the principal Oannes. [And his successor Memnon carried architecture into Persia, building the Memnonia at Susa] Solomon built the Temple in Ierusalem, the first instance of good Architecture. Sesostris built the Temples of Egypt, Hir&am Cynyras & Benhadad those of Phenicia the oldest Temples which Lucian had seen. At the same time Temples began to be built in Europe. Then Memnon built the Memnonia at Susa. And at length the Temple of Iupiter Belus was built at Babylon assisted by a new Colony of Egyptians who fled into Chaldea from Sal together with the old Palace, I think by Nabonassar or his predecessor Semiramis upon the flight of the Egyptians into Chaldea from Sabacon the Ethiopian & set on foot Astrology & the Æra of Nabonassar. Agriculture flourished in Egypt before the days of Abraham. Then Isaac sowed corn in Gerar in the borders of Egypt. Afterwards Ammon taught the Libyans to live in towns & lay up the fruits of the earth & at the same time Ceres brought agriculture into Greece. And then Osiris taught the nations to plow with Oxen. And these are the originals of good Architecture & Agriculture.

– before Sesostris the founder of their Empire. Ægypt was at first divided into many small kingdoms like all other nations. And these kingdoms by degrees gres into one Monarchy before the days of Ammon. The head cities of some of these kingdoms were Pathors & Coptos & Siena, & Thebes & This & Mesir or Misraim And after the particular histories of these kingdoms were lost, its probable that the Priests of Egypt <99v> {collected} the names of as many of their kings as they could meet with & inserted them into the list of their monarchs who reigned before Sesostris And where one & the same man had several names whether genuine or corrupted, they have made them the names of several kings, & sometimes recconed famous men among their kings who reigned not, & thereby made a list of 330 kings of Egypt who reigned eleven thousand years before Sesostris And whereas Osiris was the name by which they worshipped Sesostris as a God, they have split the two names Osiris & Sesostris into two kings, & between them inserted the 330 kings who reigned 11000 years. What kings reigned before Misphagmuthosis, Amosis & Ammon, the immediate Predecessors of Sesostris , reduced all Egypt into one monarchy we do not undertake to describe. We meet with nothing memorable which any of them did & therefore we may with Herodotus omit them & consider only those whose actions are recorded & who reigned after the Gods. Ammon Osiris Isis & Orus Hercules Anubis & Vulcan, & their oldest successor Menes. For those reduced into due order will give us all or almost all the kings of Egypt from the days of the first expulsion of the shepherds & erecting of the monarchy of Egypt & reign of the Gods downwards to the conquest of Egypt by Lambyses. Sesostris reigned in the age of the Gods, being deified by the name of Osiris Hercules & Bacchus as above. And therefore Menes Nitocris & Mœris are to be placed after him – – – Amasis Psammiticus.

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For Asserhadon king of Assyria in the 67th or 68th year of Nabonasser (after he had reigned about 30 years over Assyria) invaded the kingdom of Babylon & carried many of the people from the invaded countries of Babylon & Cutha & Ava & Hamath & Sepharvaim into Captivity placing them in the regions of Samaria & Damascus, & carrying from thence into Babylonia & Assyria the remainder of the people of Israel & Syria which had been left there by Tiglathpileser. This captivity was 65 years after the first year of Ahaz (Isaiah 7.1, 8 & 2 King. 15.37 & 16.5) & by consequence in the 20th year of Manasses Anno Nabonass 69. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 100r > ‡ And then Tartan was sent by Asserhadon with an army against Ashdod or Azoth (a town at that time subject to Iudea 2 Chron. 26.6) & took it (Isa. 20.1) & this Post being secured the Assyrians beat the Iews & captivated Manesses & subdued Iudea & in these wars Isaiah was sawn assunder by the command of Manasses for prophesying against him. Then the Assyrians invaded & subdued Egypt & Ethiopia & carried the Egyptians & Ethiopians into captivity & thereby put an end to the reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt (Isa. 7.18 & 8.7 & 10.11, 12 & 19.23 & 20.4.) In this war the city No-Ammon or Thebes which had hitherto continued in a flourishing condition was miserably wasted & led into captivity as is described by Nahum (chap. 3.8, 9, 10.) For Nahum wrote after the last invasion of Iudea by the Assyrians (chap. 1.15) & therefore describes this captivity as fresh in memory. And this {&} other following captivities under Nebuchadnezzar & Cambyses put an end to the glory of that city. Asserhadon reigned over the Egyptians & Ethiopians three years < text from f 100r resumes > (chap. 1.15 & therefore describes this captivity as fresh in memory. Asserhadon reigned over the Egyptians & Ethiopians three years (Isa. 20.3, 4) that is, untill his death, which was in the year of Nabonassar 81 [& therefore conquered Egypt in the year of Nabonassar 77 or 78. But upon the death of Asserhadon] & then Ægypt became subject to twelve contemporary Kings who shared the kingdom among themselves & reigned together fifteen years including the reign of Asserhadon whom the Egyptians reccon not among their kings & then were conquered by Psammiticus. He built the last Portico of the Temple of Vulcan founded by Menes about 260 years before, & reigned 54 years including the 15 years of the twelve kings: for he was one of them. Then reigned his son Nechaoh or Nechus 17 years; Psammis 6 years; Vaphres or Hophra 25 years, Amasis 44 years, & Psammiticus six months. – – – – – – – as was predicted by the Prophets.

<100v>

For Asserhadon king of Assyria in the 27th year of his reign (an. Nabonass 67) became king of Babylon & soon after being encouraged with this success, captivated the remainder of the people of Israel & Damascus (Isa. 8.47) & brought thither people from Babylon & Cuth & Ava & Hamath & Sephavaim. This was about 75 years after the first year of Ahaz (2 King. XV.37 & XVI.5 & Isaiah 7.1, 8) & by consequence in the 20th year of Manasses (An. Nabonass. 69) And soon after he invaded first Iudea & took Manasses prisoner & then Egypt & Ethiopia & captivated Thebes, & thereby put an end to the glory of that city & to the reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt Isa 7.18 & 19.23. The miserable captivity of this city is described by the Prophet Nahum chap. 3.8, 9, 10. For Nahum wrote after the last invasion of Iudea by the Assyrians chap. 1.15. This captivity of Egypt & Ethiopia was in the year of Nabonassar 77 or 78. For Asserhadon reigned over the Egyptians & Ethiopians three years (Isa. 20.3, 4.) that is untill his death, which was in the year of Nabonasser 81.

<101r>
1722
Iune6, 8add 6 8 or 10′ to Apog. Moon symbol
Iune19add 5′ to Apog Moon symbol
Iul19, 21add 6 or 8′.
Aug.14.aufer 5′.
Aug26 aufer 6′.
Sep.11…aufer 8′
Octob8add 5′
Octob20 add 12′
Novem5add 8′
18add 10′
Dec.2add
Dec.16add
31add

I have now carried up the Chronology of the Greeks as high as to the first manufactur{e} of copper & iron in Europe & the beginning of the trades of Smiths, Carpenters, Turners, Brick-makers, Potters & carvers in Greece, the first walling of cities about & the first building of Temples therein, the original of Oracles, the erecting of the Amphictyonic Councils, the first plowing & sowing, the beginning of navigation by the starrs in long ships with sails, the first use of letters, the first ages of the Gods of Greece called the golden, silver, copper & iron {a}ges & the flood of Deucalion which immediately preceded them. The flood of Ogyges might be two or three ages earlier then that of Deucalion & not much above. ffor among such wandering people as were then in Europe there could be no memory of things done among them above three or four ages before the first use of letters. {T}he times of Io, {Inach} Phoroneus Cadmus, Europa, Asterius, Minos, Dedalus, Ægeus &c are settled

these these

[Editorial Note 37]

p. 34.

I have now carried up the chronology of the Greeks as high as to the flood of Deucalion & the four first ages of the Gods of Greece which immediately followed it; the first use of letters & the first plowing & sowing in Europe, the first manufacturing of copper & iron in Europe & the beginning of the trades of Smiths Carpenters, Ioyners, Turners Brick makers Potters carvers; [the first or almost the first uniting of scattered villages into governments under market towns &] the first uniting of market towns into governments under cities walled about, the first building of Temples in those cities; & the first setting up of Oracles in Greece , & the erecting of the Amphictyonic Councils at Thermopylæ & Delphos. The flood of Ogyges was two or three ages earlier then that of Deucalion & there could scarce be any memory of things done in Europe above three generations befo{re} the first use of Letters In those day{s} they began first to build villages of clay & bows of trees & brick & the{n} to unite the villages into governments under corporation towns, some of the shepherds who fled out of Egypt in the days of Eli or Samuel escaping into Greece & teaching them to do it.

Cranaus who flourished &c

<102r>

Semiramis perhaps the widdow of Pul

[Editorial Note 38]

pag. 26

By all these things it may be understood that when David conquered the Edomites & made them & their neighbours upon the red sea fly to other places, some fled into Ægypt & there set on foot Navigation Astronomy & Letters. Others fled to the Philistims, the enemies of David & by their skill in Sea affairs enabled the Philistims to take Sidon a place convenient for Sea-affairs, & the Zidonians to extend their trade upon the Mediterranean as far westward as to Ægypt & Libya & Asia minor & Greece, & from their name of Erythreans translated into hebrew gave the name of Phœnicia to all the sea-coast of Palestine from Gaza to Zidon. And when Zidon was taken & the Zidonians fled from the Philistims, some of them fled to Tyre, Aradus, & the sea coasts of Cilicia Asia minor Crete & Greece under Abibalus Cadmus, Cilix, Theseus {&} other Captains & carried thither Letters, navigation & the working in minerals & gave the name of Phanice to Cana. But the Tyrians were not yet heard of in Europe. They being chiefly such as had fled from Sidon were enemies to the Philistims & friends to David For Hiram a[123] was always a lover of David. And by their skill in navigation & their mixture with Edomites & Midianites who had knowledge of the red sea they assisted Solomon & his successors & perhaps David also in setting on foot & carrying on their trade on that sea untill the revolt of the Edomites from Ioram king of Iudah. And the Tyrians being by that revolt driven from the red sea, they began a trade upon the Mediterranean sailing under the conduct of their Hercules to remote places not yet frequented by the Zidonians & searching the sea coasts of Spain as far as {the banks} of the river Bætis. And at the same time Dido fled from her brother Pigmaleon to the coast of Afric & built Carthage. And this was presently after the taking of Troy while Æneas & Teucere were yet alive, Carthage (according to the records of that city) being built 737 before the Romans destroyed it. And by these things you may understand the meaning of the tradition which Herodotus ascribes in the beginning of his first book to the Persians & in the middle of his 7th book to the Phenicians themselves: vizt that the Phenicians came from the red sea to the sea coasts of Phœnicia & presently undertook long voiages upon the mediterranean vizt first under the Zidonians who went as far as Greece & Libya & then under the Tyrians who went to the mouth of the straits & beyond. And these things being setled, it remains now that I touch upon the antiquities of Greece contemporary to these things, that the chronology of the whole may appear.

When Sesostris returned into Egypt – – – one generation earlier.

I have now carried up the Chronology of Greece as high as to the four first ages of the Gods of Greece & the flood of Deucalion which immediatly preceded them. The flood of Ogyges might be two or three generations earlier, but the things done in that interval are very obscure

<103r>

And such an occasion there was in Davids reign in an extraordinary manner. ffor David beat the Philistims in many battels & conquered his neighbours round about & brought the monarchy of Israel to its height before the birth of Solomon & made his enemies fly from their seats as appears by the flight of the Edomites into Egypt. Rehoboam the eldest son of Solomon was 41 years old when he began to reign & therefore he was born a year before the death of David. If at that time Solomon may be supposed above 20 & under 26 years old he will have been born after the 13th & before the 19th year of Davids reign & at a middle recconin

Altho the Greeks & Latines had no certain Chronology ancienter then the Persian Monarchy, yet the Phenicians had Annals as ancient as the days of David. And Tatian an Assyrian, in his book against the Greeks relates that amongst the Phœnicians flourished three ancient historians Theodotus Hypsicrates & Mochus &c – – – – should record it but Agenors losing his daughter & sending his sons with a great body of people to find her or return no more affected them. For Lucian tells us that the Sidonians built a {illeg} & thence we may be certain that the rapture of Europa & expedition of Cadmus could not happen 260 years before the building of Solomons Temple as Chronologers reccon, but suits perfectly with the reign of David where we have placed it. Thus by the authority of the Phenician Annals & Histories which were much older then any annals & histories of the Greeks, the age of Cadmus & Europa is fixed, & thereby the times of the Argonautic expedition, Trojan war & Return of the Heraclides are also fixed, the intervals being limited by the genealogies of Cadmus Europa & Hercules. And having thus by the genealogies & reigns of Kings, by the Precession of the Equinox by the synchronisms of the actions of the Greeks & Oriental nations & by the authority of the oldest & surest records fixed these times: we cannot err much in determining the rest. ffor Cadmus was the first who brought letters into Europe & things done in Europe could not be remembered above three or four generations before the use of Letters, & therefore we have already brought chronology almost as high as the first memory of things.

Polydorus the son of Cadmus – – – – – under age to succeed him.

Erechtheus an eminent king of Athens had several sons Cecrops, Pandion – – – – & in the beginning of Solomons. Homer ✝[124] calls him the son of the earth nurst up by Pallas & Diodorus saith he was an Egyptian, & that in a time of famin he procured a great quantity of corn from Egypt, & for this benefaction the people of Athens made him their king & therefore he did not inherit his fathers kingdom but succeeded by right of Election.

<103v>

Cecrops who led a colony of Egyptians into Attica, was expelled the kingdom by Cranaus his son in law & Cranaus was the father of Rharus the father of Celeus king of Eleusis in the reign of Erechtheus & therefore Cecrops was almost three generations or about 75 years older then Erechtheus, or 55 years older then David. He is recconed one of the first Egyptians who led colonies into Greece. He was the first that civilized the people of Attica & gathered them into towns & cities. He joyned one man & one woman & first called Iupiter God & set up an altar at Athens & after him came in the whole genealogy of the Gods of Greece.

When the Phenicians began to trade with Greece & bring corn thither out of Egypt, they would be apt to bring weomen out of Egypt to teach the Greeks how to grind it & make it into bread. And this I find done in the days of Erechtheus. ffor at time Ceres is said to Athens. She pretended to come in quest of her daughter – – – – – & therefor Car was contemporary to Solomon & Phoroneus to David.

Perseus was the father of Alcæus – – – – to grind corn.

After Lamedon above mentioned had reigned some years at Ægyale – – – – – Danaus & his son Longinus & daughters were younger then Perseus the grandson of Acrisius. being scarce one generation older then the Argonauts as was shewed above. And there

Egyptians any more. Zerah is called an Ethiopian but that's no objection against his being king of Egypt for his successor Memnon was also an Ethiopian. Libya was in those days a province of Egypt

They seem to have received it from the Phenicians & in the beginning to have used the same Octaeteris in all Greece & Italy & their Islands, allowing only a liberty to the Priests of omitting a day in the month or a month in the Octaeteris as often as it should be found requisite to make the months agree with the Moon & the years with the sun,

And if the Athenæa & games of Minos were celebrated upon the first year of the Octaeteris as is most probable, the expedition of Theseus will be 24 years after the death of Androgeus. ffor the Athenians paid a tribute of Children three times, & in the third payment Theseus put an end to this tribute. Now supposing that Androgeus & the children paid for him by way of recompence were of about the same age or that Androgeus & Theseus were beardles young men of about 20 years of Age, & since Theseus was born about 9 years before the death of Solomon the expedition of Theseus will happen about 11 years after the death of Solomon & the birth of Androgeus about the 7th year of Solomons reign & by consequence the birth of Minos about the midle of Davids reign, or within two or three years after. Now Ariadne the daughter of Minos falling in love with Theseus Dædalus an Athenian nearly related to Theseus assisted her in helping Theseus to escape & escaping with him. ffor which or some other crime Minos imprisoned Dædalus & Dædalus escaped by the help of sails & came to Theseus at Athens & Minos demanding him of Theseus he fled thence to & there contrived the death of Minos who pursued him thither. So that the reign of Minos ended soon after the expedition of Theseus, suppose two or three years after, he being then about 72 years of age.

Now Theseus & Ariadne in their way to Athens sailed to the Island Dia & there met with the forces of Bacchus who being much stronger at Sea then Theseus took Ariadne from him & had children by her two of which called Philias & Eumedon were Argonauts If in the Argonautic expedition the elder of them may be supposed about 25 years old (for the Argonauts were young men) his birth will fall upon the 12 year of Rehoboam, & thus Ariadne might be carried away by Bacchus about the 11th of Rehoboam as above. This Bacchus was not the son of Semele but another Bacchus who was potent at sea & led an army as far as India – – – – because Ariadne was buried in it (Pausan l. 2. c. 22. This Bacchus & Sesostris were both of them kings of all Egypt reigned at the same time, were very potent by sea & land led {illeg} eastward as far {as} India & eastward over the Hellespont into Thrace & Greece & these {illeg} their expedition & in all their conquests set up Pillars with inscriptions, & agreeing in all these things they must be one & the same king & by consequence the rapture of Ari{adne} <104r> happened at the time when Sesostris invaded the Ilands of Cyclades that is between the 5t & 14th year of Rehoboam so that the error cannot be g in placing it on {his returning} canot as above. This Bacchus gave the kingdom of Lycurgus to {illeg} Bacchus who married Ariadne was contemporary to Theseus as we have shewed & therefore there was but one Minos. Homer Hesiod, {Thucydides} Strabo & divers other Authors knew of but one Minos. And Homer describes him to be the son of Iupiter & Europa & brother of Radamanthus & Sarpedon & the father of Deucalion the Argonaut & grandfather of Idomeneus who warred at Troy & that he was the Legislator of Crete & Iudge of Hell (Il. α & ξ Odys λ et τ) & Apollodorus (l. 3, c. 1) & Hyginus (fab 40, 41, 42, 178) say that Minos the father of Androgeus Ariadne & Phædra was the son of Iupiter & Europa & brother of Rhadamanthus & Sarpedon. The rapture of Europa & voiage of Cadmus in quest of her, happened therefore just before the birth of this Minos, suppose about he 16th or 20th year of David.

The games in Crete were said to be performed in a Labyrinth built by Dædalus, & as Androgeus perished after his victory so Theseus after his victory was to perish in the Labyrinth unless he could find the way out But Ariadne the daughter of Minos seing the performance of Theseus in those games fell in love with him & by the contrivance of Dædalus helped him out of the Labyrinth & escaped with him out of Crete, & in their way to Athens they landed in the Island Dia or Naxus & there met with the forces of Bacchus

It seems chronologers made the great Bacchus who married Ariadne to be two generations ancienter than Theseus & in defending this opinion they split Minos & Ariadne into two: But we have shewed that this Bacchus invaded Greece in the days of Ægeus & Theseus & therefore there was but one Ariadne & one Minos. Homer,

Herodotus l. 1 makes Minos & Rhadamanthus the sons of Europa contemporary to Ægeus

Saul was made king to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistims His reign was troublesome & inglorious & they prevailed over him at his death. But Davids reign was very victorious. He beat the Philis

– the year before David destroyed the Ammonites & besieged Rabbah their Metropo{lis} & saw Bathsheba naked that is three years before the birth of Solomon, he beat the Ammonites & Syrians & thereby enlarged the kingdom of Israel as far as the river Euphrates, putting garrisons in Syria, & by this victory David gat him a name & brought the monarchy of Israel to its height having smote the Philistims in many battels & subdued them & Moab & Edom & Amalek befoe & taken Gath with her towns out of the hands of the Philistims. And after this David beat the Philistims in three battels more & subdued them – – And by these victories David made his enemies fly from him an instance of which you have in the Edomites who fled from him into Egypt. When therefore David conquered his enemies round about & brought the kingdom of Israel to its height (which I take to be between the 12th & 20th year of his reign) then did a mixt multitude of Zidonians, Philistims Edomites & Arabians fly from him under the conduct of Cadmus to seek new seats in Asia minor & Greece

Rehoboam was born a year before the death of David & if Solomon may be supposed at that time between 20 & 25 years of age his birth will have been between the 14th & 19th year of David. After David removed to Ierusalem he beat the Philistims in several battells & took Gath with its cities from them & subdued them & Moab3 & Edom1 & Amalek2 & Ammon4 & Syria5 {& the kings} of Zoba & conquering all the countries fom the red sea to Euphrates & made his enemies fly from their seats as appears by the flight of the Edomites. The victory which completed his greatness was that over Edom & Syria three years before the birth of Solomon, that is about the 14th year of his reign. ffor Rehoboam was born a year before Davids death, Solomon being then a young man, suppose of about 22 years of age.

<104v>

Now Phœnicia lay on the north of Iudea partly on the sea coasts & partly {illeg} between the mountains of Libanus & Antilibanus {illeg}{illeg} The conquest of this country made the inhabitants fly to Zidon & there take {illeg} under the conduct of Cadmus to seek new seats. And if this expedition may be placed the year after the conquest it will fall upon the 15th year of David. The {Hermitts} in mount {Hermœa} Hevœi are called Cadmonian Gen. 15.19 that is Orientals Gen. 15.19 & Tabor & {Hermœa} are put for west & east Psal       & from the names of Cadmonites Hermonites & {Hivites} came the names of Cadmus & Harmonia, & the fable of their being transformed into serpents as Bochart (Phaleg l. 4. c. 38 & Chemaon l 4 c. 19.) well observs. For חויא Hevæus in the Syriac signifies a serpent When some of the Cadmonites fled to seek new seats in Asia minor & Greece others fled to the coasts of Afric. neare the {borders} & there also left the names of Cadmus & Harmonia the {illeg} another. Nonnus saith that {they built} an hundred walled cities on that coast. And that {to the} east of those cities many Libyans followed {illeg} the only {illeg} Bacchus in his wars. And therefore the great Bacchus was later then Cadmus as we affirmed above

[Editorial Note 39]

Numa the second king of Rome is recconed a Pythagorean & the disciple of Pythagoras & yet Chronologers make Numa above an hundred years older then Pythagoras. This happens by their making the reigns of the kings of Rome & the ages of the ancestors of Pythagoras too long. The kings of Rome were elective & all the five kings who succeeded Numa were either slain or deposed & such reigns at a moderate recconing are but half the length of others & scarce exceed 10 or 12 years a piece one with another. And allowing 20 years more for the reign of Numa his reign will begin about 70 or 80 years before the Consuls. Rhegnidas the son of Phalces the second son of Temenus invaded Phlyas[125] expelling the king thereof who fled to Samus, & whom Laertius calls Cleonius the father of Euthyphron the father of Hippasus the father of Marmacus (or Mnesarchus) the father of Pythagoras. Whence Pythagoras was about six generations or 200 years younger then Temenus . If we may allow about 35 years a piece to these generations & suppose Cleonius to be 10 or 20 years younger then Rhegnidas Pythagoras will be about 230 years younger then Temenus & so might flourish about 90 or 100 years before the Consuls & be Tutor to Numa. Psammiticus[126] by the help of the Ionians & Carisus became king of Egypt about 142 years before the death of Cyrus & in gratitude gave them seats upon the Pelusiac ostium of the Nile, & sent to them Egyptian children to be taught the greek tongue. And from this time the Greeks had free access to Egypt, which occasioned a revival of learning in Greece: Pherecydes Thales & Pythagoras & their scholars reviving Astronomy Geometry & Philosophy; Archilocus Tyrtæus Alcmon, Stesicorus, Mimnermus, Alcæus, revived poetry; Arion & Terpander musick If we may suppose that Thales & Pythagoras went into Egypt within 50 or 60 after the opening of this commerce between Egypt & Greece, Pythagoras will be as old as we have represented above. And this supposition agrees with what Pliny[127] affirms namely that in Olymp 42 & V.C. 142 Pythagoras found that Venus was sometimes the morning, & sometimes the evening star

<105r>

Lydiats Canones Chronologici

Bernard Cæsius de Mineralibus

Eman. Cönig Regnum minerale

Gabr. Clauderus de Tinctura universali.

Mich. Maieri scrutinium Chymicum

De Alchymia opuscula complura veterum Philosoph.

Io. Braceschi de Alchemia Dialogi duo

Bayeri Vranometria

Chr. Hugenij Systema Saturnium

Magni Philosophorum Arcani Revelator Geneva 1688

954 Arabia seu Arabum vicinarumque gentium Orientalium origines

Natural experiments made in the Acadmy del Cimento 1684

L. Addisons present state of the Iews.

Vansleb's present state of Egypt

<106r>

But the king of Assyrians being in the mean time subdued by Assuerus & Nebuchadnezzar, & the conquerors being by that means {restored} Mesopotamia & Syria & the conquerors being by that means entituled to the countries of Assyria Mesopotamia & Syria, they led their forces against the king of Egypt. For Nebuchadnezzar assisted by Astibares (that is Assuerus) king of the Medes, in the third year of Iehojakim came with an army of – – – – to the river of Euphrates. This king of Egypt Berosus calls the Satrapa of Syria & this victory over him put an end to his reign over Syria & gave a beginning to the reign of Neb. And by these conquests over Assyria Mesop & Syria the Babylonian Empire was erected.

Whilst Nebuchadnezzar was acting in Syria – – – – Teredon

And from hence forward he applied himself sometimes to war conquering Sitagene, Susiana, Arabia Ægypt Edom & some other countries, & sometimes to peace, adorning

After the taking of Babylon Cyrus went to Ecbatane & succeeded Darius in the kingdom & reigned over all Media & Persia seven years according to Xenophon, but over Babylon he reigned nine years, two years under the king of the Medes & seven years alone & in the first year of his reign over the whole Empire he set the Iews at liberty to return from Babylon to Ierusalem & rebuild their Temple. For the Iews remained in captivity at Babylon untill the reign of the kingdom of Persia 2 Chron. XXXVI.20, & were set at liberty in the first year of the reign of Cyrus king of Persia over all the kingdoms of the Earth Ezra I.1, 2, 3.

Doctor 8 ( 2. Apoth. 5. Niece &c P. 5. S. 7. Globes 8. Treat 13. Butcher 55. Pocket 28. Excheq. 3 Math. 3. Coach 40. Fanc 8.

And such a body Nineveh with its villages seems to have been in the days of Ionah that is when the kingdom of Israel was in bitter affliction under the Syrians (2 king. 14.25, 26) which was in the reigns of Iehohahas & Ioas about 120 years before the captivity of the 10 Tribes. It was then a city of large extent but full of pastures for cattel so that it conteined but about 120000 persons. It was not yet so great & potent as not to be terrified at the preaching of Ionah & to fear being invaded by its neighbours & ruined within 40 days. Its king was not yet called king of Assyria but only king of Nineveh, & his proclamation for a fast was not published in several nations nor in all Assyria, but only in Nineveh & perhaps the villages thereof. But soon after when the Dominion of Nineveh was established at home & exalted over all Assyria, & this kingdom began [the Assyrians are spoken of as an united kingdom whose king Iareb made a covenant with Ephraim Hos. V.13 & X.6 & XII.1 And after this kingdom was established at home &] began to make war upon the neighbouring nations, its kings were no longer called kings of Nineveh but were constantly called kings of Assyria. When Ieroboam the son of Ioash king of Israel had newly subdued the kingdoms of Damascus & Hamath, the Prophet Amos thus reproves Israel for being lifted up. Ye which rejoyce – – – Zech. 11.16. Amos indeed m{entions} the Assyrians once, but it is only to tell us that they had been in captivity. Have {not I} brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt & the Philistims from Captor & the {Syrians} from Kir. Amos. 9.7. They were therefore lately returned from captivity, & w{ere to} be raised up against Israel after the taking of Damascus & Hamath by Ieroboam & after the writing of this Prophesy, & by conseque{nce} {illeg} up in the days of Pul & his successors – – – – accounted the founder of this Mon{archy.}

The prophet Amos about 65 or 70 years before the captivity of the {Iews} thus threatens them with what had – – – – – & thereby set up this Monarchy.

He prophesied when Israel was in affliction under the Syrians & this was in the {reigns of} Iehoahaz & Ioas kings of Israel, 2 King 14.25, 26, & by consequence about 120 years before the captivity of the {10 Tribes}

<106v> [Editorial Note 40]

Assarhadon died in the year of Nabonassar 81 & was succeeded at Baby{lon by Saos}duchinus. But whether Saosduchinus was king of all Assyria or of Babylon alone o{r was Satra}pa of Babylon under the king of Assyria may be doubted. The last king of Assy{ria by the} consent of all historians was Sardanapalus. He was the son of Anacyndaraxis & {illeg} tells us that Anacyndaraxis was also king of Assyria. And in {the} book of Iudeth there is mentioned another king of Assyria called Neb{ucado}nosor. His history suits best with the times n{ext} after Saosducinus, & therefore he seems to be either the same king with C{hiniladon} the successor of Saosduchinus at Babylon or contemporary to him. For in the 12 year of {illeg} he ma{de war} upon the king of the Medes & in that war was le{ft alone} by a defection of the auxiliary nations of Cilicia Damascus Syria Phœ{nicia} Moab Ammon & Egypt & without their help routed the a{rmy of} the Medes & slew their king Arphaxad: as is mentioned in the book of Iudeth & Herodotus tells the same story {of} a king of Assyria who routed the Medes & slew their king whom he ca{lls} Phraortes & the death of Phraortes he places 104 or 105 years before the death {of} Cyrus that is in the 14th year of Chiniladon & seventh of Iosiah & tells us that in the time of th{is war} the Assyrians were left alone by the defection of the auxiliary n{ations} being otherwise in good condition. Arphaxad was therefore the Phraortes of Herodotus. For this war was made when the Iews were ne{wly} returned from captivity – – – – – & the ancients of Ierusalem. And Nebuchadonosor in the 13th year of his reign (according to Ieroms ver{sion)} sent Holofernes with an army against the revolting nations of Syria & while – – – – – of all the kings of Iudah.

Nabopolasser the successor of Chiniladon at Babylon contracted affinity with the Medes – – – – – – – & Ctesias to both.

For this war was made after Phœnicia Moab Ammon & Egypt had been conquered & by consequence after the reign of Asserhadon who conquered them. It was made when the Iews

Affliction makes men pious & the best kings of Iudah & Israel have been made so by affliction in their youth: David was afflicted in his youth under Saul. & Asa & Iehosaphat under the kings of Egypt untill the invasion of Zerah & Ezekiah & Iosiah under the Assyrians & Manasses a very wicked king by captivity became pious. Iosiah in the 8th year of his reign while he was yet young began to seek after the God of David his father (2 Chron 34.3) & in the 12th year of his reign began to purge Iudah & Ierusalem from Idolatry & to destroy the high places & groves & altars & Images of Baalim. When the king of Assyria had vanquished the Medes & threatned the western nations with war & sent Holofernes against them, then were the Iew{s} terrified & fortified Iudea & cried unto God with great fervency & humbled themselves in sackcloth & put ashes on their heads & cried to the God of Israel that he would not give their wives & children & their cities for a prey & the Temple for a profanation & the High priest & all the priests put on sackcloth & ashes & offered dayly burnt offerings with vows & free gifts of the people (Iudeth IV.) & then began Iosiah to seek the Lord. And after Iudeth had slain Holofernes & the Assyrians were fled & the Iews who purused them were returned to Ierusalem they worshipped the Lord & offered burnt offerings & free offerings & gifts & continued feasting before the sanctuary for the space of three months. (Iudeth XVI.18) & then did Iosiah purge Iudah & Ierusalem from Idolatry

Affliction & danger make men pious. Asa & his son Iehosaphat upo

In times of prosperity the children of Israel were apt to go after fals gods & in times of affliction to repent & return to the Lord as is manifest by many instances] in the days of the Iudges &] So Manasses a very wicked king being captivated by the Assyrians repented & being released from captivity restored the worship of the true God. And so when we are told that Iosiah – – – – & Images of Baalim we may understand that these acts of religion were occasioned by impending dangers & escapes from danger. When the king of Assyria had vanquished the Medes – – – – & Ierusalem from Idolatry.

The last king of Assyria by the consent of all historians was Sardanapalus. And his father Anacyndaraxis, according to Suidas was king before him. In the reign of Sardanapalus, Nabopolassar the king of Babylon & the successor of Chiniladon – – – & Ctesias to both.

<107r> [Editorial Note 41]

{illeg} of Darius the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, & the Angel of the {Lord} said, O Lord of hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy on Ierusalem {& on} the cities of Iudah against which thou hast had indignation these threescore & {ten} years. Zech. I.7, 12. And by all these Characters the years of Iehoja{kim}, Zedekiah & Nebuchadnezzar seem to be sufficiently determined.

& thereby the Chronology of the Iews in the old Test. is connected with that of later times ffor between the death of Solomon & the 9th year of Zedekiah wherein Nebuchadnezzar invaded Iudea & besieged Ierusalem there were 390 years, as is manifest both by the prophesy of Ezek. chap. IV. & by summing up the years of the kings of Iudah. & from the 9th year {of} Zedekiah inclusively to the vulgar æra of Christ were 590 years, both which numbers with half the reign of Solomon make up a thousand years, & from the middle of Solomons reign to the birth of Abraham were another 1000 years, vizt to the death of Eli & beginning of the reign of Samuel 100 years & thence to the birth of Abraham 900 years. Whence arise several Epochas, as that of birth of Abraham beginning 2000 years before the vulgar æra of Christ that of Moses & the law beginning 1496 before this æra of Christ, that of the Iudges beginning 1449 years before this vulgar æra , that of Samuel beginning 1100 years before this æra that of Solomons Temple beginning 1017 years before this æra & that of Solomons death & the division of the kingdom of Israel beginning 980 years before this vulgar æra.

or that there was an Assyrian Empire now standing. ffor he supposes that the Medes reigned all this time & that the Assyrian Empire was at an end above 250 years before it began.

The kingdoms of Israel, Moab Ammon Edom Philistia Sidon Damascus, & Hamath Sidon were of ancient standing & so was the house of Eden Amos 1.5) & therefore Syria was not conquered by the Assyrians before the reign of Pull & his successors. The house of Eden held the scepter till the days of Amos the Prophet (Amos 1.5)

The kingdoms of Israel, Moab Ammon Edom Philistia Sidon Damascus Hamoth continued subject to other Lords till the reign of Pul & his successors, & so did the house of Eden (Amos 1.5)            Gen 12 2 King 19.12)

Amos prophesied in the reign of Ieroboam the son of Ioas king of Israel about the time that Ieroboam subdued the kingdoms of Damascus & Hamath or soon after, that is about 70 or 80 years before the captivity of the ten tribes, & he thus reproves Israel for being lifted up by those conquests. Ye rejoyce

– & that after they revolted they lived first without a king for a while & then under kings 150 years till the reign of Cyrus, which years being counted backwards, the revolt & anarchy of the Medes will begin presently after the slaughter of Sennacheribs army in Palestine

For there I place it because Tobit – – – former king.

Sardanapalus was contemporary to Nabopolasser k. of Babylon the successor of Chiniladon. Polyhistor takes them for the same king but Herodotus & others make Sardanapalus king of Nineveh. Nabopolasser

<107v>
[Editorial Note 42]

Chap.
Of the Babylonian Empire.

By the fall of the Assyrian Empire, the Kingdoms of the Chaldeans & Medes which had hitherto been small & inconsiderable, grew great & potent. The reigns of the kings of the Chaldeans are stated in Ptolomy's Canon: for understanding which you are to note that every kings reign in that Canon, began with the last Thoth of his predecessor, & ended with the last Thoth of his own reign; the odd months & days of the last year of every king being neglected in summing up the years of the kings, & the rest of the year in which the next kings reign began, being recconed to him for his first year, as I gather by comparing the reigns of the Roman Emperors in that Canon, with their reigns recorded in years months & days by other authors. Whence it appears from that Canon that Chiniladon king of Babylon died in the year of Nabonasser 123, Nabopolasser in the year 144 & Nebuchadnezzar in the year 187. This last king died in the 37th year of Iehojakins captivity (2 King. XXV.27) & therefore Iehojakin was captivated in the 150th year of Nabonassar, Anno Abr. 1403. This captivity was in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over Iudea (2 King. XXIV.12) & eleventh of Iehojakim's. ffor the first year of Nebuchadnezzars reign was the fourth of Iehojakims (Ier. XXV.1) & Iehojakim reigned 11 years before this captivity (2 King. XXIII.36 2 Chron. XXVI.5) & the 10th year of Zedekiah, that is, the 10th year of Iehojakins captivity was the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier. XXXII.1) & the 11th year of Zedekiah in which Ierusalem was taken was the 19 of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier. LII.5. 12.) & therefore Nebuchadnezzar began his reign in Iudea in the year of Nabonassar 142 An. Abr. 1395 that is two years before the death of his father Nabopolasser & Iehojakim succeeded his father Iosiah in the year of Nabonassar 139, Anno Abr. 1392, & Ierusalem was taken & the Temple burnt in the year of Nabonassar 160, Anno Abr. 1403.

< insertion from the right margin of f 107v >

✝ The reign of Darius Hystaspis by the Canon & the consent of all Chronologers & by several eclipses of the Moon began in spring in the year of Nabonassar 227, that is An Abr. 1480. And in the 4th year of Darius

In the ninth year of Zedekiah Nebuchadnezzar invaded Iudea & the cities thereof & in the tenth month of that year & tenth day of the month he & his host beseiged Ierusalem (2 King. 25.1 Ier. 34.1 & 39.1 & 52.4) ffrom this time to the tenth month in the second year of Darius are just 70 years. And on the 24th day of the 11th month of this second

< text from f 107v resumes >

As the Chaldeans counted the reign of their kings by the years of Nabonassar beginning with the month Thoth, so the Iews (as their authors tell us,) counted the reign of theirs by the years of Moses, beginning every year with the Month Nisan. ffor if any king commenced his reign a few days before this month began it was recconed to him for a whole year, & the beginning of this month was accounted the beginning of the second year of his reign. According to which recconing the first year of Iehojakim began with the month Nisan Anno Abr. 1392, tho his reign might not really begin till 5 or 6 months after.

In this year therefore Pharaoh Nechoh the successor of Psammiticus came with a great army out of Egypt against the king of Assyria, & being denyed passage through Iudea, beat the Iews at Megiddo or Magdolus before {Egypt}, slew Iosiah their king marched to Carchemish or Cerce

<108r> <108v>

In the kingdom of Athens, after the Trojan war reigned Demophon Oxyetes Thymætes, Melanthus, Codrus which at 18 years apiece take up 90 years. Then followed twelve Archons during life. Elective

306. 376/ In the kingdom of Athens the 17 kings which reigned next after the Trojan war might reigne about 16 years apiece one with another in all about 272 years {and} the 8 decennial Archons might reign about 60 years some of them dying before the expiration of their ten years. And the Annual Archons might succeed them in the time of the second Messenian war An. Olymp. 50.

[Editorial Note 43]

to Crœsus. And he began his reign about 28 years before the death of Cyrus. Count backwards 80 years for the reigns of the four preceding kings of Sparta, to the end of the first Messenian war & 190 years more to the return of the Heraclides: & this return will bee about 298 years before the death of Cyrus. Subduct the years of the Olympiads & there will remain about 51 years between the return of Heraclides & the first Olympiad. Whereas the followers of Ephorus place the return of Heraclides before the first & 573 years before the death of Cyrus & 326 years before the first Olympiad, which is 275 years too early And this is the fundamental error of the artificial Chronology of the Greeks.

After the Trojan war & coming of Æneas into Italy there were 14 Kings of Alba to the founding of Rome & seven of Rome to the beginning of the Consuls. The 14 at 20 years a piece might take up 280 years & the seven at about 12 or 13 years a piece for six of them which were either slain or deposed & 20 or 25 years for the seventh might take up about an hundred years more & so place the death of Æneas about 380 years before the first consuls of Rome & the Trojan war 387 years before them

<109r>

Eandem Newtonus sic assignat {illeg}

peopled Samaria with captives brought from several parts of Assyria, the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites the Archevites the Babylonians the Susanchites, the Dehavites & the Elamites (Ezra IV.2, 9) & therefore reigned over all these nations. In the year of Nabonassar 68 he began to reign immediately over Babylon. He invaded Iudea

Asser-haddon seems to be the {wealthy} Sardanapalus of Herodotus the name being derived from Asser-haddon-pul. He seems to be the Sardanapalus who reigned over Media & Babylonia till those nations under Arbaces &       {illeg} revolted. Clearchus saith that he died of old age after he had lost his dominion over Syria. Others [say that he was the son of Anacyndaraxis or Anabaxaris ( perhaps they mean Sennacherib) & that he built Tarsus & Anchiale in one day. Others tell us of two Sardanapaluses, the first stout & valiant the last effeminate

Asserhaddon seems to be the Sardanapalus who reigned over Media & Babylonia till those nations revolted, the name being derived from Asser-haddon-pul. Clearchus saith that he died of old age after he had lost his dominion over Syria. Herodotus represents that the Medes revolted first & by force of arms defended their liberty & gave occasion to other nations to revolt. And that Dejoces not long after was elected king & built Ecbatane. The reign of Asserhadon over Babylon ceased in the year of Nabonassar 81 & by the revolt of the Babylonians & western nations Manasses was set at liberty to return home & fortified Ierusalem. And the Egyptians also (after the Assyrians had reigned three years over them, Isa 20.3, 4) were set at liberty & created twelve – – – Nechao.

After the revolt of the Medes & Babylonians from Asserhaddon, the kings who reigned at Babylon were – – & those at Ecbatane Dejoces – – – But the series of the kings who reigned at Nineveh I do not find recorded. One of them seems to be that Nebuchadnezzar who is mentioned in the book of Iudeth, for the history of that king suits with those times.

Ctesias represents that the luxurious & effeminate life of Sardanapalus gave occasion to the Medes to revolt under the conduct of Arbaces. His old age might also promote the revolting of the nations. He is said to be the son of Anacyndaraxis or Anabaxaris, ( perhaps they mean Sennacherib) & to have built Tarsus & Anchiale in one day. After him reigned at Babylon – –

The last king of Assyria is called Saracus by

<109v>

Hoc fecit D. Barrow per differentias Ordinatarum in ejus Lect 10, Anno 1669 impressa idque methodo consimili ut et D. Gregorius in ejus Gemoetria universali anno 1668 impressa, Prop. 7 Idem D. Leibnitius facere potuisset jam a multo tempore. Sed inversa tangentium Problemata & alia similia per differentias Ordinatarum tractare aut ad æquationes differentiales & Quadraturas reducere jam anno superiore minime novere (vide pag. 65). Cum verò a Newtono didicisset Clarissimi Slusij Methodum Tagentium nondum esse absolutam, sed Corollarium esse methodi generalis quæ extenderet se citra molestum ullum calculum ad abstrusiora problematum genera, etiam ad inversa tangentium problemata aliaque difficiliora, & quæ ad quantitates surdas et Curvas Mechanicas minime hæreret: cœpit is methodum Tangentium per differentias Ordinatarum ab alijs traditam jam longe generalius tractare quam antea & ad abstrusiora problematum genera applicare [ & quasi nihil omnino a Newtono didicisset, prætendit | ere se methodum Newtonianæ similem jam a multo tempore habuisse. Nam Et alibi dicit se hoc inventum aliquam nonum is annum prescisse, id est, se ante annum 1675 Problemata methodi tangentium inversæ & alia id genus multa ad æquationes differentiales et quadraturas reducere didicisse, ablitus eorum quæ anno superiore contra Newtonum scripserat p. 65 l. 14.]

Hoc fecerunt Gregorius in ejus Geometria universali anno 1668 impressa, et Barrovius in ejus Lect 10 anno 1669 impressa, idque methodo consimili. Idem D. Leibnitius facere potuisset jam a multo tempore. Sed inversa tangentium Problemata – – – – – problematum genera applicare

[Editorial Note 44]

Minerals Gold & Mercury from the mines & circulated together in a due manner may reject some of their mineral feces, & some Alchemists pretend that by this operation they become the Principles of the great Elixir: for preventing the mischiefs that may be done by handing about this plausible pretence as a secret it has been thought fit to make the same publick.

<110r>

And Stephanus tells us that this sea was called Erythra from Erythra the Hero, & Strabo that on the coast of Carmania southward in the open sea was the island Tyrrhina in which was the sepulchre of Erythra being a great heap of earth planted with palm trees & that Erythra reigned in those parts & left his name to that sea. But Erythra is a Greek word of the same signification with Edom in Hebrew & red in English, & therefore king Erythra is usually taken for Edom or Esau. Certainly the red sea, the Erythrean Sea & the sea of Edom are phrases of the same signification & the inhabitants of that sea or people of Edom are by the Greeks called Erythreans & had their name from Edom or Esau, & being driven from that sea by David, & his successors mixed with the Phenicians & traded upon the Mediterranean, & there built several cities called Erythrean by the Greeks For Herodotus tells us – – – Gades. Silius l. 19.

Carmania, & therefore the lot of Nimrod fell somewhere among them. But he inheritance For Nimrod being two generations older then Peleg, flourished at the division of the Earth into languages being a mighty hunter & by making war upon wild Beasts being enabled & inclined to make war upon men, & by the goodness of the soil invited to invade the lands of Shinar & Assyria, he erected a kingdom there. And this was at or presently after the division of the earth & confusion of languages: ffor he was two generations older then Peleg in whose days the earth was divided, & this division & confusion was made by the hand of God in opposition to the designes of men. Till then they lived together & by conversing with one another the whole earth was of one language & one speech & as they journied together (suppose in tents) they found a plane in the land of Shinar & they dwelt there & built the city Babylon & a Tower whose top might reach unto heaven, to make themselves a name & prevent their being scattered abroad upon the face of the earth; that is, they built a tower so high that in seeking for food for themselves & their cattel they might see the same from all parts of the great plane of the land of Shinar & know whether to resort least they should be scattered fom their main body. But the Lord came down to see the city & tower & said, The people is one & they have all one language; & this they have begun to do: & now nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down & there confound their language that they may not understand one anothers speech. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: & they left off to build the city. That is, by the counsel of God they were forced to leave the City Babel & the fruitful land of Shinar to Nimrod & were scattered from thence abroad to seek new seats going in several bodies to several parts of the earth according to their tribes & families, & there building new cities & becoming various nations tongues & langauges, ffor the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom was Babel. There he reigned first &in other new cities Erech or Arecca & Accad or Archad & Calneh in the land of Shinar. And while he seated himself in this land his brethren the other sons of Chus seated themselves in all the coasts of the Persian Gulf & in Arabia The other sons of Ham went towards Egypt & Canaan & Afric. The sons of Iaphet toward Asia minor & the sons of Sem (vizt Elam & Asshur & Arphaxad & Lud & Aram & his sons) seated themselves in Elymais & Assyria & Araphachitis above Assyria & Mesopotamia Syria & Armenia. But Nimrod invaded Assyria & there built Nineve & Rehoboth & Calah the metropolis of Calachene & Resen (le Resen, Larissam) between Nineveh & Calah. And hence Assyria is called the land of Nimrod the same being peopled as well by Nimrod as by Asshur.

<111r>

For before the days of Peleg the grandfather of Serug the whole earth was of one language & of one speech, & as they journeyed from the east (suppose in Tents) they found a plane in the land of Shinar & they dwelt there & made bricks & built the city Babel with its tower to make to themselves a name least they should be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth (Gen 10.25 & 11.1, 2, 3, 4.) that is the sons of Noah hitherto lived together as one society & one body politick & by conversing together had but one language & built the city Babel as the seat & habitation of their society from which they would not wander, & there also they built a high Tower whose top might reach unto heaven that while they wandred in the fields seeking for food for them selves & their cattel they might see the tower from all parts & thereby know whether to resort.

And while they thus lived together or were but newly divided Nimrod the grandson of Noah being two generations older then Peleg, began to be a mighty one in the earth, Gen 10.8 that is he began to reign over them. ffor he was a mighty hunter before the Lord & by conquering wild beasts became able to conquer men And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel (the city which they first built for the seat of their society) & Erech or Arecca & Accad or Archad & Calneh, cities built afterwards in the land of Shinar when men began to spread abroad upon the face of the earth. And when he had built these cities he went out of the land of Shinar into Assyria & built the cities Nineveh & Rehoboth & Calah (the metropolis of Calacene) & Resen ( le Resen, Larissam) a great city between Nineveh & Calah. Thus makind began to spread upon the face of the earth building cities in such places as were well watered & fertil. And after the death of Nimrod his sons & grandsons & other great men reigning under him in the several cities which he had built inherited the cities in which they reigned. it being the custom in the first ages for all the children to share the fathers territories as we explained above. And this division of his kingdom might give a beginning to the variety of languages mankind from thence forward spreading more &more upon the face of the earth & remote kingdoms for want of conversation varying from one another in their modes of speaking.

<112r>

As the first kings of the Greeks who founded or greatly enlarged their cities & kingdoms were honoured after death by their successors & friends as benefactors & had sepulchres erected to them in the form of magnificent houses or Temples with statues over their graves or tumbs to represent them & Altars & Priests to perform pious ceremonies anually & sometimes monthly weekly or daily upon the Altars for perpetuating their memory; all which gave a beginning to the Idolatrous religion of the Nations of Greece: so it is to be conceived that the Idolatry of the Egyptians, Phœnicians Assyrians & Chaldeans had its rise from the like honour paid after death to the founders of the cities & kingdoms of those countries; & by consequence that the building of towns began in those countries a little before the rise of idolatry And therefore since the Chaldeans were idolaters before the days of Abraham & drove out Abraham because he would not worship their Gods (Iosh. 24.2. Iudith. 5.6, 7) & since Laban the grandson of Nahor the brother of Abraham worshipped images (Gen 31.30) & Nahor & his father Terah were Idolaters (Ios. 24.2) & Terah, made Images or statues of Earth & proposed them to be worshipped as Gods (               ) that is, to be set up in the Temples over the Tumbs of the dead where the people worshipped them. Some say that Idolatry began in the days of Serug the grandfather of Terah.                     Whence the building of cities & erecting of Kingdoms might begin two or three generations before For In the days of Peleg the grandfather of Serug the earth was divided, & scattered abroad that is separated into several nations languages & kingdoms, & began to build several cities, the people having built Babel & its tower for their common seat before they became divided into more languages & kingdoms then one & by that means having learnt the manner of building cities.

By this recconing mankind began to be scattered over the face of the earth & build cities in several places of N almost two hundred years before the birth of Abraham. At that time the thirteen sons of Ioctan the brother of Peleg began to dwell from Mesha as thou goest unto Sephar a mountain of the east ( Gen. 10.26) which is to be understood of their dwelling in cities. And at that time also Nimrod seems to have erected a kingdom at Babel supose by conquering the kingdom which built Babel for a Metropolis & reigned there till the division of languages. For he reigned first over Babel & Erech & Accad & Calneh principal cities in the land of Shinar, & went into Assyria & there built Nineveh & Rehoboth & Calah & Resen principal cities of Assyria, & therefore he reigned presently after the division of the kingdom of Babel into various cities nations & languages.

<112Ar>

Chap. 4.
Of the Empire of the Medes & Persians.

Æschylus who flourished in the reigns of Darius Hystaspis & Xerxis reccons the kings of this Medo-Persian Monarchy down in order to Xerxes in this manner

Μηδος γὰρ ἠν ὁ πρωτος ἡγημὼν στρατου.

Τὸ δε ἄστυ Σούσων ἐξηκείνὼσε πεσόν.

Ἄλλος δε ἐκείνου παις τὸ δ᾽ ἔργον ἤνυσε.

Τρίτος δ᾽ ἀπ᾽ ἀυτου Κυρος, ερδαίμων ἀνήρ. &c

He that first led the army was a Mede

He emptied the falling city of Susa

The next who was his son finished the work

The third from him was Cyrus a happy man.

The Poet here omits Dejoces who was king only of the Medes & begins with Phraortes the first King of the Medes & Persians & founder of that Empire. After Phraortes by conquest became King of the Persians he made war upon the Assyrian empire & took Susa from them & his son Cy-axeres finished the work by destroying Nineveh Astyages a slothfull Prince the second from Phraortes or his son is omitted by the Poet & Cyrus is named the third, a happy man for his great successes.

After the fall of Nineveh, Cyaxares who reigned 40 years made war upon Alyattes king of Lydia five years together in the end of his reign with various fortune & in the sixt year of the war upon a total Eclips of the Sun which was predicted by Thales & happened in the middle of a battel (Iul. 9. anno Iul. Per. 4117) almost 38 years {after the} reign of Cyrus they parted & made peace. [128]Tully, Pliny, Eusebius & Solinus place this battel & eclips in the reign of Astyages & its probable that Cyaxares began the war & Astyages being a pecefull Prince ended it by a treaty in the beginning of his reign. According to this recconing Astyages reigned 38 years or above & was from {illeg}. Eusebius & Syncellus make his reign 38 years & a Canon among the Isagogical Canons published by Scaliger makes it 46.

Astyages married his daughter Mandane to Cambyses a Persian & of them was born Cyrus who solliciting the Persians to a defection overcame Astyages succeeded him in the Medo Persian Kingdom & set the Persians above the Medes. He founded no new kingdom but only by a civil war set the Province of the Persians above that of the Medes. And therefore well does Æschylus reccon Phraortes the founder of this Monarchy.

Not long after Cyrus overcame also Crœsus king of the Lydians & thereby became Lord of all Asia Minor. [129]For Crœsus reigned at Sardes over all Asia Minor on this side the river Halys except the Cilicians & Lycians, & his kingdom was rich & flourishing as well as large.

Cyrus afterwards in the 21th year of his reign invaded Babylonia & the next year took Babylon & put an end to the Assyrian Monarchy & thenceforward reigned almost nine years over all Asia: Xenophon says but seven years.

Cambyses succeeding his father Cyrus conquered Egypt & reduced it into a Province. And now this kingdom was arrived to its greatness.

Daniel represents this kingdom by the silver breast & arms of the Image the two arms denoting Media . He represents it also by a Bear which raised it self up on one side: the kingdom of Persia rising up after that of Media. The three ribs which this Bear held in his mouth <112Av> are Sardes Babylon & Memphys the three strong imperial cities of the Kingdoms of the Lydians Assyrians & Egyptians. He holds them in his mouth between his teeth as if he were eating them to signify that they are conquered nations distinct from his own original body. & he is bid to arise & eat much flesh to signify the largeness of his conquests & of the riches he should draw from them.

Daniel signifies this kingdom also by a Ram with two horns one of which was higher then the other (the Persian then the Medic) & came up last. & saith that this Ram with two horns are the Kings (that is kingdoms) of Media & Persia, & that the Ram pusht westward & northward & southward so that no Beast could stand before him. For the Medes & Persians carried on their wars & conquests into those quarters by invading Assyria Asia Minor Egypt & Greece.

The Iews know nothing more of the Babylonian & Medo-Persian Monarchies then what they have out of the sacred books of the old Testament & therefor own no more Kings nor years of Kings then they can find in those books. The Kings they reccon are only Nebuchadnezzar Evil Merodach, Belshazar, Darius the Med{e} Cyrus Ahasuerus & Darius the Persian This Darius they reccon to be the Artaxerxes in whose reign Ezra & Nehemiah came to Ierusalem accounting Artaxerxes a common name of the Persian Kings. Nebuchadnezzar they say reigned 45 years (2 King 25, 27 Ier 25.1) Belshazar three (Dan 8.1) & therefore Evilmerodach 23 to make up the 70 years captivity excluding the first year of Nebuchadnezzar in which the Prophesy of the 70 years was given. To this Darius they assigne one year or at most but two (Dan 9.1) to Cyrus 3 years incomplete (Dan. 10.1) to Ahasuerus 12 years till the casting of Pur (Est. 3.7) one year more till the Iews smote their enemies (ch. 9.1) & one year more till Esther & Mordecai wrote the 2d letter for the keeping of Purim (ch 9.29) in all 14 years & to Darius they allot 32 or rather 36 years (Nehem 13 6) so that the Persian Empire from the building of the Temple in the 2d year of Darius flourished according to their recconing only 34 years untill Alexander the great overthrew it. Thus the Iews reccon in their greater Chronicle called Seder Olam Rabbah. Iosephus out of the sacred & other books reccons only these kings of Persia Cyrus Cambyses Darius Hystaspis, Xerxes Ataxerxes & Darius; making but one king of Artaxerxes Longimanus Artaxerxes Mnemon & Artaxerxes Ochus & another of Darius Nothus & Darius Codomannus. For supplying the defects of these accounts we must have recourse to the records of the Greeks. ffor by them it appears that the Persian Kings reigned as in the following account.

Cyrus by the common consent of all Chronologers ancient & modern began his reign in Persia an 1 Olymp. 55 an. Iul. Per. 4155 in spring & reigned full 30 years & died in Spring an I.P. 4185.

Cambyses reigned 8 years including the seven months reign of Smerdes the Magician who succeeded him.

<113r>

Darius Hystaspis began his reign in the end of winter or spring A.I.P. 4139 reigned 36 years fought the Greeks at Marathon & died in spring An. I.P. 4229. In the first year of his reign the Temple was finished

Xerxes reigned almost 21 years made war upon the Greeks with a vast army but without success & was slain by Artabanus.

Artabanus reigned seven months & upon suspicion of treason against Xerxes was slain in autumn by Artaxerxes Longimanus the son of Xerxes an. I.P. 4250

Artaxerxes reigned forty years including the two months reign of Xerxes & seven months reign of Sogdian his successors or forty & one years including also the reign of Artabanus, & died in winter in the end of an. I.P. 4289 or beginning of the year following. In the 7th year of his reign he sent Ezra to restore the worship & polity of the Iews & in the 20th year hs sent Nehemiah to build the walls of Ierusalem.

Darius Nothus began his reign in autumn an I.P. 4290 reigned 19 years & died in summer an I.P. 4309 An. 4 Olymp 4

Then reigned Artaxerxes Mnemon about 43 years, Artaxerxes Ochus about 23 years, Arses between 3 & 4 years & Darius almost 5 years unto the battel of Arbela whereby the Persian Monarchy was translated to the Greeks Oct 2 An. I.P 4383. But Darius was not slain till a year & some months after. Whence Africanus reccons that this Monarchy stood 230 years & Agathias 228 that is from the beginning of the reign of Cyrus.

The years of Cambyses & Darius Hystaspis are fully determined by three eclipses observed at Babylon & recorded by Ptolomy. Those of Xerxes by the battel at Marathon four years & some months before the death of Darius & by the passage of Xerxes over the Hellespont to invade Greece in the beginning of his sixt year in the time of the Olympic games an 1 Olymp. 75: those of Artaxerxes Longimanus by the coincidence of his twentieth year with the 4th year of the 83d Olympiad as Africanus informs us & by the news of his death coming to Athens in winter in the seventh year of the Peloponnesian war as Thucydides a writer of those times has recorded: those of Darius Nothus by the coincidence of his 13th year or some part thereof in winter with the 20th year of the Peloponnesian war as Thucydides has also set down & by his death a little after the end of that war in the same Olympic year as Diodorus informs us. For the war began in April an. 1 Olymp 87 lasted 27 years & ended Apr 14 an 4 Olymp. 93, as all chronologers agree. These things are so well determined by Eclipses & Olympic games & other records of good credit & so far agreed <113v> upon by chronologers that I do not think it material to enter into any dispute about them. But the history of the Iews in the time of this Monarchy set down in the Books of Ezra & Nehemiah wants some illustration. And first I shall state the history of the Iews under Zerubbabel in the reign of Cyrus Cambyses & Darius Hystaspis.

This History as conteined partly in the three first chapters of the book of Ezra & first five verses of the fourth &c – –

Darius began his reign in spring An I.P. 4193 & reigned 36 years by the unanimous consent of all Chronologers. In the 2d year of his reign the Iews began to build the temple by the prophesying of Haggai & Zech. & finished it in the sixt year. Darius fought the Greeks at Marathon in Octob an. I.P. 4224 ten years before the battel of Salamis & died in the 5t year following. The years of Cambyses & Darius are determined by three eclipses of the Moon so that they cannot be disputed, & by those eclipses & the Prohesies of Hag. & Zech compared together its manifest that his years began after the 24th day of the 11th Iewish month & before the 25t day of April & by consequence in March or April.

Xerxes spent the first five years of his reign & something more in preparations for his expedition against the Greeks & this expedition was in the time of the Olympic games an 1 Olymp 75 Calliade Athenis Archonte [28 years after the Regifuge & Consulship of the first Consul Iunius Brut ann] as all Chronologers agree. The passage of his army over the Hellespont began in the end of the 4th year of the 74th Olympiad (that is in Iune an I.P. 4234 & took up a month & in autumn after 3 months more die Munichionis 16 Plenilunio was the battel at Salamis & a little after that an Eclips of the Moon which by the calculation fell on Octob. 2. His first year therefore began in spring an I.P. 4229. He reigned almost 21 years by the consent of all writers [& to his reign agrees the story of Hester & Mordecay.] & was succeeded by Ar

Artabanus reigned seven months & upon suspicion of treason against Xerxes was slain by Artaxerxes Longimanus the son of Xerxes an. I.P. 4250. He & Xerxes together reigned some months above 21 years & by consequence he was slain an I.P. 4250 in the autumnal half year

Artaxerxes reigned – – – – year following, & therefore began his reign in Autumn an I.P. 4250

I have now stated the history of the Iews in the reign of Cyrus Cambyses & Darius Hystaspis. It remains that I state their history in the reigns of Xerxes & Artaxerxes Longimanus. For I place the histories of Ezra & Nehemiah

<114r>

Chap. 1.
The uncertainty of the Chronology of the ancient Greeks. It was collected in the times of Persian empire from the duration of the ancient kingdoms of Greece & that duration was collected from the number of kings reigning therein by putting their reigns equipollent to generations, & allowing about an hundred or 120 years to three generations one with another.

<115v>

mathML formulad − 11′ pr an. 100d − 4400s in 400 years. 90d − 3960′ in 360 years. 3960′ = 66 hours = 3d − 6′ 4d − 64′ in 16 years. 376 years

[Editorial Note 45]
538
1.131.
2.262
3.393
4.524
5.655
6.786
7.917
8.1048
9.1179
10.1310
11.1441.
12.1572.
13.1703.
14.1834
15.1965
16.2096
17.2227
18.2358
19.2489
20.2620
21.2751
22.2882
23.3013
24.3144
25.3275
26.3406
27.3587
28.3668
29379
303930

Troy was taken about 80 years before the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus, & by consequence about 131 years before the first Olympiad, or 75 years after the death of Solomon; And the Argonautic expedition being one generation earlier was about 43 years after the death of that king: as was collected above by arguments taken from Astronomy. And this recconing will be further confirmed when it shall appear that Sesostris was Sesac & invaded Greece one generation before the Argonautic expedition & returned out of Greece into Egypt in the 14th year of Rehoboam; & that upon his coming into Egypt Danaus immediately fled from him into Greece with his 50 daughters & became king of Argos about one generation before the Argonautic expedition; & that Memnon who reigned in the time of the Trojan war & built the Memnonia at Susa was Amenophis who reigned in Egypt next after Orus the son of Sesostris; & that Cadmus fled from Sidon in the reign of David. But before we proceed to these arguments, it will be convenient to take notice of the affaires of Greece which followed the taking of Troy & were contemporary to the things already described.

And the truth of these things will be further confirmed when it shall appear that the Greeks collected the time of the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus, from the number of kings reigning in Sparta after that return by recconing the reigns of kings at about 35 or 45 years a piece one with another, which is double to their length by the course of nature [; And they will be still further confirmed when it shall apear that Sesostris was Sesac & invaded Greece one generation before the Argonauic expedition, & returned out of Greece into Egypt in the 14th year of Rehoboam; & that upon his return his brother Danaus immediately fled from him into Greece with his 50 daughters in a long ship after the pattern of which the ship Argo was built by his grandson; And that the distraction of Egypt by the invasion of the Ethiopians & victory of Asa & insurrection of Osarsiphus gave occasion to the Argonautic expedition: And that Cadmus fled from Sidon to Greece upon the taking of Sidon by the Philistims & Edomites in the reign of David.

<116r>

Αὑτὰρ ἀπ᾽ ἐυβοίης Κάνθος κίε. Τόν ρα Κάνηθος

Πέμπεν ἀβαντιάδης λελγημένον

[130]Ex Eubœa porro venit Canthus, quem Canethus

Abantis f. amandavat nec invitum.

<117r>

Chap. IV
Of the Babylonian Empire.

After the regions upon Tigris & Euphrates became free from the dominion of Egypt, Babylon a city built soon after the flood) continued for some time under its own kings

And at length reigned Nabonassar in whose days a body of Egyptians flying from Sabacon carried to Babylon the Egyptian year & founded the Æra of this king as above, beginning the years thereof on the smae day with the years of Egypt.

And in the year of Nabonassar 68 Asserhadon king of Assyria conquered Chaldea & Susiana & captivated the people placing many of them in Samaria & carryed the people of Samaria captive into Assyria. And henceforward Chaldea & Susiana became Provinces of Assyria for some time: but at length revolted & in conjunction with the Medes destroyed Nineveh.

By the fall of the Assyrian Empire &c –

<118v>

But Astrology was invented in Egypt by Nechepsos one of the kings of the lower Egypt & Petosiris his Priest, a little before the days of Sabacon. And this makes it probable that the Priests of Egypt who fled from Sabacon carried their Astrology with them into Chaldea, & there introduced the Egyptian year & for the sake of Astrology began to observe the starrs at Babylon as diligently as they had done before in Egypt. And at that time or not long before, the king of Babylon might erect the Temple of Iupiter Belus in the form of the Egyptian Pyramids. For this Temple was a solid tower or Pyramid a furlong square & a furlong high with seven retractions

& Atreus the son of Pelops, & Hercules the son of Alcmena successively & at length Iphitus made them quadrennial.

<119r>

892. The Edomites revolt from Iudea & interrupt the navigation of the Iews & Tyrians on the red sea. The Tyrians build ships on the Mediterranean & there begin long voyages to places not yet frequented by the Zidonians And hence came the opinion that the Phenicians came originally from the red sea.

890 Dido flys to Afric.

883 Dido built Carthage Æneas still alive according to Virgil

1048 The Edomites are conquered by David. Their mariners fly from the red sea to the Mediterranean & there begin to build ships

1049 The Phenicians begin to sail as far as Greece, carry away Io the daughter of Inachus. The Greek seas begin to be infested with Pyrates. Acrisius marries Eurydice the daughter of Lacedemon & {Eparta}

1044 The Syrians of Zoba & Damascus are conquered by David. The Phenicians begin to sail as far as Greece

1042 Nyctimus the son of Lycaon reigns. Deucalion still alive. The king of Ascalon assisted by the Edomites, takes Sidon & makes the Sidonians under the conduct of Cadmus, Cilix, Phœnix, <119v> Membliarius, Tharus, Atymnus & other captains fly to Tyre, Aradus, Cilicia, Phrygia Crete Greece & Lybia with letters music Poetry – & Idæi Dactyli. Abibalus now made king of Tyre.

714. Sennacherib besieges Pelusium & is put to flight by Sethon (perhaps Sabaton king of Egypt & Tirhakah (his son) who came down with an army from Ethiopia

700 Tirhakah king of Egypt & Ethiopia

Romulus 14. Numa 354

628 Romulus. 614 Numa.

578 Tullus Hostilius.

<120r>

by the name of Vulcan. ffor Vulcan was most celebrated in Egypt & is by Homer called a king, the first King of Lemnus & Cyprus And these are further instances of deifying men & weomen in Syria & the parts adjacent.

So also in Greece between the days of Cadmus & the Argonautick expedition when cities were first built there & began to grow into kingdoms, the Greeks deified their kings & Heroes & erected sepulchres or Temples to them with colleges of Priests for their worship. Such was the deifying of Ceres a woman of Sicily who taught the Greeks to sow corn in the reign of Erechtheus king of Athens & soon after his death had a {Temple} erected to her in Eleusine where the family of Eumolpus became her Priests

ffor Vulcan was the husband of Venus & by consequence king of Cyprus. Homer calls him a king, meaning king of Lemnus. He was celebrated chiefly by the Egyptians for assisting their kings with armour. They built a very magnificent Temple to him at Memphys & by it another to his Venus. And this was done in the reign of Amenophis about the times of the Trojan war or soon after.

<121r>

1497 The Midianites & Edomites on the borders of the red sea had letters & Astronomy Iob.

1450. The Canaanites who fled from Ioshua go in great numbers into Ægypt & some stay there others go thence into Libya & Afric.

1445 The Canaanites who stay in Egypt conquer Thammuz king thereof, & reducing all the lower Egypt into subjection as far as Heliopolis & Mesir erect a kingdom at Aevaris, Abaris or Pelusium. Their first six kings were Salatis Bæon Apachnas, Apophis, Ianias, Assis.

1120 Mephres a king reigning in the upper parts of Egypt takes Heliopolis from the Shepherds

1105 Misphragmuthosis makes a lasting warr uppon the shepherds & drives them out of the greatest part of Egypt. They fly into Palestine, Idumæa, Syria & Libya, & under Lelex Æzeus, Inachus, Pelasgus, & Æolus & other captains into Greece The rest shut themselves up in a part of the lower Egypt called Abaris

1100 The Philistims stregthned by the access of the shepherds conquer Israel & take the Ark. Samuel judges Israel.

<122r>
Anni
ante
Christum
1497Moses populum ducit ex Ægypto
1458Timaus vel Tammuz regnat in Ægypto inferiore
1451Ioshua victis Canaanæis Terram dvidit inter Tribus undecim Canaanæi fugientes invadunt Ægyptum inferiorem & regnum Pastorum ibi condunt.
1141Eli judicat Israelem
1115Ægyptij pastores a Thebanis fugat sub Lelege, Æzeo, Inacho, Pelasgo, Æolo primo & Cecrope &c in Græciam veniunt domos omnium primas ibi construunt Antea Cimmerij Nomades a tergo maris Euxini in Europam venen{tes} Scytharum more sine domibus viventes.
1101Samuel judicat Israelem
1091Lycaon Lycosuram, Phoroneus Phoronicum, Ægialeus Ægialeam, Phegeus Phegeam oppida omnium in Peloponneso antiquissima condunt. Antea domus per agros spargebantur. Sub idem tempus Cecrops Cecropiam ædificavit. Et hæc oppida initium dederunt regnis Atheniensium, Areorum, Sicyonorum
1071Saul regnat in Israele Amosis Pastores ex Abari in Palæstinam fugat..
1061David regnat.
1051Idumæi a Davide victi. Phœnices a mari rubro fugientes littora maris Mediterranei incolunt & ad Græciam usque mox navigant. Io rapitur. Tyrus conditur a Sidonijs. Abibalus ibi regnat.
Europa rapitur &
1042{Europa rapitur &} Phœnices sub Cadmo Cilice Phœnice Thaso Membliano Atymno & alijs ducibus a Davide fugientes in Asiam minorem Cretam & Græciam veniunt, & literas aliasque Phœnicum artes & scientias introducunt.
1040Orcus Molossorum rex Proserpinam Cereris, fæminæ siculæ filiam rapit. Ceres venit in Atticam et fruges serere mox docet. Erechtheus regnat in {Attica}
1032Ammon regnat in Ægypto.. Hic naves longas et proceras cum velis primus construxit. Antea ratibus navigabatur in mari rubro inventis. Ægyptij astra observare incipiunt navigandi gratia. Vnde nata est Astronomia.
1026Nicteus et Epaphus vel Apis Phoronei filius cæsi. Amphion & Zetus nati.
1021Solomon regnat…
1020Arcas filius Callistûs & Eumeles rex primus Achaiæ frumentum accipiunt a Triptolemo.
1017Templum fundatur a Solomone. Ferrum in Creta ab Idæis Dactylis repertum.
1015Musæus canit raptum Proserpinæ
1014Eumolpus, mortua Cerere, Mysteria exhibet in Eleusine & patris Musæi poemata edit. Templa primum condita in Græcia.
1012Cecrops II regnat in Attica. Caucon Mysteria Cereris docet in Messene.
1011Pandion Cecropis frater regnat in Attica. Pelops venit in Peloponnesum.
1010Car Phoronei filius templum erigit Cereri.
1009Minos regnat in Creta pulso patre Latinorum Saturno. Ferrum in
1002 Minos classem parat & Colonias ad minores Græcorum insulas mittit, antea non inhabitatas.
998Sesac regnat in Ægypto & patri Ammoni Templa et Oracula in Thebaide Ammonia et Æthiopia condit.
996Thebaide Ammonia et Æthiopia condit. Cœpheus Ioppam tenet. Perseus ejus filiam Andromedam rapit.
994Ægeus regnat in Attica
1002Concilium Amphictioneum fundatur ab Acrisio. –
990Dædalus et Talus Serram, tornum, dolabram et alia fabrorum lignamorum instrumenta inveniunt. Dædalus statuas pedibus disjunctis efformat.
985Oraculos conduntur in Græcia, & cultus mortuorum mox passim introducitur.
981Rehoboam regnat.
976Sesac a Græcis Sesostris dictus Syriam Persiam Indiam invadit
972Theseus regnat victo Minotauro.
970Sesac transito Hellesponto Thraciam occupat. Hercules natus
968Sesac a Græcis et Scythis victus regreditur per Syriam in Ægyptum, & Amazones sub Marthesia et Lampente ad fluvium Thermodo seu Caduca
<123r>
sub Æete ad Colchos, & alios Ægyptios sub Prometheo ad Caucasum montem reliquit. Tabulas etiam Geographicas reliquit in Colcho: et inde nata est Geographia. Phryxus & Helle fugiunt per mare
96{7}Sesac distribuit Ægyptum in nomos, conditis Nomorum templis & constitutis Dijs Oraculis et religionibus. Distribuit etiam agros Ægypti inter milites, et inde nata est Geometria.
967Danaus cum filijs Ægyptum fratrem, id est Sesacum, fugiens, in Græciam venit
958Sesac occiditur. Orus regnat.
948Zerah Æthiops, id est זרה Orus, vincitur ab Asa.
945Orus ab Æthiopibus mergitur in Nilo. Menes seu Amenophis regnat & Memphim ac Templum Vulcani condit.
941Theseus quinquagennius Hellenam decennem rapit. 940 Chiron format Signa cœlestia.
939Expeditio Argonautica. Prometheus a monte Caucaso recedit, ab Hercule liberatus. 936 Hercules Laomedonitem occidit
933Amenophis Iudæos pellit Ægypto. Priamus regnat in Trojam. 930 Venatio apri Chaledonij. 928 Theseus moritur.
925Atreus moritur. Paris Hellenam rapit. 890 Hellus occiditur. 930 Hercules & Æsculapius in Dios relati
932Bellum Thebanum. 920 Bellum Epigonorum.
905Troja capta.
895Teucer Salaminem in Cypro condit
890Ramesses vel Rhampsinitus Amenophis filius regnat in Ægypto
883Dido Carthaginem condit
870Moeris regnat in Ægypto. Hic lacum, Moeridis dictum, effodit, & in ejus fundo Pyramides duas lateritias contruxit.
865Hesiodus floret.
856Homerus floret
852Cheops regnat in Ægypto. Hic Pyramidem maximam construxit
845 Migratio Æolica. Bœotia prius Cadmeis ducta a Bœotis occupata
825Reditus Heraclidarum in Peloponnesum
780Pul fundat Imperium Assyriorum Nichepsos & Petosiris Astrologiam excogitant in Ægypto
776Æra Olympiadum.
770Migratio Ionica. 760 Semiramis floret. Sanchoniatho scribit.
750Sabacon Æthiops Ægyptum occupat in varia regna divisum. Ægypti Sacerdotes in Chaldæam fugentes Astronomiam Astrologiam & annum Ægyptiorum introducent
747Æra Nabonassaris.
742Tiglathpilaser rex Assyriorum capit Damascum & Syros abducit captivos.
727So vel Sua regnat in Ægypto
723Salmanaser rex Assyriorum Tribus decem in captivitatem abducit.
717Tirhakah regnat in Ægypto
714Asserhadon regnat in Assyria
708Lycurgus floret
681Asserhadon occupat Babylonem
674Manasses captivus Babylonem abducitur Iudæis ab Asserhadone victis
672Asserhadon invadit Ægyptum.
671Reges duodecim sub Asserhadone regnant in Ægypto
668Medi, Babylonij, Syri, Phœnices, Ægyptij ab Assyrijs deficiunt, Asserhadon veterum Sardanapalo cæso.
656 Psammiticus rex Ægypti totius superatis reliquis undecim regibus. Is jam a morte patris regnaverat annos quindecim.
< insertion from f 122v >
655Bellum primum Messeniacum incipit
650Primus Atheniensium Archon decennalis Charops.
< text from f 123r resumes >
642Scythæ Medos et Assyrios invadunt
628Phidon Argivorum rex floret.
< insertion from f 122v >
616Bellum secundum Messeniacum incipit. 604 Roma Condita.
< text from f 123r resumes >
614Psammiticus moritur. Nechaoh regnat in Ægypto. Cyaxeres fugat Scythas.
610Cyaxeres rex Medorum et Nebuchadonosor filius regis Babyloniorum Ninevem evertunt.
608Primus annus Nebuchadonosoris in Phœnicia
591 607Cyaxeres Aliatti Lydorum regi bellum infert.
< insertion from f 122v >
600Primus Atheniensium Archon annuus Creon
< text from f 123r resumes >
597Persæ a Cyaxere debellati.
588Templum Solomonis inconditur
585 Maij 28. 11h A.M. Eclipsis Solis a Phalete prædita bellum inter Medos & Lydos dirimit.
< insertion from f 122v >
585An. Nabonass 163 Maij 28. 6h P.M. Eclipsis Solis a Thalate prædicta, bellum inter Medos & Lydos dirimit.
578Draco Atheniensium Archon leges tulit[132]
562Solon Atheniensium Archon leges tulit.
554Crœsi et Solonis colloquium. Æsopus floret
552Pisistratus Athenis tyrannidem occupat Archonte Comia.
< text from f 123r resumes >
544Sardes capitur a Cyro.
539Babylon capitur a Cyro
537Cyrus victo Medorum rege Dario imperium transfert ad Persas. Iudæi redeunt a captivitate Babylonica
530Cyprus perit in bello. Cambyses regnat.
<123v>
522Darius Hystaspis filius regnat, Magi occiduntur. Hystaspes et Zoroaster abolitis Provinciarum religionibus diversis, novam Magorum religionem per totum Persarum imperium instituunt.
520Templum secundum ædificatur, jubente Dario.
513Harmodius et Aristogiton Hipparchum Pisistrati filium Atheniensium Tyrannum interficiunt.
[Editorial Note 46]

Lacedæmon fil. Eurotæ fil.

<124r>

The Saracen Historians tell us that Kischtasp the fift king of Persia in the Dynasty of the Kaianides was contemporary to Zaradust or Zoroaster the legislator of the Gebers or fireworshippers, & embraced his doctrines & established them throughout all Persia. & that Bahaman the next | sixt king of Persia was the son of Asfendiar the son of Kischtasp, & that Asfendiar reigned not, but was slain before his fathers death by Rostam {the} governour of Sablestan & Segestan in the east{ern} border of Persia. Whence I {gathe}r that Kischtasp was Hystaspes the master of the {Medes} who by the assistance of Zoroaster set up the religion of the Magi throughout Persia: & that Bahaman the grandson of Kischap was that King whom the Greeks call Darius Hystaspis. For the next kings (Xerxes Artaxerxes Longimanus Darius Nothus &c) were the sons of kings.

They say also that Bahaman went westward into Mesopotamia & Syria & conquered Balthasar the son of Nebuchadnezzar & gave the kingdom of Babylon to Cyrus his Lieutenant general over Media Assyria & Chaldea, & caused the Iews to be released from captivity & here they confound Darius Medus with Darius Hystaspis,

They say also that Bahaman was surnamed Ardschir Diraz & hereby they confound the two Darius's with Artaxerxes Longimanus, taking Diraz perhaps for Darab or Darius.

They say also that Lohorasp the fourth king of Persia in the second Dynasty {w}as the first of their kings who reduced their armies into discipline & that he went eastward & conquered many Provinces of Persia & had wars with the kings of Touran or Scythia beyond the river Oxus, & made the city Balk the seat of his empire; & that one of his Generals whom the Hebrews call Nebuchadnezzar & others call Rahan & Gudarz, went westwards & conquered all Syria & Iudea & took the city Ierusalem & destroyed it. And by these circumstances I gather that by Lohorasp they mean Cyaxeres, pretending that whilst he went eastward against {the Persians} he sent Nebuchadnezzar against Syria & Phœnicia.

They say also that Cyrus was the son of {Granah} the son of {illeg} & having married the sister of Zerubbabel released the Iews from {captivity} & that Kischtasp the grandfather of Bahaman was also the son of Lohorasp. And thus they make Darius Hystaspis about one generation younger then Cyrus & three generations younger then Cyaxeres.

They say also that Afrasiab king of Touran or Turquestan beyond the river Oxus invaded Persia with a great army, sleu Naudar the last king but one in the first Dynasty & beseiged {illeg} {illeg} Zer the father of Rostan got up an army & drove the {illeg}the river Oxus & set Zab upon the throne of Persia & that Afrasiab <124v> returned with an army & in {illeg} the son of Zab, & put an end to the Monarchy of the first race of Persian Kings called Pichdadians. But Zal Zer & his son {illeg} set up {Kaianid} the first King of the second Dynasty & drove out the Touranians a second time, & then in the reign of Caicorrou {illeg}

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The third from him was Cyrus a happy man.

The Poet here attributes the founding of the Medo-Persian Empire to the two Predecessors of Cyrus, the first of which was a Mede & the second was his son. The second was Darius the Mede the immediate predecessor of Cyrus according to Daniel & therefore the first was Assuerus, Oxyares, Axeres or Cy-Axeres. ffor Daniel tells us that Darius was the son of Achsuerus (or Ahasuerus as the Masorets called him) of the seed (or royal family) of the Medes. This is that Assuerus who together with Nebuchadnezzar took & destroyed Nineve according to Tobit, which action is by the Greeks ascribed to Cyaxeres. By this victory over the Assyrians at Nineveh & subversion of their kingdom he began to erect the Medo-Persian Empire & his son Darius the Mede finished the work by conquering the kingdoms of Lydia & Babylon, & the third king was Cyrus a happy man for his great successes under Darius & large dominion in his own reign. This Cyaxeres according to Xenophon was the son of Astyages king of the Medes & Astyages according to both Xenophon & Herodotus gave his daughter Mandane to Cambyses a Prince of Persia & Cyaxeres the son of Astyages & brother of Mandane according to Xenophon gave his daughter to Cyrus the son of Cambyses & Mandane. Xenophon tells us that she was reported to be very handsome & that Cyrus used to play with her in his childhood & that she then used to say that she would marry Cyrus: whence I gather that Cyrus was of the same age with the Children of Cyaxeres & married his daughter not after the taking of Babylon when she would have been an old woman but long before while she was young & beautiful & Cyrus a young man, & that she was of a just age to be the sister of Darius the Mede. For Cyrus lived 70 years (according to Tully) & took Babylon nine years before his death (according to Ptolomys Canon) that is, at the age of 61 years: at which time Darius was 62 years old acording to Daniel. From all which compared together we may certainly conclude that these four kings Astyages, Cyaxeres, Darius & Cyrus reigned successively over the Medes. Herodotus seems to invert the order of the kings Astyages & Cyaxeres, for he tells us that Cyaxeres the father of Astyages was more warlike then his predecessors & brought the army of the Medes into better order & discipline & subdued the Scythians & Assyrians: all which answers the character which Æschylus gives to that king of the Medes who reigned next but one before Cyrus, & so confirms my opinion that the kings of the Medes reigned in this order Dejoces, Phraortes, Astyages, Cyaxeres, Darius, Cyrus &c,

How Dejoces the first king built Ecbatane & extended the kingdom westward through Armenia into Cappadocia as far as the river Halys & how Phraortes conquered the Persians (not all the nations now called Persia but a Province thereof) & invaded the Assyrians & was slain by them we have told you above. Astyages did nothing memorable. In his reign a great body of Scythians commanded by Madyes invaded Media, beat the Medes in battel & brought them into subjection & going thence towards Egypt were met in Phœnicia & bought off by Psammiticus,

When therefore the Angel told Daniel that he would return to fight with the king of Persia for when he was gone out the Prince of Greece should come & that in the first year of Darius he stood to confirm & to strengthen him: the meaning is that he was to assist the king of Greece in warring against the Persians as he had assisted Darius in warring against the Chaldeans, .

The Persians being conquered by the Medes about the middle of the reign of Zedekiah being conquered by the Medes, continued still in subjection under them , & Cyrus who was of the royal family of the Persians was not yet an absolute & independant king. But after the taking of Babylon when he had a victorious army at his devotion, it was easy for him to revolt.

This victory was about 2 years after the taking of Babylon. ffor the reign of Novonidus the last king of the Chaldees whom Daniel calls Belshazzar ended in the year of Nabonassar 210, nine years before the death of Cyrus; according to the Canon, but after the translation of the kingdom of the Medes to the Persians, Cyrus reigned only seven years according to Xenophon, & spending –– – – 212, An. Abr. 1465. And if the seven years reign of Cyrus, be

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but instead of Darius who reigned between them he has placed Astyages

[Editorial Note 47]

Phraortes was succeeded by his son Cyaxeres & Cyaxeres by his son Astyages according to Herodotus but Xenophon tells us that Cyaxeres was the son of Astyages which is more probable For Æschylus who flourished in the reigns of Darius Hystaspis & Xerxes & died in the 76th Olympiad, reccons the kings of the Medo-Persian Monarchy down in order to Xerxes in this manner.

Μηδος γὰρ &c

He that first led the army was a Mede

The next who was his son finished the work

The third was Cyrus a happy man &c

The predecessor of Cyrus (according to Daniel) was Darius the son of Achsuerus (or Ahasuerus as the Masorets call him) of the seed of the Medes that is of the seed royal: & therefore his father Achsuerus that is Oxyares Astibares, Axeres, or Cy-Axeres) was that Mede who first had the army of the Medes & by conquering founded the Empire. Cyrus lived 70 years according to Cicero & reigned nine years over Babylon according to Ptolomy's Canon & therefore was 61 years old at the taking of Babylon, at which time Darius the Mede was 62 years old according to Daniel & therefore Darius was two generations younger then Astyages. ffor Astyages by the common consent of Herodotus & Xenophon gave his daughter Mandane to Cambyses a Prince of Persia & by them became the grandfather of Cyrus. And Cyaxeres the son of Astyages (according to Xenophon) gave his daughter to Cyrus. This daughter saith Xenophon was reported to be very handsome & used to play with Cyrus when they were both Children & to say that she would marry him: & therefore Cyrus & Darius were one generation younger then Cyaxeres. So then these kings reigned in order Astyages Cyaxeres Darius & Cyrus. Astyages did nothing glorius. Cyaxeres (as Herodotus tells us) was more warlike then any of his Predecessors & was the first who brought the confused army of the Medes into order & discipline. He slew the Scythians who had invaded Media. He conquered westward as far as the river Halys & after a war of five years with Alyattes king of Lydia he fought the Lydians in the time of a total Eclips of the Sun predicted by Thales, & afterwards he & Nebuchadnezzar overthrew the Assyrian monarchy seated at Nineveh. He was therefore the first who led the army in setting up the Monarchy of the Medes as Æschylus describes. The next, his son Darius, by conquering the kingdoms of Lydia & Babylon, finished the work. The third from him was Cyrus a happy man for his victories both under Darius & in his own reign.

How Phraortes conquered the Persians.

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– And translating the word Erithræa into Phœnicia give the name of Phœnicians to themselves & that of Phœnicia to all the sea coast from Azoth to Sidon. And hence came the tradition of the Persians & of the Phenicians themseves, mentioned by Herodotus, that the Phenicians came originally from the red sea. The Zidonians who fled from them build Tyre, & Aradus, & make Abibalus the first king of Tyre

1048. The Edomites are conquered by David. And some of them fly into Egypt with their young king Hadad & carry thither their arts & sciences amongst which were navigation Astronomy & letters. For in Idumea they had letters2 and constellations1 before the days of Iob & there Moses learnt to write the law in a book. Their mariners now fly from David some to the Persian gulf & others from the red sea to the mediterranean & fortify Azoth against David & take Zidon & carry letters & Astronomy to all places. And translating the word Erithræa into that of Phœnicia they give the name of Phœnicians to themselves & that of Phœnicia to all the sea coast of Palestine from Azoth to Zidon. And hence came the tradition of the Persians & of the Phenicians themselves, mentioned by Herodotus, that the Phenicians came originally from the red sea, & presently undertook long voiages upon the Mediterranean. The Zidonians who fled from them, build Tyre & Aradus, & make Abibalus king of Tire

1048. The Edomites are conquered by David & some of them fly into Egypt with their young king Hadad, others fly to the Persian gulf with their commander Oannes, & others fly from the red sea to the coasts of the Mediterranean & fortify Azoth against David, & take Zidon. And the Zidonians who fled from them build Tyre & Aradus & make Abibalus king of Tyre. These Edomites carry to all places their arts & sciences amongst which were their Navigation Astronomy & Letters. For in Idumæa they had Constellations & Letters before the days of Iob who mentions them & there Moses learnt to write the law in a book. The Edomites who fled to the Mediterranean, translating the word Erythræa into that of Phœnicia, give the name of Phœnicians to themselves & that of Phœnicia to all the sea coast of Palestine from Azoth to Zidon. And hence came the tradition of the Persians & of the Phœnicians themselves, mentioned by Herodotus, that the Phœnicians came originally from the red sea & presently undertook long voiages on the Mediterranean.

1002 Thoth prescribes the forms of letters to the Egyptians

1045 Oannes appears in the Persian gulph.

– 1017 – – fleet upon that sea. The Tyrians & Aradians who assisted him in that navigation build new cities in the Persian gulf called Tyre & Aradus.

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To Sir Isaac Newton
in St Martin's street
near Leicester Fields

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And now the Philistims whom Sesostris had carried into captivity & placed in Caphtor were at liberty to return home, & did so according to the Prophet. Amos 9.7. The Greeks tell us that Prometheus a very wise man & an inventor of arts by fire first reigned in the lower Egypt & then for his skill in those Arts & teaching them to men was chained to mount Caucasus for 30 years together & afterwards set at liberty by Hercules. The meaning seems to be that for his skill in minerals & excocting metals out of them he was sent by Sesostris to preside over the Ægyptians & Philistims who were placed in Captor at the foot of Mount Caucasus, & there to imploy the Philistims as slaves in digging those mountains for gold & silver. For that country was in those days celebrated for its riches in gold & silver dug out of those mountains. And since he staid there 30 or as others say 34 years & then was set at liberty, the return of the captivity of the Philistims will happen a little after the victory of Asa. The story of Hercules setting him at liberty by killing the vultur which gnawed his heart looks like a figment of the Grecians in honour of their Hercules & if it signify any thing it seems to imply that the Egyptian Hercules revolted from the Egyptians & together with the Ethiopians made war upon them & thereby set Prometheus & the Caphtoreans at liberty to return home.

In these broiles in which Egypt was now engaged, Orus was slain by the Titans & found dead in the Nile & after him reignd Amenophis called Amenephthes by Eusebius Imandes Ismandes & Isimandes by Strabo, Osimandes by Hecatæus Osimanduas & Mendes by Diodorus & most commonly Memnon by the Greeks. He placed on his mothers statue three Crowns to signify that she was the daughter wife & mother of a king. Manetho saith that he was the son & successor of Rhampses who was the eldest son & successor of Sethos or Sesostris. And perhaps Rhampses (if that was the name of the father of Amenophis) was the son of Sesostris by an Ethiopian woman. ffor the Greeks always recconed Memnon an Ethiopian. Iosephus tells us out of Manetho that this Amenophis was a contemplator of the Gods as was Orus a former king & was perswaded by one of the Priests to purge Egypt from leprous & impure men & for that end gathered them out of all Egypt & granted them Abaris the city of Typhon to inhabit. Whereupon they conceiving this a fit place to make a rebellion made Osarsiphus Priest of Heliopolis their captain & fortified their cities & prepared for war against Amenophis, & called in the Iews from Ierusalem who came to Pelusium with an army of 200000 to their assistance. That this was the second invasion of Egypt by the Shepherds & that Amenophis- came against them with an army of 300000 but before he fought them returned back to Memphis & went thence into Ethiopia with all his ships & multitude where he reigned 13 years while Osarsiphus & the Iews reigned at Pelusium. That when he led his army against Osarsiphus he commended his young <127v> son Ramesses a child of five years old to the care of a friend That Osarsiphus was Moses & made laws for the people at Abaris & wasted the cities of Egypt. But after 13 years Amenophis came out of Ethiopia with a great army & his son Ramesses joyned him with another great army & they fought the shepherds & polluted people & drove them out of Egypt pursuing them as far as the borders of Syria. And the same story is told by Cheræmon with some variation of circumstances. Let the story be purged from the mistake that Osarsiphus was Moses & from the calumny that the Egyptians who called in the Iews were leaprous & it will run thus: that Memnon being an Ethiopian was either the same man with Zerah or his king or warred under him in the army of Ethiopians & Libyans who invaded Iudea; that this army being beaten by the Iews at Maresah, a body of Egyptians soon after revolted from the Ethiopians at Pelusium & made Osarsiphus their captain & called in the victorious Iews to their assistance; that Memnon led the Ethiopians against Osarsiphus He {retired} into Thebais & Ethiopia & & in the mean time built & fortified Memphys to stop the progress of the Enemy & then returned back to that city without venturing a second battel against the Iews & from thence retired sent for a body of Ethiopians from Indiæ by sea to strengthen himself & gave them seats above Egypt. For this Eusebius insinuates in telling us: Sub Amenophe Æiopes ab Indo flumine consurgentes juxta Ægyptum consederunt. That after thirteen years he returned with what force he & his young son Ramesses could make & conquering Osarsiphus drave out the Iews. And to this action Ramesses seems to relate when he inscribed on his Obelisk (as Hermapion interpreted it) that he had saved Egypt by expelling forreigners.

Manetho says that the shepherds obteined Egypt 511 years. If the Iews (whom Manetho takes to be the Shepherds) entered Egypt a year or two after the battel at Maresah & Amenophis after another year or two retired into Thebais & Ethiopia & reigned there 13 years before he returned back against Osarsiphus the last expulsion of the shepherds will be about the 30th or 33th year of Asa. Count backwards 511 years & the the first reign of the shepherds in Egypt will begin about eight or ten years after the conquest & division of the land of Canaan by Ioshuah. Which agrees well with what we said above.

Amenophis having recovered Egypt & being now inured to war led his army out of Egypt &c – – – nor the Precession of the Equinox.

Herodotus & Diodorus tell us from the Egyptian Priests that Orus the son of Osiris & Isis was the last of the Gods who reigned in Egypt & that after him & Typhon Egypt was governed by men the first of which was Menes. So also Eratosthenes – – – – not much out in ascribing them to him.

[Editorial Note 48] <128v>

Rhampsinitus, Amenophis & Ramesses.

Rhampsinitus called by Manetho Rhampses – – – army of a thousand thousand men. But all this is to be understood of his power & riches in the beginning of his reign. ffor he being a quiet Prince the conquered nations had rest from war during his reign & though they might pay tribute for a time yet they fortified their cities & strengthened themselves in order to an open revolt. And first the Ethiopians & Libyans revolted & maintained their liberty against Egypt with success & victory. ffor in the 15th year of Asa king of Iudah Zerah the Ethiopian with an army of a thousand thousand Ethiopians & Libyans invaded Iudea. Their way was through Egypt & their war with Egypt was of some continuance – – – But when Israel in their trouble did turn unto the Lord & sought him he was found of them. By this victory – – – Empire.

Next reigned Amenophis called Amenephthes by Eusebius, Imandes Ismandes & Isimandes by Strabo, Osimandes by Hecatæus, Osimanduas & Mendes by Diodorus & Memnon most commonly by the Greeks. His a mother was a Queen & he was the b son of Rhampses. Iosephus tells us out of Manetho & Chæremon that in the reign of Amenophis (that Amenophis – – – – nor the Precession of the æquinox.

It was the general opinion of antiquity that Sesostris lived before Memnon & before the times of the Trojan war & that Memnon lived in the times of that war ✝ < insertion from lower down f 128v > ✝ Homer speaks of Thebes as in its glory & greatness with 100 Gates & 20000 Chariots & immense riches in the time of the Trojan war & this description could not agree to Thebes before the days of Sesostris. Hesiod makes Memnon to be the son of Tithonus & Aurora; which Tithonus, saith Diodorus, was the son of Laomedon & brother of Priamus, & warring in the eastern parts went as far as Ethiopia (that is was carried captive by Sesostris into Thebais) whence came the fable of Memnon's being born of Aurora. Memnon was therefore one generation younger then Tithonus & Priamus, & by consequence contemporary to the children of Priam & to the Trojan war. And this synchronism is confirmed by its giving occasion to a story related by Pindar Pausanias Diodorus & other ancients of Memnons being at the war of Troy & there slain by Achilles the Greeks taking occasion from the Synchronism to frame this story in honour of their nation. And thus far the story seems to be true that about the time of that war or a very little before he came into Phrygia, not to assist the Trojans, but in carrying on his conquests, Pausanias relates that in a publick building at Delphos – – – then made their weapons From all these things compared it seems that Sesostris invaded Asia & Grece in the days of Laomedon king of Troy & amongst a great multitude of captives carried away his son Tithonus a beautiful youth, Priamus being not yet grown up. That Memnon was born soon after (that is soon after the 14th year of Rehoboam) & therefore feigned by the Greeks to be the son of Tithonus. That he might therefore be about 20 years old when <128r> he was carried captive into Aethiopia & about 35 or 40 years old when he returned back & about 74 years old in the year of the Iulian Period 3821 when the new Egyptian year of 365 days was instituted.

And by this recconing the dstruction of Troy was about 60 or 65 years after the death of Solomon, counting about 15 years to the birth of Memnon & 45 or 50 more to the taking of that city.

If in the 14th year of Rehoboam when Tithonus was captivated he & Priam may be supposed about 20 years old, & when Troy was taken Priam being an old man, may be supposed about 70 years old the difference of about 50 years added to 14 will make 64 years.

Vpon the return of Sesostris into Egypt his brother Danaus fled from thence with his 50 daughters in a long ship & 50 oars called πεντηκόντορος & came first to Rhodes where he built a Temple to Minerva & then sailed to Argos. This was the first long ship which came into Greece & after the pattern of this ship the Greeks built the ship Argo of 50 oars which was the first long ship built by the Greeks. Reccon from the death of Solomon 14 years to the flight of Danaus, 2 or 3 years more his stay in Rhodes, 10 or 15 years more to the Argonautick expedition & a generation or 33 years more till the destruction of Troy & the whole summ will be about 60 or 64 years.

Theseus was 50 years old when he stole Helena & she was then about 10 years old, reccon her 20 years old when she was stole by Paris & according to Homer add 20 years more till the destruction of Troy & if Bacchus took Ariadne from Theseus about the 8th or 10th year of Rehoboam & Theseus was then about 25 or 30 years old being in his strength when he slew the Minotaur, this recconing will make about 60 or 65 years from the death of Solomon to the destruction of Troy.

Hesiod describes five ages of the Gods, the first was the golden age in which Saturn reigned & men lived hapily without care & trouble. When each was dead they were made Gods & there arose a second generation a silver age inferior to the the former & when they died there arose a third of brass violent & strong in

When Theseus overcame the Minotaur we may reccon Minos about 60 or 65 years old. ffor he had many children who were then grown up, & his eldest son Androgeus was Slain above 16 years before & was then a man, being victor in the Panathenæa a little before his death. Counting therefore 65 years backwards the birth of Minos & the bringing of letters into Europe by Cadmus will be about the middle of Davids reign as we recconed above, that is about 120 or 125 years before the taking of Troy. About the same time that Troy was taken Eteocles & Polynices two young men the sons of Oedipus the son of Laius the son of Labdacus the son of Polydorus the son of Cadmus & Harmonia were slain in the war of the seven captains against Thebes. These being a succession of eldest sons, let us reccon about 25 years to a generation & the whole time from the marriage of Cadmus & Harmonia to the war of the seven captains will be about 125 years < text from f 128v resumes > Pausanias relates[133] that in a publick building at Delphos he saw several pictures made by Polygnotus (a famous ancient painter contemporary to Artexerxes Longimanus) & that in one of them were painted Hector Memnon & Sarpedon all of them with beards & Paris a beardless youth, & by Memnon a naked Ethiopian boy. And saith Pausanias Memnon came to the war of Troy not fom Ethiopia but from Susa a city of Persia conquering all the intermediate nations as far as the river Choaspis. And the Phrygians still shew by what way he lead his army the way being distinguished by mansions.[134] In memory of this expedition the Nicomedians kept in the temple of AEsculapius a copper sword which they said was Memnon's. It was certainly an old monument becaus made of copper the metal of which the Greeks & Trojans then made their weapons.

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rapture of Europa will be about the 23th year of David where we placed it above.

Considering that Bacchus came over the Hellespont before Oeagrus begat Orpheus of Calliope, if we may suppose that Orpheus at the time of the Argonautic expedition was about 20 or 24 years old, & that it was not above so many years before the Greeks built the ship Argo after the pattern of the long ship in which Danaus came into Greece, the Argonautic expedition will be about 35 or 40 years after the death of Solomon. And from thence to the taking of Troy will be about 30 or 35 years more, whereof 20 or 21 passed between the stealing of Helena & the taking of that city & before the stealing of Helena Hercules sackt Troy & took away Hesione & Priam sent a {fruitless} Embassy into Greece to demand satisfaction & built the walls of Troy & Hesione bare Teucer who went to the war at Troy.

Since Bacchus came into Europe in the days of Amphictyon the son of Deucalion & in the beginning of the reign of Theseus: it discovers to us the occasion of uniting first the twelve cities of Attica into one polity under Athens by Theseus, & then Athens & many other head cities of Greece under the Amphictyonic Council. I know that in the series of the kings of Athens Amphictyon is made some generations older then Theseus: but that series is with me of no great credit. Athens was not the metropolis of Attica before the reign of Theseus & in what cities those kings reigned is uncertain. Some of them might be contemporary & some of them only several names of the same king. And whether Amphictyon was king of Athens may be doubted. The name might be given him only from his being sent to the Council: ffor all the Senators were called Amphictyons. This Council met every half year in spring & autumn at Delpos & Thermopylæ alternately & was instituted by Acrisius the grandfather of Perseus & king of Argos. When Acrisius went from Argos into the regions of Thessaly & Macedonia where they say he was accidentally killed by his grandson Perseus, it is to be understood thathe went from Argos not to avoyd Perseus as they suppose, but to convene the nations of Greece fortheir common safety against Sesostris, & that he then ordeined & formed this Council & by their advice & assistance raised the army with which his grandson Perseus opposed the Egyptians & slew many of the Mœnades.

Bacchus for his warlike atchievements was so much celebrated by the ancients as to be accounted the God of war. So Macrobius: Plerique

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You have heard how Ammon was much addicted to Astronomy & from him the study descended to his children & grandchildren Hyperion Sasyches or Sesac Atlas, Typhon Mercury, Memnon, Prometheus. How the court of Egypt came to be so much addicted to this study I do not find in history, but if room may be allowed for conjecture I suspect that the Merchants trading upon the red sea were the first that found out letters numbers & Arithmetic & observed the stars, these things being usefull in their trafique, & that when the Court of Edom fled from David into Egypt they carried these things with them to the Court of Pharaoh, & on that account were there enterteined with extraordinary favour. Ammon divided the day into hours but the year which he used was lunisolar as you heard above, & this year being of an uncertain length & therefore unfit for Astronomical uses a new year was to be invented for keeping an exact account of time before Astronomy could be brought to any competent degree of perfection. And the first attempt that I meet with of that kind was in the reign of Osiris.

ffor in the

At first the nations destitute of Astronomy & Arithmetic determined the lengths of months & years not by any certain number of days or other astronomical rules but by the visible returns of the sun Moon & stars & seasons of the year, afterwards – – – – – & therefore it may be accounted as old as those religions & festivals & by consequence brought into Greece by the first Phenicians & Egyptians who sailed thither, such as were Cadmus & Cecrops. For Herodotus tells us – – – – by that one true natural year.

When the ancients – – – – invention of the Octaeris. And after the invention of the Octaeris they corrected their year by the heavens at the end of every eight years, & at length the Greeks found out new modes of an Octaeris more exact then the former & still proceeding to more exactness they found out the Enneadecataeris & then made Almanacks for 19 years together. But in doing these things the Greeks received light from the Egyptians ffor Strabo tells us that Eudoxus – – – Chaldeans.

The Egyptians were therefore the first who found out the true length of the year. And their first attempt of this kind that I meet with was by instituting the solemnity of the milk bowels for counting all the 360 days in the reputed year ffor by repeating this recconing they soon found that this year of 360 days was too short by 5 days – – – – Osiris as you heard above. At this time therefore Astronomy was in its infancy: for while men knew not the just number of days in the solar year but supposed them to be 360 – – – observations.

The filling 360 milk-bowles in the sepulchre of Osiris are a plain indication that the solar year at the time of that institution was reputed to consist of no more then 360 days. The five additional days were reputed the birth days of Osiris Isis & while they tell us that when Rhea was with child by Saturn or according to Diodorus, when Iupiter was with child by Iuno these 5 days were added that their children might be born in no part of the old year & then Iuno brought forth Osiris Isis Typhon &c on these five days: this emendation of the year is ascribed to Ammon the father of Osiris & Isis. But I had rather trust the monuments of the milk bowls & the golden border circle & ascribe it to the younger Ammon or Amenophis whom the Greeks call Memnon, & the year it self of 365 days points at him for the author.

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And if the months were alternately of 29 & 30 days & the intercalary months of 30 days & a day was omitted at the end of every two years, or if the intercalary months were of 29 days & a day was omitted at the end of every 4 years the Octaeris would agree well enough with the course of the Moon so that there would be no need of examining these artificial years & months by the sun & moon oftener then once in eight years/ But after they found out the rules of reconing by months of 29 & 30 days alternately for two years together & of intercaling three months in eight years they became able to keep a recconing of time without correcting the recconing by the heaven above once in two, four or eight years & by further experience the Greeks mended their rules till they found out the Enneadecataeris whereby they became able to publish Almanacs for 19 years together. But in doing these things.       And therefore its vey probable that the Astronomers of Egypt by the solemnity of the milk bowles, intended to found a new Æra for keeping an exact reconing of time by years of 360 days & in honour to Osiris dated this Æra from his Apotheosis, & appointed Priests to keep the recconing in his Temple

But this year was | being soon found too short by five days & therefore Men

The Egyptians

By The fable of the Egyptians that when Rhea was

[Editorial Note 49] <130v>

ffor Homer | or in a poetical manner discovers to us that the Cyprian Venus was the daughter of Otreus king of Phrygia that her nurse was a Trojan & thereby she understood both languages the Phrygian & the Trojan, that her proper name was Calycopis, & that she first lay with Anchises a Herdsman of Troy & by him had Æneas upon mount Ida Then Vulcan bought her & paid a dowry for her to her father & suspecting her fidelity feigned a voyage to Lemnos & returning home unexpectedly caught Mars in bed with her, Vulcan thought of returning her to her father & demanding {back his dowry}. But this matter being otherwise composed Mars presently went with {force} over the Hellespont into Thrace & Venus sailed in rich apparrel to Cyprus & landed at Paphus [Homer. Odys. 7. & Hymn 1 & 2 in Venerem where she was washed & annointed by the Graces & lived splendidly in costly apparel adorned with gold. And in her way to Cyprus she sailed first to Cythara an island of Greece between Peloponnesus & Crete. Hesiod. Theog.

This Venus lived in Cyprus with Cinyras the son of Thyas king of Cyprus, which Cinyras was an inventor of arts & found – – – – sec. 3.//

By means of Venus Cinyras seems to have received great favoursof Bacchus for Ilus (as Sanchoniatho calls him) gave the city – – –

And Cinyras being an inventor of Arts & an eminent artificer in the fire. amp; making armour & other works for those Princes who were his friends answers in all things to the Vulcan of the ancients. Vulcan was contemporary to Pallis, Bacchus & the other Gods & therefor also to Cinyras. He first exercised arts by fire in Lemnos & made armour (Hellenicus in comment. de ædificatione Chij Cicero de natura Deorum l. 3. apud Natal. Com. Mish. l. 2.p. 150.) whence its probable that he fled thither when Sesostris took his kingdom. ffor this the ancients seem to intimate by his fall from heaven into that Island. ② In Lemnos there were only two cities Hephæstia & Myrina so called from Hephæstus the greek name of Vulcan & Myrra the daughter of Cinyras & thence the Island was called Δίπολις. ① He trusted none of the Gods except Bacchus whom he trusted very much & who when he had made him drunk with wine reduced him back into heaven (Pausan. Attic. c. 20) that is reduced him back into his kingdom. ② In Lemnos – – Δίπολις. Aglaia the youngest of the 3 weomen who attended on Venus in Cyprus & were called the Graces became Vulcans wife & therefore he lived with Venus in Cyprus, which is the character of Cinyras. Pindar tells us that the applause of the inhabitants of Cyprus resounded about Cinyras whom Apollo loved extremely he being the Chief Priest of Venus as a Ram is the captain of the flock, & that they were impelled thus to celebrate him out of gratitude for the favours he had done them. He being therefore king of Cyprus & part of Phenicia & in so great esteem & honour among them as their benefactor tis not to be doubted but that after his death they deified him there according to the custome of that age. In several respects he had several names. ffrom his skill on the Harp he was called Cinyras, from his skill in works by fire אב אסת Ηφαιστος Ignis-pater, & Δια-μίχιος     ,      Baal machinator & from the place where he was worshipped Baal-Cana, Volcanus, the God of Canaan.

When Osiris undertook his expedition through the world he left the government – – – – to Antæus (Diodor. l. 1. c. 1, 2)

They deified all their dead in various manners according to their various circumstances & abilities Some only in private families, others by erecting altars to them in public for annual sacrifices, others by building also sepulchres to them in form of Temples, &

Hesiod describes four ages of the Gods, first a golden age under the reign of Saturn which began with the birth of the Gods, & was void of labour & trouble & in which men lived of the spontaneus fruits of the earth, After these men died they were made Gods & there arose a second age of silver much worse then the first in which a boy was nursed an hundred years by his mother untill he was grown up. And after they were grown they lived a while in trouble but being injurious to one another & not worshipping the Gods nor sacrificing as they ought to do they were laid in the grownd with due honour & Iupiter raised a third age of brass vehement & strong warlike & fierce who had weapons & houses of brass, by reason that iron was not yet found out And these overcoming one another died & were buried & Iupiter raised a fourth age of Heros who were called Semigods & these also were destroyed by evil war & battels some at <130r> Thebes fighting for the wealth of Oedipus & others at Troy contending about Helena. And now saith Hesiod I wish that I did not live in the fift age for now is the iron age laborious & miserable & full of cares, but Iupiter shall destroy this age of men of various languages after that their heads shall grow hoary. Thus far Hesiod. By the ages its plain that he means ages of mans life & therefore he himself lived within 30 or 40 or at most 50 or 60 years after the war of Troy. He makes the 2d age of above 100 years duration but it is because he makes men live much longer in that age then in his own. There were four ages of the Gods of Egypt ~ ~ reigning at Thebes, the first was of Saturn who expelled the shepherds & whom Mercury painted with two faces & four wings doing this with respect to the times before & after the expulsion of the shepherds, the second of Iupiter Ammon the third of Osiris & the fourth of Orus & the surviving Gods. The first was peaceable, the second unquiet, the third very warlike the fourth warlike troublesome & miserable. Hesiod applying this Parable to the Gods of the Greeks, & living in the age next after the four he counts his own age for a fift & calls that the Iron age as being the last & worst. The fourth age he ends with the wars of Thebes & Troy. & since Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus was the first woman which Iupiter lay with & Alcmena the last we may reccon the interval to be the reign of Iupiter according to the ancient Theology of the Greeks.// Greece knew nothing older then the four ages of the Gods & therefore recconed them the four first ages of the world.

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Marcellin in his Chronicle tells us, Alterio et Ardabure Coss Iudic X Pannonicæ quæ per quinquaginta annos retirebantur, a Romanis receptæsunt

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For Athanaric according to Isidorus began his reign in the fift year of Valens, & by consequence before the death of Hermaneric.

And Ammian tells us that their king Mellobaudes was made Domesticorum comes by the Emperor Gratian A.C. 374. And Rechomer another noble Franck was made Comes domesticorum & magister utriusque militias & A.C. 384 Consul with Clearchus. He was a great favorite of the Emperor Theodosius, & accompanied him in his war against Eugenius, but died in the expedition. And the Salian Francks afterwards made his son Theudemir their king.

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Yet the father of Pharamund being king of a body of Franks in Germany in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius as above, Pharamund might reign of the same Franks in Germany before he succeeded Theudemir in the kingdom of the Salians within the Empire & even before Theudemir began his reign. But we are not here to regard his reign in Germany. We are to date this kingdom from its first reign within the Empire, & to look upon it as only strengthened by the access of other Franks coming from beyond the Rhene in the reign of this king & in that of his successor Clodio. For in the last year of Pharamunds reign Ætius took from him.

Goar & Gundicar in conjunction with a party of the Romans at Ments set up Ioannus Emperor against Honorius)

In the time of this war some Franks from beyond the Rhene invaded Gallia under the conduct of Genobald Marcomir & Suno but were repulsed by Stilico, & Marcomir being slain was succeeded in Germany by his son Pharamond.

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Ioppa an ancient sea port town of Phœnicia seems also in these days to have been invaded people coming out of Egypt For Stephanus in Ιὸπη tells us that this town was built by Cepheus the father of Andromeda & Conon Narrat 40 that the kingdom of Cepheus extended from the Mediterranean sea to Arabia upon the Red sea & Apollodorus (out of Euripedes) makes this Cepheus & his brother Phineas to be the sons of Belus a king of Egypt that Belus who was reputed the brother of Agenor the father of Cadmus, & the time agrees well with the age of Perseus the grandfather of Euristheus who was contemporary to Hercules & the Argonauts.

When David made war – sackt it. Kings upon founding or much enlarging their kingdoms usually build their cities more large & sumptuous as David & Solomon did Ierusalem & the Temple, Sesostris the cities & temples of Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar the City Babylon, Dejoces Ecbatane & Augustus Rome. And so we may reccon that the new building of Tyre was occasioned by a new dominion of the Tyrians. For Trogus lib 18 tells us A rege Ascaloniorum expugnati Sidonij Tyrum urbem ante annum Trojanæ cladis condiderunt. {A}nd hence Isaiah calls Tyre the daughter of Zidon the inhabitants of the Isle whom the merchants of Zidon have replenished. This {original} I understand not of the first building of the town which Iosephus saith was 240 years before the building of Solomons Temple: but of the making it a populous trading city like that of Sidon & building it accordingly. For the Sidonians built it for that purpose. And this seems to have been in the days of Hiram & his father Abibalus the first kings of Tyre named in history. Not later because Tyre grew great & was built in their days as above nor much sooner because Solomon in the beginning of his reign calls the servants of Hiram Zidonians: My servants shall be with thy servants & unto thee I will give hire for thy servants according to all that thou desirest for thou knowest that there is not amongst us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Zidonians 1 King. 5.6. The new inhabitants of Tyre had not yet lost the name of Zidonians, nor had the old inhabitants (if there were any considerable number of them) gained the reputation of the new ones for skill in hewing of Timber as they would have done had shipping been long in use at Tyre. We may reccon therefore that the king of Ascalon took Sidon in the reign of David or not long before. ffor then were the Philistims most potent & active in invading their neighbours & from the hostility between the Philistims & Sidonians it seems to have happened that David had friendship with the king of Tyre while he made warr upon the Philistims.

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ffor in those days the Zidonians grew famous among the Greeks while Tyre was scarce known to them. Homer often names Sidon & Sidonians but makes no mention of Tyre. And this new trafique soon gave occasion to new discords by the rapture of weomen. For Herodotus tells us that the Phenicians were the authors of dissentions who coming from the coasts of the Red sea to the coasts of the Mediterranean streightway sailed on this Sea to remote regions with Merchandice of Egypt & Syria & coming to Argos when they had there in five or six days sold almost all their Merchandize & Io the kings daughter came with other weomen – improvement of navigation.

When David vanquished the Edomites & Ioab smote every male in Edom, the Edomites fled from their country. Hadad their young King fled with his servants into Egypt & others fled to

fled to the Philistims. ffor Stephanus in Azot saith ταύτην ἔκτισαν εἱς των ἐπανελθόντων ἀπ᾽ Ερυθρας θαλάσσης φυγά δων an exul or fugative from the Red sea built Azot or Ashdod, that is, as I interpret a Prince of Edom flying thither fortified it strongly against the Israelites. By the same victories the Ports of the Red sea at Eloth & Ezion Gebar with the trade thereof coming into the possession of David & Solomon the Merchants who had traded in those Ports before were also obliged to fly for their lives. These Merchants retiring therefore principally to Zidon a great Merchant City then in the hands of the Philistims who were the enemies of Israel & the principal Port upon the Mediterranean, & being used to long voyages on the Red Sea which by reason of its shallowness might be safely navigated in such small vessels as were then in use, & avoyding to molest the native Zidonians in their ancient trade they began to sail upon the Mediterranean to remoter places then the Zidonians had done before & particularly to Grece. ffor in those days – – improvement of Navigation.

The Story of Sesach in Scripture agrees perfectly to Sesostris so far as relates to Iudea & I meet with nothing else in scripture which can agree to it [& if it {be} objected that the wars of Sesostris in other countries & his great Acts in Egypt are not told of Sesach it must be considered that the sacred history constantly passes over all the transactions of forreign nations wherein Israel is not concerned]

We are told in Scripture that Sesach came out of Egypt with 1200 chariots & 60000 horsmen & foot without number of Lybians Troglodytes & Ethiopians (which shews that he was then beco{me} king over all those nations) & he took the fenced cities of Iudah & God said the Princes of Israel shall be his servants that they may know my service or servitude (that is the servitude of Israel) & the servitude of מהלכות מאהציט the kingdoms of the earth 2 Chron 12. The last The Lybians Troglodites & Ethiopians were therefore subdued & become the servants of Sesak before he came out of Egypt & <136r> afterwards he came out with a very great army & subdued Iudea the kingdoms of the Earth. This answers fully to the story of Sesostris & there is nothing else in scripture which answers to it nor is there any other king of Egypt mentioned in profane Authors besides Sesostris whose story answers to that of Sesak in scripture.

This is the great Bacchus of the east who with his armies went through Thrace & the Indies, taught the nations the planting of Vines & use of wine, slew Lycurgus in Thrace & having pillars in the Indies with inscriptions returned back to Thebes. Diodor l. 3. c. 4 Apollodorus l 3 c. 5. ffor Bacchus was the Egyptian Osyris. Diodor. ib. Herod. in Euterpe. And the same Bacchus (not the son of Semele) was enterteined Attica by Semachus in the reign of Amphictyon the son of Deucalion. (Euseb Chron Gr) & to him was built a Temple his temple in Attica with a vault in which were earthen statues of Amphictyon enterteining Bacchus & the other Gods & of Pegasus – Pausan in Attias

In the holy Isle of Nile neare Phylas was a sepulchre built to Osyris relgiously reverenced by all the Priests of Egypt wherein were laid up 360 bowles which certain Priests appointed for that purpose filled every day with milk & called upon the Gods by name with mourning & lamentation. Diodor. l. 1. c. 3. These bowles answer to the 360 days in the old calendar year & the designe of filling them seems to be for counting the days & by them the years of 360 days [to observe the difference between these & the true solar years. You heard above that Sasyches or Sesostris here called Osyris taught Astronomy & his sacred scribe Mercury observed the stars & this monument confirms it & that the year in his reign was but of 360 days. [But after they began to reccon by this year it was soon found to be short by 5 days, & therefore was soon after augmented by 5 days]

When he undertook his journey through the world he left the government of Egypt to Isis & joyned with her mercury his sacred scribe as her chief counsellour of state [& left Hercules general of all his forces in Egypt Busiris governour of the lower Egypt near Phœnicia & Anteus governour of Libya] And after his death Isis & Mercury celebrated his funerals with sacrifices & divine honours [as to one of the Gods] & instituted many sacred rites & mystical ceremonies in memory of his great works. This Mercury was the first that observed the motion of the stars invented Arithmetick & the art of curious graving & cutting of statues. Diodor l. 1. c

This is that Bacchus of whom Chronologers speak when they tell us Vitis inventa a Dionysio verum non a Semeles filio & again [sub Amphictyone] Deucalionis filius Dionysius verum non ille Semeles filius quum in Atticam pervenisset hospitio receptus a Semacho, filiæ ejus capreæ pellem largitus est. Apud Euseb. in Chron. And Pausanias [writing of the same Bacchus tells us | where he saith] that from the Temple of Bacchus in Attica went a vault in which were earthen statues of Amphictyon king of Athens enterteining Bacchus & other Gods [Pausan. in Attica] & of Pegasus who taught the worship of Bacchus in Attica by authority of the Delphic Oracle which predicted his coming in the days of Icarius

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ffor Lycurgus & Triptolemus lived but one or two generations before the expedition of the Argonauts, a[135] Lycurgus being contemporary to Tharops the grandfather of Orpheus & b[136] Triptolemus to Persephone the daughter of Ceres & wife of Aidoneus king of the Molossi in Epire whose daughter Proserpina Theseus & Perithous attempted to steale away.

This is that Bacchus who with his armies overran the whole world taught the planting of vines & slew Lycurgus king of Thrace (Diodor. l 3 c 4) For Osiris is the Eyptian Bacchus. Diodor l. 3. c 4 Some accounted him the son of Io the daughter of Inachus, Diodor. l 3. c 4) that Io whom the Phœnicians carried into Egypt, & therefore by their recconing he lived about the times of Cadmus.

Cadmus coming into Phocis followed an Ox which he had bought of the herdsmen of Pelagos & which was marked on both sides with a white spot resembling the full Moon. Pausan l 9. c 12. This was in imitation of the Ox Apis & shews that he was of the religion of the Egyptians who worshiped that Ox & thence its probable that as the Israelites in the time of Moses, & Ieroboam in the time of Solomon, by staying in Egypt learnt the worship of the Calf so did the ancestors of Cadmus in the reign of the shepherds. Some represent that the Letters also which Cadmus brought into Europe came originally out of Egypt, being formed upon the Papyrus a flagg which grew on the banks of Nile in the lower Egypt.

Diodorus tells us that when Osyris abovementioned undertook his expedition over the world he left Busiris in the lower part of Egypt next Phœnicia. And Conon in his 32th & 37th Narrations saith that Proteus fearing the tyranny of Busiris came out of Egypt & accompanied Cadmus into Europe, & that the Phœnicians [he means the Phenicians & Egyptians intermixt] having about that time subdued a great part of Asia placed their royal seat atThebes in Egypt.

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After the destruction of Troy & death of Æneas there reigned 14 Kings at {Alba} untill the building of Rome which at 20 years to a reign one with another take up 280 years. And the seven kings of Rome before the Consuls six of them being either slain or expelled, might take up about 90 or 100 years more: [ Thus there are about 380 years from the death of Æneas to the consulship of the first Consuls Iunius Brutus & Valerius Poplicola.] And this recconing places the death of Æneas in the reign of Pigmaleon, & the destruction of Troy in that of his Predecessor.

Diodorus saith in his 40th book – – – – in the days of Eli Samuel & David

After Amosis had conquered all the lower Ægypt, his son & successor Ammenemes or Ammon by his conquests laid the foundation of the Egyptian Empire. In his days &c – – – – – – unus sit Iupiter Ammon

The ancient Egyptians – – – – – – before the reign of Amenophis

Sesach the son & successor of Ammon first warred under his father being the Hero or Hercules of the Egyptians during his father's reign – – – – – – Hiram & Adad.

In the days of Amosis Ammon & Sesak the writing of the Thebans & Ethiopians was – – – – in the shapes of these creatures.

And while this new kingdom thus deified her Princes – – – – then the Gods of any other kingdom had been before, so as to be called the Dij magni majorum gentium. For by the hieroglyphical figures of many of these Gods & the towns in Egypt dedicated to them you may know that they were of an Egyptian original.

& Zerah was succeeded by Memnon who lost the lower Egypt & recovered it again about 20. or 24 years before the Trojan war.

When Asa

When Zerah – Ioshua

Tithonus the elder brother of Priam went into Ethiopia, being carried thither I think, among many captives by Sesostris, & the Greeks before the days of Hesiod feigned that Memnon was his son after the return of Sesostris into Egypt, Memnon therefore in the opinion of those ancient Greeks was born after the return of Sesak into Egypt He is said to have lived very long, & so might die about 90 or about years about 90 or 100 years after the death of Solomon as we recconed above. His mother in a statue erected to her in Egypt was represented the daughter the wife & the mother of a king: & therefore he was the son of a king which makes it probable that Zerah whom he succeeded in the kingdom, was his father.

Historians agree – – – – – – – gave occasion to the building of it. He outlived Cynyras the Vulcan of Egypt who furnished the kings of Egypt with armour & upon his death might found that famous temple to Vulcan in Memphys.

Herodotus the oldest historian next after Solon who wrote of the Egyptian antiquities & had what he wrote from the Priests of Egypt, tells us that those Priests recited out of their books the names of 330 kings who reigned after Menes but did nothing memorable except Nitocris Mœris, Sesostris, Pheron, Proteus, Rhampsinitus, Cheops, Chepren, Mycerinus Asychis, Anysis, & Sabacus an Æthiopian. The Egyptians before the days of Solon had made their antiquities 9000 years older then the truth, & here to make it out they reccon to Herodotus a succession of above 300 kings. But before the use of letters they could not write down the names of their kings They could only represent them by Cyphers & write down their histories of the men represented by those cyphers & if with Herodotus we omit the names of those kings who did nothing memorable the kings of Egypt who reigned after Menes will be as follows.

He was succeeded by his son Ramses called by Herodotus Rhampsinitus. He built the western Portico of the Temple of Vulcan, & Mœris built the northern Portico & therefore reigned after them both. He built also the Lake of Moeris

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The kings of Egypt reigned first at Thebes & then at Memphis & Thebes was famous in Homers days being the royal city of Ammon, Osiris & Orus but Memphys grew famus afterwards & therefore became not the seat of the kings of Egypt before the days of that Poet, nor were the Pyramids & other famous works at Memphys then erected. Menes who built that city made it the seat of & he & his successors adorned it after the times of the Trojan war. Cinyras the Vulcan who married Venus & under the Kings of Egypt reigned over Cyprus & part of Phœnicia & being subject to those kings made armour for them lived till after the taking of Troy. And upon his death Menes or Memnon might deify him & found the famous Temple of Vulcan in that city for his worship but not live to finish it. In a plane not far from Memphys are – – – – – – – & princes of that city.

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Saosduceus succeeded Assarhadon in the year of Nabonasser 80, reigned 20 years & in the year of Nabonassar 100 was succeeded by Chiniladon who reigned 22 years & left the Monarchy divided between Nabopulassar king of Babylon & Sardanapalus king of Nineveh whence arose a new Æra of the kingdom of Babylon used by Ezekiel ch. 1.1 It came to pass, saith he, in the 30th year in the 4th month in the 5t day of the month, which was in the 5t year of Iehojakins captivity, that the word of the Lord came expresly unto Ezekiel the Priest in the Land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar. Ezek. 1.1.

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For
The Much Honoured
Isaac Newton Esquire,
Master of the Mint,
at his house in Germin Street,
near St Iames's Church.
Westminster. London

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are to be placed after him And I take the due order to be this. Ammon, Sesostris , Pheron, Proteus Menes, Rhampsinitus , Mœris, Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Nitocris, Asychius Gnephactus, Boccharis Anysis, Sabacus & c. Anysis reigned in the lower Egypt & therefore I put Gnephactus & Boccharis in his room as kings of Memphys

Pheron is by Herodotus called the son & successor of Sesostris & so sems to be the same king with Orus, called Pharaoh or Pheron after his fathers death. Pliny calls him Nuncorcus.

Zerah reigned before the death of the Gods Isis Bubaste & Thoth

Proteus reigned in the lower Egypt when Paris sailed thither with Helena that is 20 years before the taking of Troy & so might be either Osarsiphus or a Viceroy. The name Proteus signifies a Prince or President & Herodotus tells us that it was the kings name translated into Greek, & that he rose up from among the common people Conon calls him an Egyptian Prophet, that is, a Priest, & Iosephus tells us that Osarsiphus was Priest of Heliopolis. He revolted from Amenophis & was conquered by him.

Amenophis reigned next after the Gods & by conquering Osarsiphus became king of all Egypt & built a palace at Abidus & the Memnonia & Susa By corruption of his name he is called Masni Menes, Exephnes, Nenephes, Osimandes, Memnon, Arminon. After he had built Memphys & the Temple of Vulcan he was succeeded by his son called by Herodotus Rhampsinitus & by others Ramses, Rameses Ramesses, Remphis, Rhampses. This king built the western portico of the Temple of Vulcan, & Mœris built the northern Portico thereof more sumptuously & therefore reigned after them both. He also made – – – – – Thuoris &c.

Diodorus places Vchoreus between Osimanduas & Myris or Memnon & Mœris, & says that – – – – corruption of the name. We may reccon therefore that Vchoreus translated the seat of the kingdom from Thebes to Memphys, & that he was either Mœris or his immediate predecessor.

After the example of the two brick Pyramids made by Mœris the next Kings Cheops, Chephren & Mycerinus built three great Pyramids of Marble. Cheops is also called Chembis, Chemnis, Phiops, Phius, Suphis Sanphis, Sipphoas, Siphaosis, Soiphis, Siphuris, Anoiphes, Anoysis, Apappus maximus. And Mycerinus is called also Bicheres, Cervinus, Chœres, Moscheres, Mencheres. This king died before the third Pyramid was finished & his sister & successor Nitocris finished it. Then reigned Asychis who built the eastern Portico of the Temple of Vulcan very splendidly, & a large Pyramid of brick made of the mud dug out of the Lake of Mœris. And these are the kings who reigned at Memphys & spent their time in adorning that city untill Egypt became again divided into many small kingdoms. ffor Nitocris & Asychis were succeeded at Thebes & Memphys by Gnephactus (otherwise called Neochabis, Nectabis & Technates) & his son Boccharis, at Sais by Stephanates Nicepsus & Nechus, at Tanis by Petubastes Osorchon Psammis & Zet or Sethon & at Anysis or Hanes (Isa. 30.4) by Anysis or Amosis a blind man of that city. Herod. l. 2. And Egypt being weakened by this division was again invaded & conquered by the Ethiopians under Sabacon or Sabacus who slew Boccharis & Nechus & made Anysis fly.

Isaias speaking of – – – – serve the Assyrians.

Among the great works of the kings of Egypt were their Obelisks And Pliny tells us that the first Obelisk was made by Mitres (that is Mephres) who reigned in Heliopolis, & afterwards other kings in the same city made others, Sachis (that is, Sesochis or Sesak) four, each of 48 cubits in length Ramises two, Smarres (that is Manus or Mœris one of 48, Eraphius (or Hophara) one of 48 & Nectabis one of 80.

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And perhaps the conjecture is not improbable that the names of Æthiopia & Ægypt Αἰα Θηβων & Αἰα Κοπτου might come from the cities Thebes & Coptus being once the royal seats of two kingdoms, ffor Αἰα-Θήβον & Αἰα Κόπτου signify the land of Thebes & the land of Coptus.

And perhaps the conjecture is not improbable that the names of Æthiopia & Ægyptus came originally from the cities Thebes & Coptus being once the royal seats of two kingdoms, the Hebrew word AI or Greek word Αἰα being prefixed to signify the land of those cities, & the name Æthiopia being afterward extended to all the country upon the Nile above Coptus & that of Egypt to all the country upon the Nile below Syene. For Herodotus tells us that Egypt was anciently the name of Thebais. And so [the land of Pathros might at first signify only the land under the dominion of the city Pathros, &] Mizraim might at first signify only the land on both sides the Nile under the dominion of the city Mesir & afterwards be extended to all the lower Egypt peopled from thence upon the invention of corn. And the land of Pathros might originally signify the land under the dominion of the city Pathros As Homer places Thebes in Ethiopia so Herodotus tells us that Ægypt was anciently the name of Thebais that is of the upper Egypt including Coptus & to this day the Egyptians call themselves Coptites whence its probable – that Æthiopia & Egypt were originally the names of two kingdoms under the dominion of Coptus & Thebes, the hebrew word Ai or Greek word Αἰα which signifies a land, being prefixed to denote the Land of Thebes & the land of Coptus & that the names were afterwards extended by conquest, Æthiopia to all the people upon the Nile above Thebes & Egypt to all the people upon the Nile below Syene. And so Mizraim might at first signify only the people on both sides the Nile subject to the city Mesir next above the Delta, & afterwards be extended to all the lower Egypt peopled from thence by the invention of corn.

From the 15th year of Asa in which Amenophis began his reign, to the beginninng of the Æra of Nabonassar were 200 years & this intervall of time allows room for 10 or 11 reigns at about 18 or 20 years a piece. And so many reigns there were according to the accounts of Herodotus & Diodorus compared together as above.

[Editorial Note 51]

Osarsiphus, Osorcho, Osocher, Tosorthrus Tosertasis.

Mœris, Maris, Myris Miris, Masrus, Ayres, Biyres, Soris, Vchoreus, Lachasis, Labacis Tuoris. Tyris.

Sesochris, Mesochris, Sesostris, Sethos, Sethosis. Sesonchosis

Amenophis, Amenoph, Menoph, Moph, Noph, Venephes, Osimanduas, Menes Amenophtis

Soiphis, Siphuris, Suphis, Phius, Phiops, Saophis, Apappus, Siphoas, Siphaosis, Anoyses, Cheops, Chambis, Chemmis, Anoiphes

Cephren Suphis, Saophis, Sensaophis, Mente-Suphis, Metha-suphis, Echeseos, Aches

Mycerinus, Bicheres, Cerimus, Chœres Moscheres, Mencheres, Cerpheres,

Gnephacthus, Neochabis, Nectabis, Technates



<142r>

[137]& the death of Codrus & beginning of the Archons for life about 200 years before the decennial archons

The flood of Deucalion & beginning of the golden age about the 16th year of David. The birth of Chiron about the beginning of Solomons reign. The end of the golden age & beginning of the reign of Minos about the 4th year of Solomon. The birth of Apis or Epopeus king of Argus the son of Iupiter by Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus the first woman with whome Iupiter lay during his reign among men called the silver age, about the 5t year of Solomon The birth of Hercules the son of Iupiter by Alcmena the last woman with whom Iupiter lay during his reign on earth called the silver age about the 8th year of Rehoboam. The death of Minos & end of the silver age about the 9th or 10th year of Rehoboam. The Kingdom of Tyre erected by Abibalus the father of Hiram about the 16th year of David. The death of Abibalus & beginning of the reign of Hiram in 33th year of David. The birth of Minos & Perseus about the 20th or 22th year of David. The conflagration of Mount Ida in Crete & the invention of iron about the 23th year of David. The coming of Oenotrus or Ianus into Italy about the 25th year of David. The coming of Asterius or Saturn into Italy about the 5th year of Solomon. The coming of Evander & his mother Carmenta into Italy about the 25th year of Solomon. The expedition of Hercules to the mouth of the straits & his setting up the two pillars there & conquering Gerion in Spain & carrying his cattel with the Sicani through Gall. & Italy into Sicily, thence called Sicany, about the 24th year of Solomon. The invasion of Sicily by the Siculi under the conduct of Siculus the son of Italus about the 29th year of Solomon. The rapture of Ganimede by Tantalus about the 5t year of Solomon. The coming of Pelops into Greece about the 14th year of Solomon. The coming of Ceres into Greece about the 24th year of David. The death of Ceres & the institution of the Eleusinia Sacra & death of Erechtheus about the 14th year of Solomon. Phœmonoë made the first Priestess of Iuno Argiva about the 12th       year of Solomon. The Amphictyonic Council instituted by Amphictyon at Thermopylæ about the 26th year of David & by Acrisius at Delphos     about the 8th       year of Solomon. The birth of Theseus about the 31th year of Solomon. The death of Androgeus the eldest son of Minos about the 30th year of Solomon. The expedition of Theseus to Crete against the Minotaur & death of his father Ægeus about the 18th year of Rehoboam The rapture of Hellena by Theseus the year before the Argonautic expedition, he being then 50 years old & she but seven or at the most but ten. The rapture of Hellena by Paris about ten years after that expedition The war between the Thessali called Centaurs & the Lapithæ about 20 or 25 years before the Argonautic Expedition. The hunting of the Calydonian Boar about a year or two after that Expedition. The war of the seven Capitains at Thebes about 10 years after that Expedition. The Isthmian games instituted by Sisyphus king of Corinth in honour of Phryxus & Helle the children of his brother Athamas, about the beginning of Rehoboams reign. The birth of Æneas the son of Anchises & Callycopis the Venus of the ancients, about nine years after Solomons death, the marriage of this Venus with Vulcan or Cinyras then king of Lemnos & her adultery with Mars, the next year. Lavinium built in Italy by Æneas about 5 or 10 years after the taking of Troy. Alba built there about 30 years after Lavinium. The Bœotians being driven from Æna by the Thessali seiz Cadmeis & call it Bœotia about 60 years after the taking of Troy. The death of Codrus the last king of Athens & the Ionic migration under his sons about 7 years after the taking of Troy or 7 years after the return of the Heraclides. Then Athens was governed by 13 Archons for life. the last of which reigned only two years . The other 12 Archons at about 15 years a piece one with another might take up about 180 years. Then succeeded seven decennial archons which if one or two of them died in his regency might take up about 50 years. Then reigned annual Archons the first of which called Creon might be elected about the 47th or 48th Olympiad. Among these were the two law-makers Draco about the 49th Olympiad & Solon about 54th. Within 5 or 10 years after the death of Codrus was the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus. The first Æolic migration (that from Aulis under Penthilus base son of Orestes from Aulis) about 50 years after the taking of Troy. The second Æolic migration (that under Archeleus Ech{elatus} the son of Penthilus) about 85 or 90 years after the taking of Troy. The third remove of the Æoles under Grays the youngest son of Archelaus or Echelatus about 120 years after the taking of Troy. The Romans recconed it about 244 years before the Consuls that is an. 1 Olymp. 7. Varro made it two years earlier following the opinion of Tarutius an Astrologer who pretended to discover it by his art.

<142v>

Acrisius marries Eurydice the daughter of Lacedemon & Sparta & of her begets Danar, about the 14th year of David. Asuerus comes to Crete & the Phœnician merchants begin to sail from Sidon as far as Greece & carry away Io the daughter of Inachus about the 18th year of David. The mysteries of Ceres at Eleusine & those of Rhea in Phrygia instituted about the 18th year of Solomon. The death of Erectheus about the 12th year of Solomon.

Amphion & Zetus slay Lycus put Laius the son of Labdacus to flight & reign in Thebes about the 30th year of Solomon. Oedipus kills his father Laius about 22 years after the death of Solomon. Euristheus & Galanor the sons of Sthenelus reign in Mycenæ & Gelanor expelled by Danaus about 36 years after the death of Solomon. Theseus being 50 years old steals Helena then seven or at the most 10 years old. about 43 years after the death of Solomon & the same year Perithous the son of Ixion endeavouring to steal Persephone the daughter of Orpheus king of the Molossians is slain by the dog of Orcus & his companion Theseus is taken & imprisoned, & Hellena is set at liberty by her brothers Castor & Pollux. And the next year was the Argonautic expedition, & nine or ten years after was the war at Thebes. And the next year, after the death of Hercules Euristheus drove the Heraclides out of Italy & was slain by Hyllus the son of Hercules & Hyllus was slain three years after by Echemus

[Editorial Note 52]

And his contemporary Ennius made Rome above an hundred years older then the Olympiads.                 Theseus might be slain within 3 or 4 years after the Argonautic Expedition years before the birth of Minos. & After Theseus, Attica had six kings till the death of Codrus & the Ionic migration under his Sons, & then was governed by twelve successive Archons for life, & then by seven decennial Archons: And if there were so many, The kings at 16 or 17 years a piece might take up 100 year the Archons for life 200 years & the decennial archons 40 or 50 years two or three of them dying in their regency. And according to this recconing the annual Archons might begin about the 48th Olympiad. Fo

Aminocles governed the first ship of the order of The Triremes

There have been various opinions about the original of Rome Ennius who was contemporary to Quintus Fabius Pictor the oldest historian of the Romans made that city above 100 years older then the Olympiads. Varro dated it from an. 3 Olymp. 6. following therein the opinion of Tarutius an Astrologer who pretended to find it out by his art. The common opinion dated it from an 1 Olymp. 7. By the preceding account, if 22 reigns at 18 / & Rome will be built about the 36th Olympiad. [According to the common opinion it was built in the seventh Olympiad. Varro dated it an. 3 Olymp. 6 following the opinion of Tarutius an Astrologer who pretended to find out by his art. M. Portius Cato who was Consul an. 2. Olymp. 146 made the city 432 years later then the taking of Troy. And upon this foundation was grounded the vulgar opinion of the Romans that the city was built An 1. Olymp. 7. But this opinion was not received in the days of Ennius the Poet. ffor he made it above an hundred years older then the Olympiad. Varro dated it – – – – out by his art.

& Rome will be built about the 36 Olympiad. M. Portius Cato who was Consul an 2 Olymp. 146 made the city 492 years later then the taking of Troy, which is after the rate of almost 33 32mathML formula years a piece to the reigns of the 15 kings between the death of Aeneas & the building of Rome We allow but 18 years a piece to those 15 Kings. He placed the destruction of Troy about 408 433 years before the first Olympiad: we place it but about 132 years before. Before the recconing of Cato became the vulgar opinion Ennius who flourished in the 144 Olympiad, recconed the building of Rome above an hundred years older then the Olympiad. And Varro followed the opinion of Tarutius who being an Astrologer pretended to determin the time of building this city by his Art./ This deduction is grounded upon allowing only 18 years apiece to the 15 Kings between the taking of Troy & the building of Rome one with another; that which was generally received by the Romans was set on foot by M. Portius Cato who was Consul an. 2 Olmp. 146, & was grownded upon allowing about 32 years a piece to these kings one with another [22, 33. 676] which is much too long for the course of nature. Before this opinion was set on foot by Cato, Ennius the Poet reconed the building of Rome above an hundred years older then the Olympiads. And the oldest Roman his/ M. Portius Cato putting the reigns of their kings equal to generations made the city//. The Curetes sacrificed children – – – – nursed up Iupiter, But whatever was the original of the name of the Island, it doth not appear to have been peopled above two or three generations before the reign of Asterius.

<143r>

About 60 years after the destruction of Troy, the Bœotians being driven from Arna by the people of Thessaly invaded Cadmeis ( the country subject to The{bes)} & called it Bœotia. And about 100 or 110 years after the destruction of Troy was the war between the Athenians & Ionians in which Codrus king of Athens devoted himself for his country, & his sons soon after led the Ionians into Asia minor. And about 200 years after the taking of Troy the Corinthians began to build large ships with three orders of oars called triremes & soon after Amenocles their builder built four such ships for those of the island Samus. This almost 300 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war. Theod. l. 1 Chap. Hitherto the Greeks had used long {vessels of} 50 oars, like that of the Argonauts, but henceforward they began to apply themselves to sea affairs. And about 20 or 30 years after This there was a sea fight between the Corinthians & Corcyreans which was the oldest sea fight of the Greeks. This fight is by Thucydides placed about 260 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war. & not above, that is about 660 years before Christ. And Archias a Corinthian led a colony into Sicily soon after & built Syracuse

The Scythians

till the times of the Trojan war. Cicero mentions six Hercules: One of which [was the son of Iupiter & Luciter contended with Apollo, another the son of Alcmena, another one of the Idæi Dactyli, another the Tyrian the son of Iupiter & Asteria, another the Egyptian the son of Nilus, another the Indian called Belus. But the three last seem to be one & the same.] was the Ægyptian the son of the Nile, another the Indian called Belus, & a third the Tyrian the son of Iupiter & Asteria. But these three seem to be one & the same. The Indian Hercules called Belus by the Assyrians & Chaldeans can be no other then him that conquered India & there set up the Pillars. And the Tyrian Hercules according to Suidas was contemporary to Minos & the Tyrian soon after the Trojan war built a Temple to him in the Island Gades. And think was the Egyptian. ffor he was the first who discovered that Island It was by the favour of this Hercules that Solomon & the Tyrians had a fleet upon the red sea. Vpon that account the Tyrians might compliment him with the title of Melec-cartus & build a Temple to him in Tyre & another in Gades

– About 20 years before the return of the Heraclides & sixty years after the taking of Troy (according to Thucydides) the Bœotians invaded Cadmeis & called it Bœotia & about 100 or 110 years after that war was the death of Codrus & the Ionic Migration under the conduct of his sons. And

Thucydides (in his sixt book) tells us that the Greeks almost 300 years after the Siculi out of Italy had invaded Sicily with a great army & put the Sicanes to flight the Greeks began to come into Sicily. And first Thucles led a colony from Coalvis in Eubea & built Nanus in Sicily & the next year Archias came from Corinth to Sicily & built Syracuse. And about the same time Lamis came into Sicily with a colony from Megara in Achaia & lived first in Trotilum, then in Leontini & then at Thapsus neare Syracuse where he died. And after his death they were invited by Hylba to Megara & from him called Hybleans. And after they had lived there 245 years, they were driven out from thence by Gelo king of Sicily. Now Gelo flourished about the year before Christ 478. Count backwards then 245 years & about 10 years more for the reign of Lamis, & the building of Syracuse by Archias will be about 27 years before Christ. Count backwards almost 300 years more or about 27 years & the invasion of Sicily by the Siculi will be almost 1033 or almost 1000 years before Christ, [or about the 12th year of Solomons reign The migration of the Sicani into Italy Mr Dowel from Dionys. Halicarn. places five years earlier. And according to this recconing the Expedition of Hercules in which he set up the pillars conquered Gerion & left the Sicani in Sicily, was not ancienter then the reign of Solomon & this Hercules was contemporary to Sesac. So then the Greeks in the days of Thucydides had not raised their antiquities so high by far as they did afterwards by admitting the fables of Ctesias.

<143v>

Aminocles naupegus Corinthius ad Samos se contulit annis ferre 300 ante finem belli Peloponnesiaci [A. ante Chr. 104] & ibi naves quatuor compegit Thucyd. l. 1. p. 10 Et Corinthij primi ex omni Græcia Triremes condiderunt [A. an. Ch. 726.

Vetustissimum navale prælium fuit inter Corinthos et Corcyrenses annis ad summum 260 ante finem illius belli [A. an. Ch. 664 or 670]

Corcyra built by the Corinthians

When the Corinthians began to send out Colonies by sea they sent out a colony which built Corcyra, [An. 1 Olymp. 18 Euseb. Chr.] An. ante Chr. 708 And some years after this, the Corcyreans sent out a Colony under the conduct of Phalius a Corinthian which built Epidamnus a city of Macedonia upon the Adriatic sea. This city being afterwards in distress & being denyed assistance by the Corcyreans submitted it self to the Corinthians upon obteining their assistance. And this occasioned a fight at sea between the Corinthians & Corcyreans, which was the oldest sea fight in memory of history. This fight according to Thucydides was about 260 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war, that is 40 years after the coming of Aminocles to Samus And the Greeks began to build Triremes & send out Colonies by sea not long before. From the colonies which they sent into Sicily & the southern parts of Italy those regions had the name of Magna Græcia. They built Leontini in Sicily eleven years after Syracuse & Gela 45 years after Syracuse & Selinuns 100 years after Megara & Acracante 108 years after Gela

ocles a ship-builder of C

Thucydides tells us that the Corinthians were the first of the Greeks who built ships with three orders of Oars called Triremes & that Aminocles a ship-carpenter of Corinth went to Samus about three hundred years before the end of the Peloponnesian war & built four such ships for the Samians: & that two hundred & sixty years before the end of that war there was a fight at sea between the Corinthians & Corcyreans which was oldest sea fight mentioned in history. This fight was therefore 664 years before Christ & Aminocles went from Corinth to Samos to build Triremes 704 years before Christ, & the Corinthians began to build Triremes a few years before

Thucydides tells us that when the Greeks began first to send out Colonies by sea [the Greeks began to come into Sicily almost 300 years – – – – – & about 12 years more for the reign of Lanus & the first coming of the Greeks into Sicily & their] building of Naxus & Syracuse will be about 735 years before Christ. Ahd there Eusebius & other Chronologers now place them. Hitherto the seas were infested with Pirates, but now the Greeks beginning to build Triremes, they were enabled thereby to send out Colonies without danger of the pirates, & by the Colonies which they sent out henceforward into Italy & Sicily those countries obteined the name of Magna Græcia.

Hellanicus (an author one generation older then Thucydide) tells us that the Siculi came out of Italy into Sicily in the third generation before the Trojan war in the 26 year of the priesthood of Alcione Priestess of Iuno Argiva; He tells us also that there were two migrations out of Italy into Sicily, the first of the Elymi who fled from the Oenotri, the other five years after of the Ausones under the conduct of Siculus from whom the people & Island had its name. And Philistus of Syracuse tells us that this last colony was a colony of the Ligures under Siculus the son of Italus 80 years before the Trojan war And Dionysius Halycarn. tells us that this Colony passed into Sicily almost 300 years before the the Greeks came into that Island & built Naxus & Syracuse, that is almost 1035 years before Christ <144r> He tells us further that the first Colony which the Greeks sent into Sicily came from Chalcus in Eubæa under the conduct of Thucles & built Naxus, & that Archias came into Sicily the next year with a colony from Corinth & built Syracuse, & that Lamis about the same time came into Sicily with a Colony from Megara in Achaia & lived first at Trotilum then at Leontini & then at Thapsus neare Syracuse where he dyed; & that after his death the Colony was invited by Hyblo to Megara in Sicily & lived there 245 years till Gelo king of Sicily expelled them. Now Gelo flourished about the year before Christ 478. Count backwards the 245 years & about 12 years more for the reign of Gelo: & the recconing will place the building of Syracuse about 735 years before Christ. And there Eusebius & the late Chronologers place it. And the building of Triremes wherein those Colonies might be sent without danger of the Pirates which till those days infested the Greek seas, might begin about 10 or 20 years before

Hellanicus tells us that there were two migrations out of Italy into Sicily the first of the Elymi (so named in Sicily) who fled fom the Oenoti & the other of the Ausones (or Ligures) five years afterward & that these last fled from the Iapyges under the conduct of Siculus which Iapyges were a mixture of the Aborigenes & Pelasgi. The Elymi were the Sicani whom Hercules left in Italy & who soon after fled fom the Oenotri into Sicily & were there called Elymi

Dionysius Halyc. tells us that in the time of the Trojan war Latinus was king of the Aborigenes in Italy, & that in the sixteenth age after that war Romulus built Rome. By ages he means reigns of kings. for he begins & ends his recconing with naming two kings Latinus & Romulus, & after Latinus there reigned sixteen kings over the Latines, (viz. Æneas, Ascanius, Posthumus, Æneas II, Latinus II, Alba, Capetus, Capys, Capetus, Tyberinus, Agrippa, Alladius, Aventinus, Proca, Amulius, & Nunitor in whose reign Romulus built Rome. After Romulus there reigned six kings over Rome to the beginning of the Consuls. And these 22 reigns at about 18 years a piece (for many of these kings were slain) amount to 396 years which counted back from the Consulship of the first Consuls Iunius Brutus & Valerius Posticola place the taking of Troy & the coming of Æneas into Italy about 78 years after the death of Solomon as above, & the death of Æneas in the reign of Pigmaelon where Virgil places it. And the seven last reigns counted backward place the building of Rome about 126 years before the said consulship. But the history of Rome untill the taking of the Capital by the Gauls is very uncertain. / But Chronologers by taking reigns of Kings for ages & ages for generations have made the Trojan war about 276 years earlier & the building of Rome about 120 years earlier then they were.

Two Pelasguses one the son of Æzeus the other the son of

Pherecides Atheniensis (apud Dionys. l. 1. p. 10{)} tells us that Lycaon the father of Oenotrus was the son of Pelasgus & Deianira; & Dionysius tells us further (I think from Pherecides) that this Pelasgus was the son of Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus & that Deianira was the daughter of an elder Pelasgus the son of Æzeus.

Lycaon the father of Oenotrus & Callisto was the son of Pelasgus & Deianira & Pelasgus was the son of Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus: & Deianira was the daughter of an elder Pelasgus the son of Æzeus. Arcas the son of Callisto received corn from Triptolemus & taught the people in Achaia to make bread of it. And so did Eumelus the first king of a region afterwards called Achaia from Achæus the brother of Ion & grandson of Hellen & Erechtheus.

Dionysius tells us that in Peloponnesus there were anciently two kings called Pelasgus & that the elder was the son of Ezeus & father of Deianira, & that the younger was the husband of Deianira & son of Jupiter symbol & Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus, & that Lycaon was the son of Pelasgus & Deianira & father of Oenotrus, Peucetius & twenty other sons. And these things he seems to have had from Phercydes Atheniensis the oldest & best genealoger of the Greeks. ffor he tells us that Pherecyd wrote concerning the kings of Arcadia that Lycaon was <144v> {the} son of Pelasgus & Deianira & married Cyllene by whom he had Oenotrus & Pentalius & many other children. Pausanias tells us further that Arcas the son of Callista the daughter of Lycaon the son of Ezeus, received bread corn fom Triptolemus, & taught his people in Arcadia how to make bread of it. And so did Eumellus the first king of a region afterwards called Achaia. And therefore Arcas & Eumelus were contemporary to Triptolemus Oenotrus & Callisto to Celeus , Lycaon to Rherus & Cranaus, Pelasgus II & Deianira to Cecrops; Pelasgus I to Niobe, & Phoroneus & Æzeus to Ogyges. But Lycaon died befoe Cranaus so as to leave room for Deucalions flood between their deaths.

< insertion from higher up f 144v >

Syria became subject to Egypt in the days of Tabimon & recovered her liberty under Benhadad I, & in the days of Benhadad II they became subject to Israel till the reign of the last Rezen

< text from f 144v resumes > [Editorial Note 53]

About 110 | an 100 years after Troy taken Codrus King of Athens in a war between the Athenians
& Spartans, devoted himself for his country. [Then was Athens governed by twelve Archons for life which at about 18 years each might take up about 216 years. Then reigned seven decennial Archons, which they did not all live the tenn years might take up about 50 years more. All which years being subducted from the year in which Troy was taken, place the beginning of the annual Archons in the year before Christ 531 or thereabouts] And about ten years after his death his sons led the Ionic migration from Athens into Ionia in Asia minor where they built Miletus & many other cities.

Thucydides p. 8, 9. Bœoti qui nunc sunt 60mo ab eversione Ilij anno ex Arne ejecti a Thessalis incoluerunt terram quæ nunc Bœotiam prius Cadmeis vocabatur. – Dores octagissimo post bellum Trojanum anno cum Heraclidis Peloponnesum tenuere Ægre autem longo tempore plane pacata Græcia nec ultra sedibus suis ejecta colonias emisit; et Ionas quidem ac plerosque ex Insularis, Athenienses collocarent [i.e. 110 vel 140 annis post captam Trojam;] Italiam vero Siciliamque maxima ea ex parte Peloponenses & quædam reliquæ Græciæ oppida [colonijs missis ornarunt] Omniæ hac post bellum Trojanum sunt condita. – Deinde nauticæ rei incumbebat Græcia Corinthij primum triremes ædificarunt. Aminocles Corinthius naupegus Samijs quatuor naves compegit annis ferme trecentis ante perfectum bellum Peloponesiacum. Deinde vetustissimum omnium quæ novimus navale prælium inter Corinthios & Corcyræos 260 annis ad summum ante hoc tempus [belli sc. perfecti] &c

Thucydides intio lib VI pag 337, 338, 339, 340. Cyclopes atque Læstrygones Siciliam primo habitarunt tunc Trinacriam dictam deinde Sicani a flumine Sicano quod est in Iberia a Ligybue ejecti, a quibus Insula Sicania dicta est. Hi loca Insulæ ad occasum vergentia incoluerunt. Cæterum capto Ilio quidem Trojanorum in Sicyliam applicuerunt et collocatis sedibus in finibus Sicanorum sunt Elymi vocati: urbes eorum Iopa & Ecceta. His accole accesserunt nonnulli Phocenses, e Troja in Libyam tempestate delati, et inde in Siciliam transmigrantes. Siculi autem ex Italia fugientes Opiros, in Italiam trajecerunt ratibus, annis prope trecentis ante Græcorum in Siciliam adventum.

Dionysius [de situ Orbis] tells us that the Nile was called Siris by the Ethiopians & Nilus by the people of Syene

& particularly either in this or a former expedition he set up two pillars in India in the mountains neare the mouth of Ganges. So Dionysius in {Perestegosus} de situ Orbis

Ενθὰ τε καὶ στηλαι &c

Vbi etiamnum columnæ Thebis geniti Bacchi

Stant extremi juxta fluxum Oceani

Indorum ultimis in montibus: ubi et Ganges

Claram aquam Nysseam ad planiciem maritimam devolvit

The posterity of Median (the son of Abraham & Ketarah) were Merchants (Gen 37.28, 36) & Moses learnt letters among them.

[Editorial Note 54]

1 Phoron & Ezeus. 2 Pelasgus I & Niobe. 3 Pelasgus II & Deinira. 4 Lycaon 5 Oenotrus Peucetius, Callisto. 6 Arcas.

[Editorial Note 55]

Anno 60 post captam Trojam Bœoti qui nunc sunt ex Aa Thessalis ejecti Bœotiam incoluerunt prius Cadmeis vocatam

Anno 80 post captam Trojam Dores cum Heraclidis Peloponnesum occuparunt

Anno 104 post Trojam captam Codrus Athenarum rex se pro patria devovit & post annos alios septem, ducibus ejus filijs; Iones in Asiam minorem migrant ubi Miletum et urbes alias plures condunt

Anno 290 post Tr. capt. Anno A.C. 614 Corinthij naves triremes condunt.

Anno 301 post Tr capt. A.C. Aminocles Corinthius naupactus naves quatuor pro Samijs compegit

Anno 254 post Tr. ca     Ante Ch. 658 Corinthij Corcyreos vincunt per mare

Ante Chr. 680 Corinthij triremes fabricant.

<145r>

tion upon the river Nile & when they were expelled Egypt went back into their own country Phœnicia where for want of room they applied themselves to navigation more then they had done in Egypt & sent colonies into remote regions.

Polemo – 1 Sam. 13. Their great numbers at this time & their many battels with Saul & David before they could be subdued argue a great mixture of forreigners. ffor there was sore war against the Philistims all the days of Saul & when Saul saw any strong or valiant man he took him unto him 1 Sam 14.52. & David beat them in many battels before they could be fully subdued. And from this Dominion of the Philistims the whole land of Israel hath been ever since called Palestine, that is the land of the Philistims. – – – – till Nebuchadnezzar beseiged & took them.

Pliny a[138] tells us Nave primus in Græciam ex Ægypto Danaus advenit: inter ratibus navigabatur inventis in mare rubro inter insulas a rege Erythra. Navigation therefore began first in the Red Sea & was thence propagated into the mediterranean. ffor the Red sea being very shallow & for that reason calmer then the Mediterranean, it was easier to sail there from Island to Island in such small vessels as were at first found out. The invention of such vessels on that sea is attributed to king Erythra, that is to the king of Edom ffor Esau Edom & Erythra are words of the same signification & signify red whence that sea was called mare Erythræum, the red sea or Sea of Edom. From these Edomites the Phœnicians seem to have had their rise for the Phœnicians traded first upon the red sea & went from thence to the mediterranean as they themselves & the Persians related to Herodotus & so Pliny (l. 4    ) Tyrij orti ab Erythræo mari ferebantur & Solinus Tyrij a mari rubro profeti. Hence Dionysius Afer calls the inhabitants of Phœnicia Erythræans & his old Interpreter thinks the name taken from the red sea. And Strabo tells us that some report that the Phœnicians & Sidonians were colonies of the inhabitants of the Ocean & that they were called Phœnicians [Punici] because the sea is red. According to which opinion Phœnician (Punicus, red) is a word of the same signification with Erythræan or Edomite How & when the Phœnicians came from the red sea may be gathered from the History of David. ffor when David smote Edom, Ioab stayed there with all Israel six months untill he had smitten every male in Edom 1 King. 11.15, 16. This made Hadad the young king of Edom fly into Egypt with certain Edomites his fathers servants, & as many of the Edomites as could escape fled to the Philistims & to Sidon & other places where they could be protected. So Stephanus in Azot tells us τατην – – – – – – – – Israelites – – – – – – – By this victory over the Edomites Ezion Geber & Eloth sea-ports of the Edomites on the Red Sea) came into the hands of David, & his son Solomon built a Navy – – – – a Navy on the Red Sea. Thus the trade of the Edomites on the Red Sea came into the hands of Solomon & Hyram. And David having put garrisons in all Edom whereby the Edomites were kept from returning home & therefore they begun a new trade upon the Mediterranean in such vessels as they had used before on the Red sea. In these vessels they sailed by the shoar till they came as far as Grece, & this sort of navigation continued in use till the Egyptians invented long ships in one of which with 50 oars Danaus came into Greece. In imitation of this ship the Greeks built the ship Argo Then Dædalus invented Sails & Masts & navigation still improving the Phenicians soon after the Trojan war (as Strabo relates{)} sailed to the middle of the coast of Afric where they built cities & went out beyond the Pillars of Hercules into the Atlantic Sea. These Phenicians <145r> seem to be chiefly Zidonians the Edomites flying to the ene Israel ffor in those days the Zidonians grew famous among the Greeks while Tyre was scarce known to them. Homer often names Zidon & Zidonians but makes no mention of Tyre

Now this new trafick upon the mediterranean soon gave occasion to new discords by the rapture of weomen. For Herodotus tells us – – – driven from the Red sea by the wars of David.

The expulsion of the shepherds out of Egypt Polemo places in the time of Apis the son of Phoroneus as above, but this Apis was a little later being supposed by the Greeks to be the Egyptian Osiris who was Sesostris as we shall shew hereafter. Iustin Martyr (in Cohortatione ad Græcos) tells us that Apion the son of Possidonius in his Commentary against the Iews & in his 4th book of Histories saith that when Inachus reigned at Argos the Iews under the conduct of Moses departed from Amasis King of Egypt: & that the same thing is reported by Ptolomy the Mendesian an Egyptian Priest who wrote the affairs of Egypt & by Hellanicus & Philocorus who wrote the Acts of the Athenians, & by Castor & Thallus & Alexander Polyhistor. The shepherds were therefore expelled Egypt & the Monarchy of Egypt was erected in the days of Inachus the father of Phoroneus & Io & this is confirmed by the rapture of Io which Herodotus places – – – David over Edom. Its confirmed also by the Acts of Phoroneus who is reported the first who made laws & erected Courts of Iustice at Argos & reduced the people from a rude & salvage way of life to a civil one & erected an Altar to Iuno. ffor these things the Greeks learnt of the Egyptians & Phenicians & therefore Phoroneus reigned after the Phenicians began to saile into Greece & by consequence after the expulsion of the shepherds & Edomites.

Cecrops is recconed the first Egyptian who led a colony into Greece He a[139] first called Iupiter God & set up an Altar at Athens & erected a Statue to Minerva & after him came in the whole genealogy of the Gods of Greece. Whence it may be collected that he was contemporary to Phoroneus & came into Greece in the reign of David or Saul when the shepherds were newly expelled Egypt. The marble places him 72 years before the coming of Danaus into Greece that is about the middle of Davids reign. ffor Danaus sailed into Greece about the 15th year of Rehoboam as shall be shewed hereafter. [He seems to have been one of the shepherds because he went first into Phœnicia & a Colony which he left in Cyprus sacrificed yearly a man to his daughter Agraulis, an impiety the genuine Egyptians were free from.] Athens is reputed a Colony of Egyptians coming from Sais where Minerva was worshipped but Sir Iohn Marsham notes well that Cecrops their Leader took shipping from Phœnicia & in his way to Greece arrived first at Cyprus. He seems to be one of the Shepherds because a colony which he left in Cyprus sacrificed yearly a man to – – – free from. By the like colonies the sacrificing of men came also into Greece. For a[140] Erechtheus sacrificed his daughter & therefore was one of the shepherds. But circumcision (a part of the religion of the Genuine Egyptians) was not any where introduced by them.

What we have hitherto said concerning the expulsion of the shepherds & their coming into Phœnicia & Greece is confirmed by Diodorus b[141] who in his 40th Book saith that in Egypt there were formerly multitudes of strangers of several nations who used forreign rites & ceremonies in worshipping the Gods for which they were expelled Egypt – – – before the days of Seostris

<146v>

– Hercules from thence.

Polemo in the first book of his Greek Histories saith expresly – – built Ierusalem round about.

Diodorus in his 40th book saith that in Egypt there were formerly – – – days of Sesostris.

It seems to me therefore that as when David invaded Edom & – – – – navigation upon the river Nile & when they were expelled Egypt they retired into Phœnicia

<147r>

Solon having travelled into Egypt & conversed with the Priests of Sais about their antiquities, wrote a Poem of what he had learnt but did not finish it, & this Poem fell into the hands of Plato, who relates out of it that at the straits mouth near hercules pillars, there was an Island called Atlantis the people of which 9000 years before the days of Solon reigned over Libya as far as Egypt & over Europe as far as the Tyrrhene sea & all this force collected into one body invaded Egypt2 & Greece1 & what ever was conteined within the pillars of Hercules but was resisted & checked by the Athenians & other Greeks, & thereby the rest of the nations not yet conquered were preserved. He saith also that in those days the Gods by consent divided the whole earth amongst themselves partly into larger partly into smaller portions, & instituted Temples & sacred rites to themselves & that the Island Atlantis fell to the lot of Neptune who made his Eldest Son Atlas king of the whole island a part of which was called Gadir, & that in the history of the said wars mention was made of Cecrops Erechtheus Erechthonius, Erisichthon & others before Theseus, & also of the weomen who warred with the men, & of the habit & statue of Minerva, the study of war in those days being common to men & weomen. By all which circumstances it is manifest that the wars which Sesostris made upon the nations by land & sea & the invasion of Egypt by Antæus are here described & how after the death of Sesostris his captains shared his conquests among them (as Alexanders captains did his conquests long after) & instituting Temples & Priests & sacred rites to themselves caused themselves to be worshipped as Gods, & that the Island Gadir or Gades fell to the lot of Neptune. For there Vlysses being shipwrackt was received by Calypso the daughter of Atlas as Homer relates. He calls it the Ogygian island, & places it 20 days sail westward from the Island Pheacia, or Corcyra, And so far it is now from Corcyra to Gades, recconing with the ancients about 1000 stadia to a days saile.

<148r>

And it is further observable that this island is by Homer described a small one destitute of shipping & cities & inhabited only by Calypso & her weomen who dwelt in a cave in the middle of a wood, there being no men in the island to assist Vlysses in building a ship or to accompany him from thence to Corcyra which description agrees well to the Island Gades. And the time when the Gods made war & shared the earth & caused themselves to be worshipped as Gods is by Solon limited to the age of Neptune the grandfather of Calypso & so was but two generations before the destruction of Troy or about 400 years before Solon went into Egypt. But the Priests of Egypt in those 400 years had magnified the stories & antiquity of their Gods so exceedingly, as to make them nine thousand years older then Solon, & to represent the Island Atlantis bigger then all Afric & Asia together & full of people. And because in the days of Solon this great island did not appear they pretended that it was sunk into the Sea with all its people. Thus great was the vanity of the Priests of Egypt in magnifying their antiquities.

[142]Pausanias tells us that the golden age lasted till Rhea commended the newborn Iupiter to the custody of the Idæi Dactyli otherwise called Curetes, inhabiting the foot of Mount Ida in Crete. I had rather say that it lasted till Iupiter was grown up & succeded Saturn in the kingdom.

<149r>

Geminus who writ about 30 years before I. Cæsar corrected the Kalendar tells us that the Ancients were commanded by the laws & by the Oracles that they should sacrifice according to three things as institutions of their countrey, months, days, & years; & that all the Greeks accordingly recconned their years by the Sun & their days & months by the Moon. Now to reccon their years by the Sun saith he is to offer the same sacrifice to the Gods about the same seasons of the year, the spring sacrifice in the spring the summer sacrifice in the summer & in other seasons other sacrifices so that the same sacrifice fall always on the same season For this they accounted acceptable & gratefull to the Gods, & in doing this they recconed that they sacrificed κατὰ τά πάτρια according to the institutions of their country. And to reccon the days by the Moon was to name them according to the illuminations of the moon, calling that day Νεομηνια Novilunium in which the new Moon first appears & the next day the second & so on. Thus far Geminus.

natural year. Aratus & his commentator Theon describe the months of the Greeks to be Lunar & Herodotus that the Greeks used intercalary months to make their year agree with the seasons (Lib 1 & 2) And Solon commanded the Athenians to count the days by the Moon[143] & called the day of the conjunction ἐνὴν καὶ νέαν the old & the new referring to the old month that part of the day which preceded the conjunction & the rest of the day to the new month. And Hesiod makes Lenæon a winter month & begins the Theban year with the rising of the Pleiades.[144] The Olympic games ~ ~ which fell on the full moon in the middle of the first month of the year, were always celebrated at midsummer. And the Greeks generally used the Dieteris the Dieteris was used in recconing the Orgia of Bacchus which were as old as Orpheus & Melampus. The Tetraeteris was used in celebrating the Olympic games which were first instituted by Hercules one of the Idæi Dactyli Tetraeteris & Octaeteris which were cycles of Lunisolar years & this they did from the oldest memory of things. ffor the Octaeteris was the Annus magnus of a[145] Cadmus & b[146] Minos & was c[147] used in many religions of Greece, & in celebrating the Ludi Pythici at Delphos & the Olympic games as instituted by Hercules And therefore it may be accounted as old as those religions & festivals & by consequence brought into Greece by the first Phenicians & Egyptians who sailed thither, such as were Cadmus & Cecrops For Herodotus tells us that the Greeks had their ffestivals & Oracles from Egypt, & ffestus Avienus seems to attribute a regulation of the year to Cecrops where speaking of the Enneaeteris of Harpalus turned into the Enneadecaeteris by Meton he saith

Illius ad numeros prolixa decennia rursum

Adiscisse Meton Cecropia dicitur arte.

So then the nations at first used Lunar months & solar | Lunisolar years, but these months & years being of no certain length, were unfit for computation, & therefore when the nations were to reccon times past or to come without seeing the Sun Moon, they took the next round numbers of 30 days to <149v> a month & 12 months to a year, & so formed a year of 360 days & used this year as convenient for computations & equipollent to the Lunisolar year & exact enough for such purposes as they applied it unto. This was their Kalendar And according to this way of recconing they divided the Zodiac into 12 signes & every Signe into 30 parts or degrees, so that a degree might answer to the Sun's motion in a day. And this seems to have been the original of dividing a circle into 360 degrees, the first Astronomers recconing that in 360 days the Sun ran round the whole Zodiac. ffor before the use of letters & invention of Astronomy, it is not to be supposed that men knew the just length of the solar year. This year of 360 days they used without correction in recconing time past or to come where they could have no assistance from the courses of the Sun & Moon to correct it but in recconing time present they always corected it by the courses of the sun & moon omitting a day or two in the month as often as they found 30 days too long for the course of the Moon & adding a month to the year as often as they found twelve months too short for the course of the Sun & return of the seasons. ffor Cicero tells us[149] that the Sicilians & other Greeks to make their days & months agree with the courses of the sun & moon sometimes took away a day or two from the month & sometimes made the month longer by one or two days. And Herodotus in speaking of the year of 12 months or 360 days tells us that the Greeks added a thirteenth month every other year to make the seasons agree.

And this sort of yeare seems to have been generally received by the ancient nations who used the Lunisolar year. ffor the Egyptians added five days to the end of it & Moses in describing the flood puts five months equal to 150 days, & Daniel puts a time or artificiall year for 360 days, every day being taken for a natural or Lunisolar year;

As the nations used this year of 360 days in recconing time past or to come as a convenient approach of the Lunisolar year & in applying it to the time current corrected it perpetually by the courses of the Sun & Moon , so they found out afterwards other rules for determining the Lunisolar year more exactly. And the 1st rule seems to have been of intercaling three months in eight years. ffor the old Greeks (Solinus c 3. Macrob l 1 c 13.{)} added a 13th month every other year excepting once in eight years, forming their years of 12 & 13 months alternately to make it agree with the seasons as Censorinus & Herodotus inform us (Censorinus c. 18. Herod l. 1. 2) . And hence arose the Octaeteris of the Ancients consisting of 99 Lunar months & the Tetraeteris consisting alternately of 49 & 50 Lunar months & the Dieteris consisting three times of 25 Lunar months & once of 24.

The next rule seems to have been of recconing the Lunar months to consist of 29 & 30 days alternately. For the Greeks at first recconed 30 days to a Calender month as above & afterwards 30 & 29 alternately, as Geminus c. 6 informs <150r> us, & the custome of recconing 30 & 29 alternately seemes to have been introduced among the Athenians by Solon who for that end called the 30th day ενην καὶ νεαν the old & the new.

Afterwards the Greeks to bring the years more nearely to an equality added the intercalary month not every other year but in the 3d 5th & 8th year of the Octaeteris as Geminus tells us. And because the Lunar months exceeded 29mathML formula days by some minutes of time, Astronomers allowed for the excess by adding three days at the end of every 16 years. ffrom which emendations came the Octaerides of Cleostratus Harpalus & Eudoxus. And at length Meton finding that the intercalation of three months in eight years was not sufficiently exact, intercaled seven months in 19 years & Calippus took away a day from four Periods of Meton or 76 years

Thus the nations in reducing the Lunisolar year to rules formed various Calendars, first that of 12 months to a year & 30 days to a month, then the Dieteris, Tetraeteris, Octaeteris, Hexcædecaeteris, Enneadecaeteris &c For as often as they found their Calendars disagree from the courses of the Sun & Moon they corrected them by adding or omitting a day or two in the month or a month in the year & sought out new rules till they had made their Calendars as exact as they could. But the Egyptians neglecting the course of the Moon added five days to the end of the 360 to make their year agree only with the course of the sun: which correction was afterwards found too short by about six hours, & therefore Iulius Cæsar added a day in every four years. which makes the year too long by a week in 900 years.

<150v> [Editorial Note 56]

– of Egypt used the Lunisolar year. And so the ancient Chaldean year which the Iews brought back with them from the Babylonian captivity was Lunisolar & kept to the seasons. And upon the sixteenth day of the month Lous the Babylonians annually celebrated the feast Sacæa as Athenæus (Lib. 12) relates out of Berosus, that is upon the sixteenth day of the Babylonian month which fell in with the month Lous of the Macedonians & which was therefore Lunar & kept to the course of the Moon & to the season of the year, the month Lous being a summer month answering to the month Ab of the year which the Iews brought from Babylon. This month Ab had its name from אב which signifies corn & other vegetables of the earthe in that state when they are most green & flourishing. And the next month אלול Elul signifies the time when the earth is new reaped & emptied of corn. Which being the names of the Chaldean months shews that their months were fixed to the seasons. Chaldea was peopled by Arabians & the Arabian months are lunar to this day. And anciently their year was lunisolar as were also the years of the Syrians & people of Asia minor & Athenians & Romans. ffor Simplicius in his commentary on the 5t of Aristotels Physical Acroasis (apud Theodor. Gazam de mensibus) tells us ἁς δὲ ἡμεις ποιούμεθα ἀρχὰς. Quæ facimus initia, anni quidem vel ad æstivum solstitium ut Attici, vel ad Autumnale æquinoctium ut terræ quæ nunc Asia dicitur incolæ, vel ad brumam ut Romani, vel circa æquinoctium versum ut Arabes & Damasceni: mensis verò [initium] ut quidam volunt, [est] plenilunium aut novilunium. And Galen: Quod tempus Romæ est September, Pergami apud nos mensis Hyperberetæus, Athenis vero Mysteria: ea namque erant Boedimione.

<151r>

Diodorus (l 9) saith that the natives were dispersed by Deucalions flood & upon the building of Thebes by Cadmus returned thither from all par{ts} [which makes me suspect] that this flood was nothing else then an inundation of Greece by the Phenician Colonies.] & were thence called Spartus.

The forces of the Amphictyons were commanded by Clysthenes Alcmæon & Eurylochus. And these were contemporary to Phidon. ffor Leocides the son of Phidon & Megaelis the son of Alcmæon at one & the same time courted Agarista the daughter of Clysthenes

575 The Amphictyons make war upon the Cirrheans by the advice of Solon & take Cyrrha. Clysthenes Alcmæon & Eurytosthenes commanded the forces of the Amphictyons & were were contemporary to Phidon. ffor Leocides the son of Phidon & Megales the son of Alcmæon at one & the same time courted Agarista the daughter of Clysthenes.

Vpon his Sepulchre (visited by Pythagoras) was this inscription ΤΟΝ ΔΙΟΣ, the sepulchre of Iupiter.       – & according to Diodorus was an Egyptian invaded many Provinces of the world & set up the pillar in Afric.

942. The son of Semele deified by the name of Bacchus with ceremonies appointed by Orpheus. ffor it came now into fashion for the Greeks to deify their own men by the names & with the ceremonies of the Egyptian Gods. So Alcæus the son of Alcmena was deified by the name of Hercules & the son of Penelope by the name of Pan & the daughters of <151v> Pierus by the names of the Muses. He seems to be also the Belus who led a colony of Egyptians to Babylon & there instituted Priests who were free from taxes & observed the starrs as in Egypt [& after the example of the Egyptians observed the starrs. & by the Babylonians were called Chaldeans]

<152r>

{illeg}

the opinion of the Greek Chronologers who make the rapture of Europa 260 years ancienter then the building of the Temple, but it suits perfectly well with our opinion that it was but about 25 years ancienter. The Phenician historians were very ancient & consulted the ancienter records of their country as is manifest by what is here cited out of them & by what Iosephus cites out of Dius & Menander, & therefore they deserve much more to be credited then the Chronologers of Greece who were neither ancient nor had ancient annals to consult, nor agree with one another.

The red sea being very shallow – – into the hands of Solomon & Hiram.

When the Edomites were driven from their seats it may be presumed that they sent out some colonies upon the Mediterranean either under Cadmus or before, & of this there are footsteps – – – – – came from the Erythrean sea.

Herodotus tells us that the Phenicians were the authors of dissentions who coming from the red" sea – – – – From these passages of Herodotus it appears that the trade of the Phenicians to Greece began upon their coming from the red sea that the rapture of Io happened in the very beginning of this trade & that the rapture of Europa was committed soon after in revenge of the rapture of Io. And therefore since the rapture of Europa happened about the 18th year of Davids reign & the Edomites were driven by David from the red sea a little before whereby the trade of that sea came into the hand of the Israelites: its reasonable to beleive that these Edomites were the Erithrean Phœnicians who came from the read Sea to the Mediterranean being deprived of their estates & country of {illeg} by David were necessitated to seek out a new trade upon the Mediterranean for getting a livelihood & by consequence that the rapture of Io happened between the 8th year of Davids reign when he was made king of all Israel & removed to Ierusalem & {illeg} his 18 year when Cadmus came to Greece in quest of Europa < insertion from the right margin of f 152r > And therefor Io & her brother Phoroneus flourished in Davids reign & their father Inachus flourished in the reign of {Solomon} And since the Greeks feigned that Io after she was carried into Egypt became the Goddess Isis, the reign of Osiris & Isis in Egypt according to the Canon of the ancient Greeks who made the fable, was later then the eighth year of Davids reign.

< text from f 152r resumes > <152v>

her invented in the red Sea by king Erythra, & began a trade between Syria Greece & Egypt. ffor they carried Io into Egypt & therefore traded also with Egypt as Herodotus affirms. From the days of Moses to the days of Saul I meet no mention of Egypt. In all this time there seems to have be] When David destroyed Edom, {Hadad} the young king of Edom fled with certain Edomites into Egypt & found great favour in the sight of Pharaoh so that Pharaoah gave him a house & land & victuals & the sister of Taphenes the Queen to be his wife, & his young son Genubah was brought up in Pharaohs house among {illeg} And this great favour of Pharaoh to the Edomites {illeg} & those Merchants of Edom who fled from the red Sea to the Sea coast of Phenicia. In Iacobs days the Midianites traded between Gilead & Egypt upon Camels (Gen 37 25) & in a time of famin when all countrys sent into Egypt to buy corn & the sons of Iacob went upon {asses} to buy corn among those that came from Canaan Gen 41.57 & 42.5, 26) & the Sidonians had {illeg} coasts of Phenicia but of the trading of the Phenicians upon the mediterranean I meet with no instance before that of those Merchants who carried away Io from Greece into Egypt.

The principal trafic with Egypt has in all ages been for corn This was a commodity which Ægypt abounded with & Greece then wanted ffor plowing & sowing was not yet in use among the Greeks. Now corn was first brought into Greece a little gefore the reign of Erechtheus king of Athens – – – – from all which compared together I conclude that Erechtheus was about 85 older then Theseus, & by consequence about 32 years old at the coming of Cadmus into Europe. In time of famin he procured a great quantity of corn from Egypt & for this benefaction the people of Athens made him their king

When the Phœnicians began the trade of bringing corn from Egypt to Greece they would be apt to bring weomen out of Egypt to instruct – – – – – about the 10th or 15th year of Solomons reign for Erechtheus reigned long. Then reigned his sons Cecrops & Pandion & grandson Ægeus successively in the days of Solomon & Rehoboam. Pandion had war with Labdacus the grandson of Cadmus.

Arcas – – – earth.

In the reign of Car – – – Phoroneus to David.

Lelex was an Egyptian his son& Myles first of any man set up a hand mill in Greece in a place thence called Alesia that is, the Mill or Quern, & taught his people how to grind corn. he Myles was either the father or brother of Eurotas the father of Sparte the wife of Lacedæmon & mother of Amyclas & Eurydice. And Eurydice was the wife of Acrisius & mother of Danae the mother of Perseus the father of Gorgophone And Amyclas was the father of Cynortes the father of Perieres the husband of Gorgophone. And Gorgophone was the Grandmother of the Argonauts Lynceus, Idas, Castor & Pollux & of Phœbe & Ilaira the wives of Castor & Pollux & of Clytemnestra & Hellena their sisters & of Penelope the wife of Vlysses. Perseus was the father of Sthenelus the <153r> father of Erystheus who was born at the same time with Hercules & slain By these genealogies I reccon Perseus was between 60 & 70 years old in the war between him & Bacchus, & Acrisius about 45 or 50 years older then Perseus & Lelex about 80 or 100 years older then Acrisius So that Acrisius flourished in the reign of David & Lelex in the days of Eli. Whence it seems that Lelex & his Colony fled from Egypt in the days of Eli & brought corn with them to live upon while it lasted. [venturing out to sea in such vessels as were then in use upon the Nile & sea coasts of Egypt, or such as they built for the purpose] venturing out to sea in vessels made of the Egyptian papyr.

The erecting of the Amphictyonic Councils is by some ascribed to Acrisius by others to Amphictyon king of Athens. They both flourished at once in the reign of David & therefore that Council was erected in his reign by the joynt endeavours of these kings. And the time of erecting this Council discovers the occasion of erecting it. ffor in those days Greece abounded with many foreign nations. Strabo tells us[150] that almost all Greece was anciently inhabited by barbarous nations as the Phrygians brought thither by Pelops, the Egyptians by Danaus, the Dryopes, Caucones, Pelasgians, Leleges, & others within the Istmus, & without it by the Thracians who came with Eumolpus, the people of Tereus in Daulis of Phocis, the Phœnicians in Cadmeia, the Aones, Tembices & Hyantes in Bœotia. And Thucydides saith that a region called Acta neare mount Athos conteined several cities, as the Andrean colony, & Thyssus & Cleonæ & Acrothous & Olophyxus & Dion which were inhabited by promiscuous barbarous nations speaking two languages & by some of Calcidon but chiefly by the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians who once inhabited Lemnos & Athens & by the Bisaltes & Crestones & Edones living disperst in villages. And among these nations were the Odomantes a people who used circumcision & loved onyons & therefore came either from Egypt Idumæa or Palestine & perhaps had the name of Odomantes from Edom.[151] The Iones who past into Asia minor were originally Petosirians & so were the Æoles Now while Grece was in this confusion a common council was very necessary for preventing or composing wars & commotions , doing justice between the several nations, granting or refusing seats to newcomers & consulting the common safety of Greece. And therefore its reasonable to believe that the Amphictionic Council was occasioned by the coming of Cadmus with many new colonies & seating them in several parts of Greece & by consequence that it was erected about the middle of Davids reign. It was composed of twelve senators the representatives of twelve states & met every half yeare, once in spring at Delphos & once in Autumn at Thermopylæ.

<153v> [Editorial Note 57]

Celeus was the son of Rhearus the son of Cranaus the successor of Cecrops was contemporary to Erechtheus & therefore Cecrops was almost three generations older then Erechtheus for Celeus & Erechtheus were contemporary & flourished in the days of Eli. Between Cranaus & Erectheus Chronologers place Amphictyon Erechthonius & Pandion supposing this Pandion representing this Pandion to be the son of Erechthonius & father of Erechtheus. whereas Erechthonius & his son Pandion are the same men with Erechtheus & his son Pandion. ffor Erechtheus is called the son of the earth by Homer & therefore his father was unknown to the Greeks. He did not inherit his fathers kingdom but was elected by the people for his benefaction of corn. He was the first that called Athens by that name & therefore instituted the games which were first called Athenæa & then Panathenæ & are ascribed Erechthonius. And if there was an Erechthonius two generations older then Erechtheus he would have been contemporary to Cranaus whereas he is represented to succeed Amphictyon the successor of Cranaus. Amphictyon therefore was the predecessor of Erechtheus & reigned at that time when Erechtheus procured a great quantity of corn from Egypt, & Erechtheus was a forreigner who came into Greece about the same time with Cadmus. By his sacrificing his daughter he seems to be a Phœnician but Diodorus saith he was an Egyptian, & he might be one of the Phenician Shepherds who a little before were driven out of Egypt, & now came with Proteus & Cadmus into Greece. For the colonies which came from Phenicia & Egypt & other places into Greece were more numerous then is described in history. ffor instance Thucydides tells us that a region called Acta neare mount Athos conteined several cities, as The colony of the Andrians, & Thyssus & Cleonæ & Acrothous & Olophyxus & Dion which were inhabited by promiscuous barbarous nations speaking two languages & by some of Chalcedon but chiefly by the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians who once inhabited Lemnos & Athens & by the Bisaltes & Crestones & Edones living disperst in villages. (Thucyd. l. 4 p. 325. And among these nations were the Odomantes a people who used circumcision. We told you above that Cadmus placed a colony in Calcis & another in Bisaltia but when & how the rest of these barbarous nations came hither I do not find mentioned in history. Its probable that some of them came with Cadmus, & that the Odomantes were Edomites as some think.] And Strabo tells us that almost all Greece was anciently inhabited by barbarus nations as the Phrygians brought thither by Pelops, the Egyptians by Danaus, the Dyopes, Caucones, Pelasgians Leleges & others within the Isthmus, & without it the Thracians who came with Eumolpus, the people of Terens in Daulis of Phocis, the Phenicians in Cadmæia, the Aones & Tembices & Hyantes in Bœotia [whereof the Aones & Tembices or Tempices came from Sumium.] Strabo l 7. p 321 [& l. 9, p. 401.]

called it Thebes. Pelops was born about the 10th year of Davids reign: not much sooner because his sons Atreus & Thyestes lived till about 56 years after the death of Solomon, nor much later because Pelops was the father of Pitheus the father of Æthra the mother of Theseus. Amphion & Zethus were about 25 years younger then Pelops, not much younger because Amphion married Niobe the sister of Pelops & by her had Chloris the mother of Arichimneus who was one of the Argonauts, nor much older because Laius the grandson of Polydorus was born some time before Lycus was slain by Amphion & Zetus & Lamedon the father of Lynceus made war upon Archander & Architeles who married the daughters of Danaus & were the sons of Achæus the grandson of Erectheus Amphion & Zethus were therefore born & Epopeus & Nicteus slain about the 35th year of David After Amphion had reigned sometime at Thebes he & almost all his family perished by the plague & Zethus soon after dying – – – – to succeed him.

In the war against Archander & Architeles Lamedon was assisted by Sicyon the son of Metion – – – whom Manetho calls {Sethosis}.

<154r>

After the death of Osiris, his wife a[152] Isis & Mercury celebrated his funerals with sacrifices & divine honours as to one of the Gods & instituted many sacred rites & mystical ceremonies in memory of the mighty works wrought by this Hero now deifieda[153]. You have heard how he set on foot the study of Astronomy. He & Atlas & Mercury are all of them celebrated as Astronomers. And hence one of the mystical ceremonies instituted in memory of his works was Astronomical. For b[154] in the holy Isle of Nile neare Phylas was a sepulcher built to Osiris – – – – For c[155] Herodotus tells us that Sesostris was the only king that enjoyed the Empire . d[156] He was murdered in autumn by his wicked brother Typhon who mangled his body into 26 | many pieces & gave to each of his confederates in the treason a piece by that meanes to bring them all within the same guilt & thereby the more to engage them to advance him to the throne & to defend & preserve him in the possession. d[157] Hereupon the Princes of Egypt fled & hid themselves & by the advice of Minerva sent for Hercules who commanded the forces of Egypt & he coming to their assistance a civil war insued. This is that famous war between the Gods of Egypt & the Gyants, so much celebrated by the Poets, in which the Gods were feigned to fly from Typhon & hide themselves in various shapes till Hercules came to their assistance & the Giants were feigned to have many heads & hands to signify that they were not single persons but bodies politick or squadrons of Typhons army. In this war Hercules & Orus the son & successor of Osiris fought & overcame Typhon at a Village called Antæa from Antæus e[158] the proper name of Typhon & took him prisoner. And to this war Ovid relates when he makes Hercules say

– sævoque alimenta parentis

Antæo eripui.

Plutarch tells us[159] that Typhon that Typhon was assisted by Aso Queen of the Ethiopians, & Pliny saith [160]Ægyptiorum bellis attrita est Æthiopia vicissim imperitando serviendoque clara et potens etiam usque ad Trojana bella Memnone regnante. In the days of Sesostris Egypt reigned over Ethiopia, after his death Ethiopia reigned over Egypt. ffor in the 15th year of Asa king of Iuda, Zera the Ethiopian with an army of a thousand thousand Ethiopians & Libyans invaded Iudea. The mixture of Ethiopians & Libyans shews that they came through Egypt Asa had long expected their coming & while the land was yet before him sought the Lord & destroyed Idolatry & fortified the cities of Iudah with walls & towers & gates & barrs & prepared an army of five hundred & eighty thousand men & with these he met the army of Zera & routed them totally at Mareshah a town of Iudea towards Egypt & pursued them to Gerar & smote the cities about Gerar & as he returned with much spoile – – – was found of them.

By this victory – – – flourished in power & wealth for many years.

<154v>

Then did Isis & Orus take upon them government of Egypt, but Isis afterwards let go Typhon whereupon followed another battel or two in which Hercules was taken prisoner & after 13 months set at liberty by Mercury, the wife of Typhon shewing him where Hercules was imprisoned. And then Mercury interceding composed the war & in memory thereof is painted with an Embasadors rod writhen about with two serpents which signify the two contending nations reconciled by his embassy.

② Diodorus tells us that Isis & Mercury celebrated the funerals of Osiris &c – – – – – for want of knowing the just number of days between the Observations.

① Orus the son & successor of Sesostris is by 3 Herodotus called 3 Phero that is Pharaoh the common name of the kings of Egypt, by Diodorus 2 Sesostris the second & by 2 Pliny Nuncoreus. He placed in Heliopolis two Obelisks an hundred cubits long & eight broad one of which was carried to Rome by Caius. He is said to have fallen blind & recovered his sight by such miracles as make that part of his story look fabulous. He made no wars abroad & seems to have reigned but a short time, being drowned in the Nile by his enemies. In his reign Isis & Mercury made laws for Egypt.

② Diodorus tells us that Isis & Mercury – Observations

The three great Pyramids neare Memphis are all of them by Herodotus & Diodrorus ascribed to Kings who reigned after Sesostris, the biggest to this king Suphis the next to his brother Cephren (called also Suphis, Saophis, Sensaophis – Mencheres. And besides these Pyramids there were 18 others neare the Mummies one of which is recconed by Greaves to be equal to the greatest of the three above mentioned but the most of them were much smaller. We may reccon the small ones were built first, & when such buildings grew in fashion the Kings built them bigger & bigger to outvie one another. so that from their bigness may be gathered in what order the kings who built them reigned. The Canons tell us that Enephes built Pyramids in Cochome probably those were the small ones above mentioned but who Venephes was I know not unles the word be imperfectly written for Amenophes. The Pyramids of Mœris were of a middle size & those of Suphis & his brother & sons the biggest.

[Editorial Note 58]

– – – For Herodotus tells us that Sesostris was the only king that {enjoyed} the Empire. Vpon his death Egypt fell into civil wars as shall be presently explained & those warrs set Asa at liberty to revolt & fortify the cities of Iudah. Sesostris therefore began his reign – describes.

While Osiris

Hercules is painted with a club because the nations above Egypt used clubs with bows & arrows & of such people his army for the most part consisted. He entered the Mediterranean & went westward to the mouth of the straits invading Italy Spain & Mauritania & setting up pillars in memory of his conquests, as Sesostris did in the east.

The Pyramids were a very particular sort of buildings & therefore must be built within a short compas of time out of an humour then in fashion, the small ones first & the bigger afterward to outvie the former. There were many small ones. Greaves saw 18 toge{ther} in a plane towards Libya. The Canon says Venephes Rex Pyramides struxit in Cochomes Perhaps Venephes is corruptly written for Menephes or Amenephes. Those built by Mœris were of a middle size & those built by Suphis & his brother & their children the biggest, which shews in what order these kings reigned.

<155r>

He was also called Menes, for Herodotus & Diodorus tell us from the Egyptian Priests that Orus the son of Osiris & Isis was the last of the Gods who reigned in Egypt. & that after the Gods & Typhon men reigned long in Egypt the first of which was Menes. So also Eratosthenes, Manetho, Africanus, Eusebius & Syncellus with one consent make Menes the first king of Egypt a[161]. He taught the people the adoration of the Gods & the manner of divine worship & how to adorn their beds & tables with rich cloaths & coverings, & was the first that brought in a delicate & sumptuous way of living a[162]. b[163] He was the first that instituted written laws feigning that he received them from Mercury b[164]. c[165] He made a bridge over the Nile at Memphys & twelve miles above Memphys by making a great banck of earth turned the River into a new Channel through the middle of the mountains. And the old channel being dried up he there built Memphys on the western side of the river & therein built the most magnificent & memorable Temple of Vulcan c[166]. By all which he lived after Sesostris & Mercury & so was the same king with Amenoph whom the Greeks call Amenophis & Memnon. ffor his works were too great for any former age, & Memphys was by the Egyptians called Moph & Noph, which names as also the names Memnon, Men or Menes, & Mneuis seem derived from his name Amenoph by omitting the first vowel. ✝ < insertion from f 155v > ✝ For the name Menes is by Eratosthenes interpreted Διόνιος Iovius & therefore came from the word Ammon the Egyptian name of Iupiter & should be written Amenes,

Menon or Menas is Menes & this record gives us his age by a double character, the first that he lived in or about the age of Phoroneus which brings us neare the truth, & the next that he lived when letters began first to be used in Thebais. < text from f 155r resumes > Pliny tells us: [167]Anticlides literas in Ægypto invenisse quendam nomine < insertion from f 155v > ‡ nomine Menona tradidit quindecim annis ante Phoroneum antiquissimum Græciæ regem, idque monumentis approbare conatur. By this record we have the age of Menon or Menas with respect to the times of Greece very nearly. The Theban Letters are attributed to Mercury, but if Mercury framed them in the beginning of the reigne of Menes or neare the end of the reign of Orus, so that the Thebans began to use them in the reign of Menes (for he was the first that set down laws in writing) Anticlides was not much out in ascribing them to him. < text from f 155r resumes >

Amenophis is called Amenephthis by Eusebius, Imandas Ismandes & Isimandes by Strabo, Osimandes by Hecatæus, Osimanduas & Mendes by Diodorus. On his a[169] mothers statue he placed three crowns to signify that she was the daughter wife & mother of a king. Hesiod & the Greeks say that this Memnon was the son of Tithonus & Aurora which Tithonus, saith Diodorus was the son of Laomedon & brother of Priam, & warring in the eastern parts went as far as Ethiopia (that is was carried captive by Sesostris into Thebais,) whence came the fable of Memnons being the son of Aurora. Pindar calls Memnon the b[170] son of Aurora & Cousin german of Troilus, which Troilus was one of the sons of Priam. Memnon was therefore one generation younger then Tithonus & Priam & by consequence contemporary to the children of Priam & the Trojan war. And this synchronism is confirmed by its giving occasion to a story related by Pindar Pausanias Diodorus & other ancients that Memnon was at the war of Troy & was there slain by Achilles, the Greeks taking occasion from this synchronism to feign the story of his death in honour of their nation. <156r> And thus far the story might be true that about the time of that war or immediately after he came into Phrygia not to assist the Trojans but in carrying on his conquests. Pausanias[171] relates that in a publick building at Delphos he saw several pictures made by Polygnotus (a famous ancient Painter contemporary to Artaxerxes Longimanus) & that in one of them were painted Hector Memnon & Sarpedon all of them with beards & Paris a beardles youth & by Memnon was painted a naked Ethiopian boy. And saith Pausanias Memnon came to the war of Troy not from Ethiopia but from Susa a city of Persia conquering all the intermedate nations as far as the river Choaspis. And the Phrygians still shew by what way he led his army the way being distinguished by mansions. In memory of this expedition the Nicomedians kept in the Temple of Esculapius a copper sword which they said was Memnon's It was certainly an old monument because made of copper the metal of which the Greeks & Trojans then made their weapons. Now from all these things compared it seems that Sesostris invaded Asia & Greece in the days of Laomedon king of Troy & amongst a great multitude of captives carried away Tithonus the son of Laomedon[172] a youth beautifull to a proverb: & that Memnon was born about that time, that is about the 14th year of Rehoboam ,) & therefore feigned by the Greeks of those ages to be the son of Tithonus. Whence it follows that he was about 25 years old when he retired into Ethiopia, 38 or 40 when he drove the Iews out of Egypt & 74 when he constituted the new year of 365 days.

The Atlantides or people of Cyrene had a tradition that Vranus ‡ < insertion from f 155v > ‡ Vranus was their first king who caused the people who then wandred up & down to dwell in towns & cities & reducing them from a lawless & savage course of life taught them to use & lay up the fruits of the earth & many other things usefull to man's life. That he had under his dominion a great part of the world especially towards the west & North. that he was much addicted to Astrology was familiarly acquainted with the rising & setting of the Stars & measured the year by the course of the Sun & the Months by the motion of the Moon & divided the days into hourse and after death for his merits & art in Astronomy was honoured as a God, & seing his merits transcended all the honours that could be attributed to him he was called the eternal king of the Vniverse. He had 45 children – < text from f 156r resumes > had 45 Children whereof 18 were by his wife Titæa & therefore called Titans, the principal of which were Hyperion, Saturn Atlas, Basilea & Rhea whom some call Pandora: that Hyperion married Basilea & by her had Helio & Selene, & that his brothers the Titans conspired against him & slew him & drowned Helio in Eridanus, whereupon Selene threw her self down from the house-top & Basilea ran up & down like a woman distracted & at length disappeared. That the Titans divided the kingdom of Hyperion amongst them & Atlas obteined the country of the Atlantides bordering upon the ocean, & Saturn Italy Sicily Africa & the western parts of the world, & that Saturn was very profane & covetous & by his sister Rhea or Pandora had Iupiter sirnamed Olympius. That Saturn by the help of the Titans made war upon his son but Iupiter overcame him in battel & gained the kingdom & then went through the world doing good to all. In this story by Hyperion, Basilea, Helio & Selene I understand Osiris, Isis, Apollo & Diana or Orus & Bubaste. And therefore Eridanus is the Nile & is Ammon the father of Osiris, & Saturn the husband of Pandora & brother of Atlas is Epimetheus & his son Iupiter is Ammon the younger whom the Greeks call Memnon. And <156v> Vranus the first king of Cyrene is Ammon the father of Osiris who conquered Libya. By his own & his sons conquests his worship as a God was propagated into many nations. Lucan lib. 9,

Quamvis Æthiopum populis Arabumque beatis

Gentibus atque Indis unus sit Iupiter Ammon.

In his reign therefore Astronomy began to be studied, & till then the Egyptian years were solar & the Months Lunar, & the day without distinction of hours. He distinguished the day into 24 hours & his sons Osiris Atlas & Mercury by his example studied Astronomy & regulated the year distinguishing it into twelve months of 30 days each & to the end of this year Memnon added 5 days. And while these things were doing Atlas found out the Globe with its circles & constellations in memory of which it was ever after painted upon his shoulders. And this I take to be the first rise & progress of Astronomy in Egypt.

The Atlantides say further that after the death of Hyperion & Helio the Titans divided the kingdom of Hyperion amongst them & Atlas obteined the country of the Atlantides bordering upon the ocean & Saturn Italy Sicily Africa & the western parts of the world & that Saturn was very prophane & covetous & by his sister Rhea or Pandora had Iupiter sirnamed Olympius: that Saturn by the assistance of the Titans made war upon his son but Iupiter overcame him in battel & gained the kingdom & then went through the world doing good to all. And Thymætes a very old writer saith that Rhea stirred up the Titans against Bacchus. Whence it seems that this Iupiter was the younger Ammon or Memnon & that his father whom the Atlantij called Saturn was he whom the Greeks called Epimetheus & the Egyptians Hercules, & whom Sesostris set over the armies of Thebais & Ethiopia above Egypt & that he was expelled that dominion by his son & then reigned in the west but the manner of the war is not to be met with in history. Perhaps the army of the Iews was the Bætylus which this Saturn could not digest & that being beaten at Maresah the people revolted & set up his son. A Bætylus was such a stone as Iacob consecrated & called Bethel The Phœnicians consecrated many such stones in mount Libanus & thence a Bætylus might be used as a symbol of the people of Phœnicia. Thymethes an author as old as the Trojan war, writes that Ammon the father of Bacchus married Rhea the daughter of Cælus & Sister of Saturn & the other Titans, that Ammon had Bacchus by Amalthæa at which Rhea being displeased, she fled from Ammon to the Titans & married her brother Saturn & stirred up the Titans against Ammon, that the Titans beat Ammon in battel & Saturn having gained the kingdom governed cruelly & marcht with an army to Nysa against Bacchus, but Bacchus & Minerva routed Saturn & the Titans & took them prisoners & forgave them & thereby made them their friends , & that about that time Saturn & Rhea had a son called Iupiter who after the death of Ammon & Bacchus became lord of the Vniverse.

<157r>

II. 17. princes of Egypt. The Egyptian priests related to Herodotus that Menes built the Magnificent temple of Vulcan, & that Rhampsinitus built the western & Mœris the northern portico thereof.

Herodotus tells us from the Priests of Egypt that from Menes to Mœris inclusively, there were 330 kings who reigned 11000 years recconing 3 reigns to an hundred years & from Menes to Sethon inclusively to the beginning of the reign of twelve kings there were 341 reigns. And this is all one as to tell us that from the beginning of the reign of Mœris to the beginning of the reign of the twelve kings there were twelve reigns of kings that is two hundred & forty years . & whether Sethon or Tirhaca was the last of the kings of Egypt who reigned before the twelve kings Egypt was conquered by Asserhadon & an end put to the reign of those kings in the year of Nabonassar 69. Count backwards 240 years & they will place the beginning of the reign of Mœris seventy and one years after the death of Solomon or in the time of the Trojan warr. So then the Egyptians in the days of Herodotus had not much raised the antiquities of their kings who reigned at Memphys from the days of Mœris. Herodotus tells us that the eleven kings who reigned after Mœris, were Sesostris Peron Proteus Rhampsinitus Cheops Cepren Minerinus Asychis Amysis Sabachus & Sethon. But Sesostris Pheron Proteus & Rhampsinitus reigned at Thebes & are to be omitted & Nitocris reigned after him & is to be added. And thus nine kings will reign at Memphis before the conquest of Egypt by Asserhadon, And if Tirhacah be added, he will make a tenth And these nine or ten reigns at about 20 years a piece amount to about 180 or 200 years which counted back from the year of Nabonassar 69 place the beginning of the reign of Mœris about 121 years after the death of Solomon And thereabout we have placed it. It could not be earlier because Homer celebrates Thebes as in glory in his days & makes no mention of Memphys. Whence it may be understood that the Chronology of the kings of Egypt who reigned at Memphis, hath not been much corrupted. The corruption lay in inserting 330 kings of Thebes between Menes & Mœris the last of them.

Herodotus tells us from the Priests of Egypt that from Menes to Mœris inclusively there were 330 kings who reigned 11000 years recconing three reigns to an hundred years, & that from Menes to the conquest of Egypt by Asserhadon king of Assyria which put an end to the reign of the kings of Æthiopia over Egypt there were 34 reigns & by consequence from the reign of Mœris inclusively to that conquest of Egypt which was in the year of Nabonassar {7}8 there were twelve reigns of kings. These kings according to Herodotus were Mœris Sesostris, Pheron, Proteus, Rhampsinitus, Cheops, Cepren Micerinus, Asychis, Anysis, Sabacus & Sethon. And these reigns at the rate of 20 years to a reign amount unto 240 years, which counted back from the year of Nabonassar 78 place the beginning of the reign of Mœris 71 years after the death of Solomon, or in the time of the Trojan warr. The Egyptians therefore in the days of Herodotus had not much augmented the antiquity of their kings who reigned at Memphis. For they reignd at Thebes till Mœris translated the seat of the empire from Thebes to Memphis. Thebes was the seat of the Empire during the reign of Sesostris Pheron Proteus & Rhampsinitus & therefore Mœris should have been placed after them. And Nitocris reigned at Memphis & therefore should have been placed after him. And Sethon & Tirhakah vanquished the army of the Assyrians in the 14th year of Hezekiah that is in the year of Nabonassar 34. And between this time & the 78th Olympiad

<158r>

From the days of Ammon the kings of Egypt reigned at Thebes till Mœris translated the seat of the empire of Egypt from Thebes to Memphis. And the priests of Egypt recconed to Herodotus 330 kings who reigned between Menes & Mœris These therefore reigned at Thebes. Menes built the body of the temple of Vulcan, Ramesses his son & successor the western portico thereof & Mœris the norther Portico these three kings we have placed in continuall succession, but the Priests of Egypt to make their Gods & nation look ancient have inserted 330 kings of Thebes between Menes & Mœris & by consequence between Ramesses & Mœris as if the temple had stood 11000 years between the building of the first & second Portico.

pag. 19.       have omitted. These kings reigned before Mœris & by consequence at Thebes. For

Mœris translated the seat of the empire from Thebes to Memphis. They reigned between Menes & Mœris & by consequence between Ramesses & Mœris. For Ramesses was the son & successor of Mœris: Now Menes built the body of the temple of Vulcan, Ramesses the first portico thereof & Mœris the second portico. But the Egyptians for making their Gods & kingdom look ancient have inserted 330 kings of Thebes between the builders of the first & second Portico of this temple & supposed that these kings reigned eleven thousand years, as if if any temple could stand so long. This being a manifest fiction, we have corrected it by omitting those kings & placing Mœris the builder of the second portico next after Ramesses who built the first. And thus the reign of Osiris falls in with that of the great Bacchus as it ought to do, For he & his son Orus reined next before Menes.

<159r>

Tully tells us that the great Eclips predicted by Thales happened in the reign of Astyages. And from this opinion might arise the opinion that Astyages reigned after his father Cyaxeres tho Astyages did not reign in the time of that Eclips.

<160r>

Abram was born 360 after the flood

Noah lived 950 years

Noah was500whenShem was born
600whenArphaxad born
635whenSalah born
665whenEber born
699whenPeleg born
729Rue
761Serug
so that791Nahor
Noah died890Terah
10 years960beforeAbram was born
Shem was100Arphaxadwas born
135whenSala
165Eber
199Peleg
229Rue
261Serug
291Nahoz
390Terah
460Abram
560Isaac
600whenIsaacmarried
[Editorial Note 59]

Noah

<160v>

100 when Isaac born

127

<161r>

re Censorin. cap. 20. Men at first contented themselves with numbring the months by the revolutions of the Moon & the years by the revolutions of the sun & by the returns of the four seasons & of the fruits of the earth & harvest or the overflow of the Nile & some who lived neare the Ocean as the old Saxons recconed by the returns of the tydes. They limited not the just length of the year by any certain number of days or months & tho they found about 30 days in the month & 12 months in the year yet as oft as they found 12 lunar months too short for the return of the sun & the annual seasons, they added a 13th, & as oft as 30 days proved too long for the month they omitted a day, governing themselves not by rules of Art but by the appearance of the Luminaries. Yet at the same time they might consider the year in Theory as consisting of 12 equal months each of 30 days, taking the next round numbers without regard to fractions, & might reccon by such years in their computations as oft as they were to reccon by the days or months in any year or number of years past or to come, there being then no better rule to reccon by.

But at length when men applied themselves to observe the courses of the Sun & Planets & measure the length of the yeare more exactly the Egyptians found that it consisted of about 365 days, afterwards the Greeks in the time of the Persian Empire when they applied themselves to Philosophy fell into various opinions about it. Tempus anni saith Censorinus quot dierum esset ad certum nondum astrologi reperire potuerunt. Philolaus annum naturalem dies habere prodidit CCCLXIV & dimidiatam. Aphrodisius CCCLXV & partem diei octavam. Calippus autem CCCLXV, & Aristarchus Samius tantundem & præterea diei partem MDCXXIII. Meton verò CCCLXV & dierum quinque undevigesimam partem. Oenopides CCCLXV & dierum duum & viginti undesexagesimam partem. Harpalus autem CCCLXV & horas æquinoctiales tridecim . At noster Ennius CCCLXVI. The nations also endeavoured to reduce the addition of the 13th Lunar month to a certain rule And particularly the Greeks first added it every other year, or every fourth year, then Cleostratus & others thrice in eight years & Meton seven times in 19 years, & some used months of 29 & 30 days alternately &c And by the use of such like rules various sorts of artifical years & months were introduced which disagreed with the courses of the Sun & Moon.

[Editorial Note 60]

In the race of the Kings of the Latines Æneas is placed 668 years before the Roman Consuls But the records of Rome being burnt by the Gauls 120 years after their Consuls began there is no certainty in the Chronology preceding The years of their kings were afterwards assigned by guess & are made much too long for the ordinary course of nature. Between Æneas & the Consuls reigned 21 Kings, which after the rate of 20 yeares a piece (which considering that the succession was not always from father to son) is a moderate allowance) took up 420 years & this brings down the reign of Æneas 248 years lower, & agrees well with the time of the Trojan war here assigned. So in the several cities of Greece the reigns of the ancient kings are feigned much too long for the course of nature.

The Iews in their return from the Babylonian captivity carried along with them the names of the Chaldæan months not of the months of the solar year of Nabonassar but of those of the ancient Lunislar year of the Chaldees, And the Samaritans did the like when they were transplanted by Salmanasser bringing with them into Samaria the Lunisolar year of the Assyrians with the names of its months. , & also an Æra of the Assyrians which they accounted the Æra of Salmanassar tho it was really older then him & seems to be the Æra of the Assyrian monarchy as that of Nabonassar was the æra of the Babylonian. ffor it began 32 years before the Æra of Nabonassar & was about five years older then the reign of Menahem in whose days Pul the founder of the Assyrian Empire began to infest Israel. From the beginning of this Æra the Assyrian Empire stood

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Iosephus relates out of the Phœnician records that in the reign of Ithobalus King of Tyre that city was beseiged by Nebuchadnezzar thirteen years together. In the end of that siege Ithobalus their king was slain (Ezek. 28.8, 9, 10) & after him according to the Tyrian records reigned Baal ten years, Ecnibalus & Chelbes one year Abbarus three months Mytgonus & Gerestratus six years, Balatorus one year, Merbalus four years & Iromus twenty years & in the 14th year of Iromus say the Tyrian records the reign of Cyrus began in Babylonia. Therefore the siege of Tyre began 48 years before the reign of Cyrus in Babylonia It began when Ierusalem had been newly taken & burnt with the Temple (Ezek 26) & by consequence after the eleventh year of Iehojakins captivity or 159th year year of Nabonassar & therefore the reign of Cyrus in Bab. began after the year of Nabonassar 207. and it ended before the eight & twentieth year of Iehojakins captivity or 176th year of Nabonassar (Ezek 29.27) And therefore the reign of Cyrus in Babylonia began before the year of Nabonassar 211. By this argument the first year of Cyrus was one of the 3 intermediate years 208, 209 & 210. And this agrees well with the Canon which makes it the year of Nabonassar 210. It shews also that as the Iews dated the reign of Nebuchadnezzar from his invading & conquering Iudea in the life time of his father so the Phœnicians dated the reign of Cyrus from his invading & conquering Babylonia in the life time of Darius. And whilst the author of the Canon uses the same recconing, its probable that this was the most usual recconing of the oriental nations, & that according to the same recconing the Iews were released from captivity in the first year of Cyrus while Darius was yet alive, that is in the Iewish year which began with the Month Nisan in the year of Nabonassar 210. & was the seventieth year of Nebuchadnezzars reign over Iudea. ffor if it was the first year after the death of Darius there will be two years between the fall of Babylon & the release of the Captivity, & 72 years between the conquest of Iudea in the third year of Iehojakim & the release of the Captivity in the first of Cyrus.

And yet I do not find that any nation ever kept an account in their civil affairs by such an artificial year. In all antiquity there is no mention of any æra of such years. Nor is it probable that such an Æra could have been lasting because in the space of 35 years it would turn winter into summer & summer into winter. Moses tells us that at the Creation God appointed the Sun & Moon for signes & for seasons & for days & for years, And therefore the first ages measured times & seasons by the visible revolutions of the sun & moon, that is by lunar months & solar years. No other years were fit for determining the returns of summer & winter seed time & harvest which are the seasons here spoken of. Ioseph interprets seven fat kine & seven ears of corn to signify seven Egyptian years, a fat or lean ox being put for a plentifull or barren year of grass & a good or bad ear of corn for a good or bad harvest , as in the Poet post septem aristas. And this shews that the years of the Egyptians then in use were numbred according to the returns of summer & harvest Such was the year which the Iews brought out of Egypt. It was lunisolar & began always in autumn till Moses changed the beginning. Whence it came to pass that the Iews had a double year, one for civil affairs which began always in autumn & which they brought out of Egypt the other for sacred use which was the same with the former excepting that it began always in spring according to the appointment of Moses In like manner the other oldest Nations used a year which consisted of Lunar months & began with that Lunar month which happened at a certain season of the year, as the Olympic years & Macedonic years with the Lunar months which happened in the summer solstice, the Attic, Bœotic, Laconic & Syracusan years with the Lunar month which happened in the winter solstice, the ancient year of the Chaldeans & Arabians with the Lunar month which happened in the autumnal æquinox. And so in Italy, Alium Ferentini, alium Lavinij, itemque Albani vel Romani haubuerunt annum: ita et aliæ gentes. Omnibus tamen fuit propositum suos civiles annos, varie intercalendis mensibus, ad unum verum illum naturalemque corrigere. Censorin. cap. 20.

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In the days of Iacob the Patriarch

The Ishmaelites & Midianites who were descended from Abraham & dwelt upon the north east side of the red sea neare mount Horeb, were merchants as early as in the days of Iacob (Gen 37.25, 27. 28) & by their merchandice the Midianites abounded with Gold in the days of the Iudges because they were Ishmaelites (Iudg. 8.24.) The Ishmaelites therefore practised that trade upon the red Sea which at length upon conquering the Edomites & getting possession of the Ports of Eloth & Ezion Geber came into the hands of David & Solomon. And its probable that for writing down & keeping an account of their trafic those Merchants invented Letters, & that Moses learnt them in Midian & that the Edomites upon their flying from David carried them into Egypt, Æthiopia Chaldæa, Persia, Syria Asia Minor, & Greece before the end of Solomons reigne <162v> For letters were then in use among the posterity of Abraham upon the north east borders of the red sea neare the Mounts Horeb & Sinai, the Law being written there on Tables of stone & in a Book by Moses long before. He learnt them among the Midianites who with the Ishmaelites were merchants as early as in the days of Iacob (Gen 37.28, 36) & the Midianites by their merchandise abounded with gold in the days of the Iudges because they in those days grew rich by practising that trade upon the red sea which at length by conquering their neighbours the Edomites came into the hands of David & Solomon. And when the Edomites fled from David they might carry Letters & Astronomy into Ægypt & Chaldæ. For Helladius tells us that – – – – Asia minor & Greece.

[Editorial Note 61]

the

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The ancients represented peoples by waters, kingdoms by rivers & invasions by floods & a kingdom by the world & after the invasion of the lower Egypt & the erecting of a new world politic by the conquest of the country the reign of Thomosis {might} be peaceable. That of Ammon was splendid & victorious, That of Osiris was still more warlike victorious & turbulent. And that of Orus was a miserable vexatious iron age to the Egyptians by reason of their civil wars. The Saturn of the Egyptians had two faces because he had two kingdoms an old one & a new. For two or more faces or heads of a man or beast are emblems of two or more dominions. He had a syth in his hand in memory of his conquering the lower Egypt an exceeding fertile corn country. And their Iupiter had rams horns in memory of his conquering Libya a country abounding with sheep. Vpon his conquering Libya, an Oracle for influencing the people, was there erected to him, called the Oracle of Iupiter Hammon. And after the example of this Oracle several Oracles were presently erected by forreigners in Greece for influencing the natives. For houses towns cities & kingdoms altars temples & religious {statues} were first erected in Greece by forreigners & arts & sciences introduced while the rude & ignorant natives continued Canibals & lived in dens & caves of the earth like wild beasts & came not out thence but to mix with the forreigners & live with them in houses & in towns but by degrees, as they could be induced to leave of their salvage customes & become civilized.

[Editorial Note 62]

Vpon this victory of Asa the Egyptians fell into great troubles & their empire flew in pieces. For the people of the lower Egypt revolted from the Ethiopians & called in to their asistance 200000 Iews, & thereupon the Argonauts were sent by the Greeks to the nations upon the Euxin & Mediterranean seas to sollicit them to revolt, & Prometheus with his people after 30 years stay at Mount Caucasus was released & the Philistims whom Sesostris had carried into captivity & placed in Caphtor or Cappadocia, were set at liberty to return home, & did so according to the Prophet. Have – – – – Amos. 9.7. And thus ended the Empire of the Egyptians at Thebes.

This Empire – – – four ages of their Gods. Certainly Ammon was the Iupiter of the Egyptians & therefore his father was their Saturn, & the ages in which they reigned were the golden & silver ages, & the next age was the age of the sons of Iupiter represented by the brazen age. And the fourth age was a miserable vexatious iron age to the Egyptians by reason of their civil wars.

The Egyptians in those days writing by hieroglyphics represented all by symbols, putting a man with a syth for Saturn in memory of his conquering the lower Egypt a fertile corn country, a man with rams horns for Iupiter Ammon in memory of his conquering Libya a country abounding with sheep, a man riding on an eagle with a thunderbolt in his hand for Iupiter Belus a king soaring high in dominion & making great wars, a man with a dogs head for a Mercury , a flood for an invasion, Deucalions flood for the invasion of Greece by the armies of Sesostris in the reign of Deucalion, a horn of the sea for a river, Amaltheas horn for a river with fertile meadows on both sides given to Amalthea by Ammon for her maintenance. A man or Beast with two or more faces or heads for a king with as many kingdoms. A man with the tail of a fish for a mariner. A woman with many breasts for the Earth. A man with Goats feet for a Dancer. A Dragon for an army And such symbols being rightly understood may give light into the history of the fabulous ages Golden things (as the golden age golden apples, golden fleece) for things excellent & valuable. A man fighting with a three-{pointed} spear for an Admiral commanding a fleet composed of three squadrons. A Siren or A{illeg} for a Venus.

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– – – abounding with sheep. The writing of the Egyptians in those ages was by hieroglyphicks & this made them put hieroglyphic figures for their Gods. [And the oldest histories of those times being written in such characters, [are scarce better to be understood then by knowing the signification of those characters.] & therefore we are to look upon those characters not as fabulous, but as words of an ancient language in which the histories were originally written signifying things by their properties:] [the interpretation of which is a sort of criticism which may be usefull for understanding the histories originally written in the language.

In the time of this Empire of Egypt the Oracles of the Heathens had their rise. The oldest Oracle was in the royal city Thebes the next in Libya & the third at Dodona in Greece all three dedicated to Iupiter. Herodotus was told by the Priests of the Theban Iupiter that two weomen Priestesses were carried from thence one into Libya & the other into Greece & erected the first Oracles in those countries. These were the Oracles of Iupiter Ammon & of Iupiter Dodonæus. He was told also by the chief Priestesses of the Temple of Dodona (Promenea, Timarta, Nicanora & the rest) that two black Doves flew from the Egyptian Thebes one to them which sitting upon a beach tree spake with a humane voice that an Oracle should be erected there to Iupiter; & the other to the Libyans which commanded them to erect an Oracle to Iupiter Ammon. Doves in the ancient fables of the Greeks are put for Priestesses as Bochart has shewed. And, saith Herodotus, the Oracle at Dodona is the oldest in Greece & is very like that at the Egyptian Thebes, And the way of divining in Temples came from Egypt. Herodotus tells us also that by the dictates of the Oracle of Dodona, the Pelasgians were first induced to receive the names of the Gods from the Barbarians of Egypt ] & propagated these names into the rest of Greece: For at first the Greeks had no particular names of the Gods but called them only Θεούς. For he is the Iupiter to whom they were Oracles therefore began to be erected upon the death & consecration of Ammon. For he is h the Iupiter to whom they were at first erected & Diodorus tells us that the Temple of Iupiter Ammon, where Alexander the great consulted the Oracle of that God, was said to be built by Danaus. After the example of these Oracles several others were soon erected to several Gods in Egypt & Greece & by their dictates the worship of the Gods of Egypt & Phenicia overspread | was brought into Greece the Greeks worshipping their own men under the names of those Gods. For upon consecrating the dead it was usual to call them by new names. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphos was erected in reign of Acrisius & appointed {illeg}. And the first Priestess & Prophet of the Delphic Apollo was Phemonoe or Phanothia the wife of Icarius . She invented Hexameter verses & gave Oracles in them. She began to give oracles to Acrisius 27 years before the days of Orpheus Musæus & Linus. (Clemens        ) & She prædicted that the God Bacchus should come in the days of Icarius (Pausan l. 1 c 2) & when he came Icarius received from him a present of wine (Hygin. Poet. Astronom. in Arctophylacte) By all which I gather that this Oracle was erected neare the end of Solomons reign At that time Acrisius appointed an Amphictyonic Council of about 12 neighbouring cities to meet every Spring & Autumn at Delphos, & built a temple there for their use, & committed to them the care of the Temple, & erected in it an Oracle to back their decrees.

[Editorial Note 63]

Thucydides who wrote long before the Chronology of the Greeks was invented, tells us that the Lacedemonians had a long time used {good laws & been} free from tyranny & that there were about 300 years & a few more from the time that the Lacedemonians had used the same administration of their common wealth {to} the end of the Peloponesian war. If from the end of the Peloponnesian war you count backwards 300 years the recconing will end at the 19th Olympiad & therefore the laws of Lycurgus were made about the time of that Olympiad or a little before according to the recconing of Thucydides.

< insertion from the right margin of f 163v >

Communis ana Herculis et Musarum. Plutarch. Quæst Rom. p 278

Argivi ex agris in planiciem ab Inacho primum deducti. Quæst Græc p 303

Historia Pelopis Laij Chrysippi & Hippodaniæ vide Plutarch p 313.

< text from f 163v resumes > <164r>

– Ecbatane.

About ten or twelve thousand furlongs above the mouths of the Nile in the northern latitude of about 14 or 15 degrees stood the city Meroe in a great Island or Peninsula of the same name compassed by two arms of the Nile Astaboras & Astapus or Astusapes flowing down from certain Lakes & meeting 700 furlongs below the city. Thence the Nile flowed northward 2000 furlongs more & then bending backward ran south west 3700 furlongs till it came almost over against Meroe. Then it ran again to the north with some inclination eastward 5300 stadia to the great Cataract & from thence northward 700 stadia to the less Cataract & from thence it ran northward in a right line through the middle of Egypt 5000 stadia to the Mediterranean.

On the Arabic or a[174] eastern side of the Nile from the less Cataract up to Meroe & beyond it were the Arabic Ethiopians called Megabars & Blemmyes & in scripture Chus. b[175] Iuba makes them not Ethiopians but Arabians. And over against them on the other side the Nile were the Nubians or Assyrians called Lud. The Nubians were not subject to the Ethiopians but were anciently divided into many little kingdoms under kings of their own & frequently made warr upon the Ethiopians on the other side the river. The Megabar Ethiopians were next Egypt, & used bucklers & lances & clubs knotted with iron & thereby differed from the other Ethiopians who used great Bows & Lances. These Ethiopians were sometimes subject to Egypt & sometimes reigned over it & accordingly the whole was sometimes called Egypt & sometimes Ethiopia. Next above the less cataract was Phylæ a city common to the Ethiopians & Egyptians & next below this Cataract were Syene & Elephantine the most southern cities of Egypt seated under the Tropic of Cancer symbol in the midd way between Meroe & the Mediterranean. Elephantine was in an Island of the Nile of the same bigness with it self three miles below the lesser Cataract. And Syene was a little lower & lay just under the Tropic of Cancer that is in the latitude of 23mathML formula degrees.

Egypt (called in scripture Misor & Mizraim & the land of Ham) is a long & broad valley or meadow on both sides the Nile between mountains & Desarts running north & south from Syene to the Mediterranean. It consists of two regions called Mizraim that is the two lands of Misor: vizt, the upper lying on both sides the single streame of the Nile & the lower lying upon the mouths of the Nile in form of a triangle about 3600 furlongs in compass. This lower was called Delta by the Greeks & Rahab in scripture. The upper was again divided into two parts, the southern called Thebais & in scripture the land of Pathros, & the northern called Heptanomis. The Metropolis of Thebais was Thebes called in scripture Ammon No (now Minio) that is the city of Ammon or Iupiter (or as the 70 interpret) Diospolis It stood on both banks of the Nile at the distance of about 480 stadia below the lesser cataract & is now corruptly called Minio. Neare it on the western side of the Nile was the city This anciently the metropolis of a kingdome which at length came under the dominion of Thebes. The Metropolis of Heptanomis was Noph Moph or Memphis a city on the west side of the Nile just above the Delta & about 1000 stadia from the mediterranean. Not far from Memphys were the fields where the Egyptians buried their dead & built Pyramids to their memory.

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About a mile below Memphys or less the Nile begins to divide it self into several streams to water the Delta. The direct stream which runs through the middle of the Delta is called the Thermusiac River or Sebennic Ostium. The first stream which parts from it runs on the eastern side of the Delta & is called the Bubastic river or Pelusian Ostium. The next stream which separates from the direct channel runs on the western side of the Delta & is called the Canobic Ostium. These are the three biggest streams & between them run several others

In the way from Syria into Egypt at the entrance of Egypt about three miles from the sea & at some distance from the Pelusiac Ostium of the Nile eastward stood Pelusium called also Sin Abaris Sethron & Pithon & westward from it upon the bank of the same Pelusiac ostium stood Ramesses. These were the two cities which the Israelites built for Pharaoh & between them lay the land of Goshen where Israel was in bondage & on the other side of this river was the field & city of Zoan or Tanis & higher upon the eastern bank of the same stream was the city Bubastis called in scripture Phibesneth. On the eastern border of Egypt about 1500 furlongs above Pelusium stood the city On Aven or Heliopolis whose Priest Potiphera married his daughter Asenath to Ioseph. The way between these two cities was through a Desart over which there was an open access from the east into Egypt untill Sesac fenced Egypt on that side with a great ditch of water carried from Pelusium to Heliopolis.

Between Egypt & the Red sea were several sorts of Arabians called Trogloditæ & in scripture Sukkijm. And in Thebais between the Nile & the red sea not far from Thebes was Coptus a common city of the Egyptians & Arabians & the Metropolis of the Nome Coptites. This people gave the name of Coptites to all the Egyptians & thence the Greeks formed ἀια Copti, Ægyptus. Probably the Coptites founded Thebes & thereby spread their name with their dominion. Yet Egypt is often taken by writers only for Delta & Heptanomis & sometimes only for Delta.

Manetho an Egyptian Priest has given us the names of many kings reigning in several parts of Egypt as at Elepantine at Diospolis or Thebes, at This, at Memphys, at Heracleapolis at Bubastis at Sais at Xois at Tanis & Eratosthenes has also given us a list of the kings of Thebes. Whence it may be concluded that there have been many kingdoms in Egypt at once. But a certain account of their rise magnitude duration & fall is now not to be had. Yet this is certain that before the reign of Sesac they were all <165r> {swallowed} up by the kingdome of Thebes. In the days of Iacob & Moses there was a kingdom in the lower Egypt of a considerable bigness whose kings resided at Ramesses. For in the City where Pharaoh & his daughter & servants resided there the Iews were in bondage Exod 2.5, 7, 8 & there Moses did his miracles Gen 7.15, 20 & 8.3 & 9.33. And when the first born were smitten which was at Midnight Pharaoh rose up in the night & called for Moses & Aaron & ordered them & the people of Israel to get them out of the land & the same night the Egyptians lent the Israelites Iewels & rayment & urged them to be gone & the next morning Moses & Aaron led the Children of Israel from Ramesses out of Egypt & they journeyed that day with their flocks & herds to Succoth a town in the wilderness between Egypt & the red Sea. Gen 11.8 & 12.29, 30, 31, 37, 38 41. Num 33.3 Ramesses was therefore the royal seat of this Kingdom, & under its dominion were the cities On, Pithon & Zoan with their Nomes or countries, so that this kingdom lay on both sides the Bubastic river. By the writings of Moses it seems to have comprehended but a part of the Delta & to have been as old as the days of Abraham. The kings of Ramesses are not mentioned by Manetho except Timaus the last king whom the Shepherds conquered. Nor did Manetho know any thing of the peregrination & servitude of Israel in Egypt but takes the Shepherd Kingdom for the Israelites, which makes me suspect that the kings in his Dynasties are almost all of them later then the days of Moses. ffor he being a Priest of Heliopolis which was under the dominion of Ramessis it may be presumed that he would be most diligent & particular in the story of his own country.

The first & second Dynasty of Manetho kings[176] contains 17 kings of This, the first of which is Menes accounted the oldest king in all his Dynasties, & the 16th is Sesochris who reigned 48 years & was 5 cubits & 3 palms high ὃς ἐιχεν υχος ε, πλάτος γ lege ὑχος πηχων ε πλαιστων γ

The 3d 4th & 6t Dynasties contein 24 kings of Memphys the 17th of which is Sesochris who reigned 48 years & was 5 cubits & 3 Palms high, & is therefore the same Sesochris with the former that is Sesach or Sesostris ffor Sesostris was very tall. Diodorus says that he was of the same height with his Statue which was 4 cubits & 4 Palms high. Eusebius that he was 4 cubits & 4 Palms high. Eusebius that he was 3 palms & 2 digits high.

The 11 & 12 Dynasties conteins 24 kings of Diospolis or Thebes the 20th of which is Sesostris who reigned 48 years & in nine years subdued Asia & part of Europe, & set up his statue whereever he went. By the length of his reign he is the same king with Sesochris in the former Dynasties.

The 18th & 19th Dynasties contain another series of 22 kings of Thebes the 17th of which is Sethos Iosephus[177] reciting out of Manetho the Kings of these two Dynasties & their actions saith that Sethos <165v> < insertion from the left margin of f 165v > {(or} as he calls him Sethosis) was the brother of Armais or Danaus & having forces by land & Sea invaded Cyprus & Phœnicia & the cities of the East. He was therefore the same king with Sesostris or Sesac.

< text from f 165v resumes >

According to the same Dynasties of Manetho the 15 kings of This who preceded Sesach reigned 487 years. The 17 of Memphys who preceded him reigned 498 years. The 17 of Diospolis who preceded him in the first Canon of those kings reigned 143 years      & the 16 who preceded him in the second Canon reigned 287 years. So that in all these Dynasties of Manetho there is not one king who reigned above 498 years before Sesac, & therefore they are all later then the servitude of Israel in Egypt. And yet by adding all the years of these & other Dynasties together the Egyptians made their kingdome much older then Adam. Which shews that the Egyptian Priests knew not when their own kings reigned.

Eratosthenes has given us another Dynasty of 38 kings of Thebes the first of which was Menes & first 19 of which reigned 574 years & the 20th 21th & 22th called Apappus Echeseos & Nitocris seem to be the same with the 3 last kings of Memphys Phiops Methesuphis & Nitocris in the sixt Dynasty . ffor Apappus & Phiops reigned each one hundred years & therefore are but two names of one king, Echeseos & Methesuphis reigned each one year & Nitocris was a Queen of the same name in both canons. Now before these 3 kings in the sixt Dynasty reigned 20 other kings of Memphys whose reign took up 586 years according to the 3 4 & 6 Dynasties of Manetho, & therefore Menes the first king of Thebes in the Dynasty of Eratosthenes was not so old by 12 years as the first king of Memphys in the Dynasties of Manetho. ffrom all which it seems to me that in all these Dynasties of Manetho & Eratosthenes there is nothing so ancient as the coming of Israel out of Egypt.

Africanus dates the reign of Menes the 1st king of Thebes from the 10th year of the reign of the shepherds mentioned in the 15 16 & 17 & their reign began after the days of Moses as I shall shew hereafter.

[Editorial Note 64]

Dynast 1 & 2 17 Kings of This the last 16th of which is Sesochris or Sesach a man 5 cubits & 3 palms tall who reigned 48 years. The 4th built Pyramids in Cochone. They all reigned till Sesach 487 Then Sesac reigned 48 and his successor 30. All together 565. At 21 years a piece the first 15 Kings reigned 321 years. Menes is the 1st King.

Dynast 3 & 4 At Memphys reigned 18 Kings vizt 17 Kings 498 years before Sesochris This is the same Sesochris or Sesach being 5 cubits 3. palms high, & reigning 48 years. The Eleventh Suphis built the greatest Pyramid & wrote a sacred book.

Dynast 11 & 12 At Diospolis reigned 19 kings before Sesostris, that Sesostris who reigned 48 years & in 9 years time subdued all Asia with part of Europe. His redecessor Amenemes was killed by his Eunuchs.

Dynast 18 & 19 Another series of 22 kings of Diospolis the 17th of which is Sethos or Sesostris the successor of Amenophes & predecessor of Rhapsaces Sethos in this Dynasty reigned 51 years & his 16 predecessors 287 years.

Dynast 22 Nine kings of Bubastis the first of which is Sesonchis or Sesochis

Dynast 6 Six Kings of Memphys after Sesochris the 3 last of which are the same with the 20th, 21th, 22th of Eratosthenes Dynasty of 38 Theban Kings.

Dynastia 38 Regum Thebanorum ab Eratosthene condita. Rex primus est Menes, vigesimus secundus Nitocris quæ in Dynast 4 & 6 est sextus a Sesach.

By all which I gather 1st that the Egyptians knew not the names of above 15 or 20 Kings before Sesach which at a moderate recconing of 20 years a piece will not make above 400 years &

<166r>

The surest arguments for determining times past are those taken from Astronomy. And of this sort we have that which follows.

And in general all the southern parts of Africa continue divided into many small kingdoms to this day. East India continued divided into such kingdoms till the reign of Alexander the great, Germany & the northern part of Europe till the Empire of the Romans & America till the invasion of the Spaniards. So

For better understanding the ancient state of the nations & how the four Monarchies arose, the Chronology of those times is to be rectified. That of the Oriental nations is stated by the scripture the Annales of the Phenicians & the Æra of Nabonassar, but that of the Greeks & Latines is very uncertain. ffor the Europeans – – – conjecture. Plutarch

And since the Octaeteris was in use in the days of Cadmus & Minos as above, we may reccon that this cycle also came in with the Phœnicians.

Stephanus tells us that the City Itanus in Crete was built by Itanus a Ph

The Philistims were anciently called Crethim or Cretans & Gaza one of their five head cities was anciently called Minoa whence came the names of Crete & Minos & Minoas the God of Gaza was the same God with Iupiter Cretensis, & the city Itanus in Crete was built by Itanus a Phenician all which argues that the Island Crete was peopled principally from the sea coasts of Palestine.

The Iupiter of Crete whose worship the Idæi Dactyli introduced was a Phenician God For he was worshipped at Gaza in Palestine by the name of Marnas which signifies the Lord of Men. In his worship the Curetes danced about him in armour with drums & noisy & warlike musick to guard him from his father Saturn who fearing the loss of his kingdom would have devoured him but in his stead was presented with a stone in a cloth resembling him & when he found himself deceived was melancholy & sought in all places for Iupiter but Iupiter lay hid in caves & secret places & at length inherited the kingdom The ceremony sems formed by some of the Philistims in memory of Davids living among them when he fled from Saul. ffor Saul & David were the two first kings of Israel & in that respect might be considered as their Saturn & Iupiter; And when David was newly become the son in law of Saul & Saul sought Davids life fearing least he should deprive him of the kingdom, & sent for David in bed to slay him his wife Michal cloathed an Image with a cloth or shirt & laid it in the bed in the place of David & let David escape & then Saul searched in all places for David & David hid himself in caves & secret places & among the Philistims with an armed multitude about him & at length succeeded in the kingdom expelling the house of Saul, & became the greatest king of that age as Iupiter was the greatest God. The stone which Saturn devoured was a Bætylus or Beth-el for so the Syrians called the stones which they supposed inhabited by their Gods. These Bætyls were at first rude stones like Iacob's pillow, then they formed them square or round & at length (as art increased) carued them in the shape of men Damascius saw many round Bætyls lying on the top of mount Libanus. By the name of the stones & the place where they were worshipped & the God of Gaza you may know that the story came from Phœnicia. And probably it came from Byblus. ffor Apollodorus tells the story as if Epaphus the son of Io was hid by the Curetes in Syria & educated by the wife of the king of Byblus.

The Corybantes in Phrygia were such another sort of men as the Idæi Dactyli in Crete & so were the Telchines in Rhodes & the Cabiri in Samothrace Lemnos & Imbrus, being all of them branches of the Curetes , a sort of men who were skilled in arts & sciences & danced in armour about the sacrifices as attendants on the Gods.

The Corybantes set up in Phrygia the worship of the Magna Mater dancing in armour in her sacrifices And she was a Syrian Goddess. ffor Lucian makes her the same with the Dea Syria in the temple at Edessa on Euphrates that Goddes like Cybele being drawn with Lyons & having a drum & a corona turrita on her head & her worship being performed in like manner with pipes & cymbals. ✝ < insertion from the left margin of f 166r > Her worship was set upin Phrygia in a Bætyl or rude stone which as her Priests the Corybantes pretended fell down from heaven on one of the mountains of Phrygia < text from f 166r resumes > < insertion from the right margin of f 166r > As the Idæi Dactyli set up the worship of Iupiter in Crete so the Corybantes set up the worship of his mother in Phrygia. < text from f 166r resumes > The Gods of Samothrace or Dij Cabybi were also Phenician. Bochartus proves that their names were Phenician & that they were the Gods of Berytus a city on the sea coasts of Phenicia neare Sidon. The same Gods were worshipped also in the Islands Imbrus & Lemnos. The Telchines in Rhodes came last from Cyprus & wrought in brass & iron & were so skilful in Arts as by the unskilful Greeks to be accounted Conjurers.

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Phidon was the 10th from Temenus, not the tenth king (for between Cisus & Phidon they reigned not) but the 10th by generation from father to son including Temenus or the ninth excluding him & these 9 generations taking up 240 year from Temenus to Phidon there were about 80 years to 3 generations which is a moderate recconing for generations by the chief of a family.

Some make Phidon as ancient as Iphitus & tell us that the kingdom of Macedon was founded by his brother Caranus before the Olympiads. But old Herodotus who lived nearest those times & was able to inform himself tells us that Perdiccas founded that kingdom & that from the founding thereof reigned only these kings Perdiccas Argeus Philippus Aeropus Alcetas Amyntas Alexander, the last of which was contemporary to Xerxes. Let their reigns be recconed at about 18 or 20 years a piece one with another recconed backward from the death of Xerxes & they will place the founding of that kingdom about 70 years before the death of Cyrus, & by consequence in the days of Phidon. Which recconing agrees with the

For ✝ [178]Anaxandrides & Aristo kings of Sparta were contemporary to Crœsus.

Perdiccas was of the posterity of Temenus & fled from Argos into Macedonia & the same seems true of Caranus because he was the brother of Phidon king of Argos. Whence its probable that Caranus & Perdiccas were companions in some common expedition & led Colonies from Argos into Macedonia the war whereby Phidon recovered the kingdom of Argos & grew potent giving occasion to their flight.

Herodotus tells us that the the people of Lydia {illeg} were the first who coyned gold & silver money for use & that Crœsus sent two golden staters a piece to the people of Delphos. There is extant a coyn of Atys whom I take to be the son of Crœsus

There gold & silver abounded earlier then in Europe. became luck {illeg} Mydas king of Phrygia & Crœsus who was two generations younger then Mydas were rich to a proverb {Acrendice} the wife of Mydas coyned cold for the Cumæans. Crœsus coyned the pieces of Gold called {κοσιονικε μυνηρξε} & there is extant a silver coyn of Atys whom I take to be the son of Crœsus. Darius the Mede conquering Crœsus coined Darics of Gold. Phidon brought coynage into Greece coyned silver for the use of the merchants of Ægina. Philip the father of Alexander coyned golden staters called Philips & was the first king of Macedon mentioned in history who coyned gold. In the reign of Xerxes, Demarete the wife of Gelo king of Sicily melted down the golden ornaments of the weomen & thence coyned Stateri Domestici for her husbands use & buying & selling meale & drink for money

Herodotus was of opinion that the coynage of gold & silver began in the kingdom of Lydia where those metals abounded more then in Europe. < insertion from lower down f 167r > ✝ Certainly Crœsus coyned staters of gold called uses & there is extant a coyn of Atys whom I take to be the son of Crœsus & Darius the Mede who conquered Crœsus coyned staters of gold called Darics. Phido brought coynage into Greece coyning silver in Ægina for the use of Merchants. [Gelo king of Sicily in the reign of Xerxes & Philip the father of Alexander coyned staters of gold.] The Romans being poorer coyned no copper money before the reign of Ancus Martius no silver money till about three – – after that. But Gelo king of Sicily coyned gold in the reign of Xerxes. < text from f 167r resumes > Phidon brought coynage into Europe, coyning silver in Ægina for the use of Merchants.

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Thucydides agrees with Herodotus. For he tells us there were 8 kings of Macedon before Archelaus the son of Perdiccas the son of Alexander, & therefore there were but six before Alexander as above. He tells us also that the progenitors of Alexander were of the posterity of Temenus & came from Argos & obteined the sea coasts of Macedonia & reigned there expelling the inhabitants of Pieria by war: which is to be understod of the expedition under Perdiccas the first of the eight kings. Vnder him the Temenides left their seats in Argos to Phidon the {violent} conqueror & sought new seats in Macedonia, expelling the Pierians who in like manner fled from their seats to Pangæum.

And this was the original of the kingdom of Macedon.

daysof Euphemus his grandchilds grandchild the Greeks

days of the children of the fourth descent from Euphemus

Pindar mentions Medea's prophesying to the Argonauts in the Island Thera that Battus in the 17th generation from Ephemus who was the son of Neptune & one of the Argonauts should lead a colony from that Island into Libya & there build Cyrene, & that in the time of the 4th children descending from Euphemus the Greeks should come thither from Lacedæmon Argos & Mycenæ that is under the conduct of Theras. [Here Medea reccons four generations from the Argonautic expedition to the migration of Theras & 12 more to the migration of Battus, in all 17 including that of Euphemus. This Battus was succeeded by Arcesilaus & he by Battus the second, in whose days many Greeks sailed to Cyrene, invaded the Carthaginians & beat the Egyptians in the last year of Vaphres king of Egypt, that is 41 years before the death of Cyrus. So then Theras was in the fift generation from Euphemus inclusively & Battus in he 13th from Theras. Chionis or Anchionis who was victor in the 3rd Olympiad accompanied Battus into Afric & Battus was succeeded by – – – death of Cyrus. If the reigns of Kings in Sparta & Thera were recconed for generations (as was usual {among the Greeks} the last Battus was the 15th king from Theras inclusively & from the return of the Heraclides to the aforsaid Battel that is in the space of 259 years, there were 14 reigns & a part of a reign which make about 18 years to a reign one reign with another.

By the preceding computations the Argonautic expedition was about 453 years earlier then the death of Cyrus, & by consequence about 39 years later then the death of Solomon. Now the Trojan war was about one generation later then that expedition. ffor the sons of the Argonauts were at that war. Whence AEsculapius whose sons Podalirius & Macheon were at that war, was contemporary to the Arognauts. Now from Æsculapius to – – – in part by the eldest sons we may reccon about 80 or 90 years to three generations. And thus the 17 intervals by the fathers side & 18 by the mothers will at a middle recconing amount to about 497 years which counted backwards from the middle of the reign of Artaxerxes Long. when Hippocrates flourished will reach up to the 39th year after the death of Solomon, & there place the Argonautic expedition as above. But Chronologers reccon about 790 years from the Argonautic expedition to the middle of the reign of Artax. Long., which being after the rate of about 45 years to a generation is much too long for the course of nature

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We have hitherto recconed by the genealogies & reigns of kings this being the foundation of the Chronology for the Greeks. And by shewing how erroneously the Greeks have recconed from thence & setting right the recconing we have brought Chronology nearer to the truth & obviated {illeg} taken from the {illeg} of the Greek Chronologers. And because arguments drawn from Astronomy are accounted the surest, we shall now confirm our recconing by an argument of that sort.

Astronomy began in Egypt, was carried into Chaldea by {Belus} & came into Greece in the age preceding the Argonauts for {illeg} Alaus, Atreus & Orpheus are celebrated for their skill therein. Homer & Hesiod mention several Constellations & therefore the constellations were formed before their days & Achilles Tatius out of Sophocles tells us that they were formed by Palamedes the {illeg} (that Palamedes who invented numbers & measures & {weights before} {illeg} time) & improved the art of war & navigation & was so much honoured by the Greeks as to {illeg} in the {rome} of Agamemnon for some time. Vlysses to avoid going to the Trojan war feigned himself mad & Palamedes discovered {the fraud} & after they went to the war Vlysses by a fraudulent accusation caused Palamedes to be slain by the Greeks Then Nauplius in revenge of his sons death, when the Greeks had taken Troy & were returning home, made a fire in the night upon the high rock Caphareus in Eubæa where he was king & the Greeks sailing towards the light as to a safe port split many of their ships against rocks. ffrom all which I gather that Palamedes was a young man when he went to the war of Troy & formed the constellations before the beginning of that war. And hence all the first Constellations relate to the times preceding the Trojan war. In the constellation of Perseus – – – ✝ < insertion from lower down f 168r > ✝ preceding. There is nothing in them relating to the times after that expedition & therefore the constellations were formed presently after – – – of that honour < text from f 168r resumes > – presently after that expedition or rather about 20 or 25 years after when Iason Hercules, Castor, Pollux, Leda Orpheus, & Æsculapius, were newly dead & deified so that they might be honoured in the Constellations . & the Heros who lived after that expedition were not yet in so much credit as to be capable of that honour.

– were formed. by Palamedes. I speak – – before. Thales revived Astronomy & by observing the motions of the sun & moon became able to predict Eclipses. In his youth the Equinoxes were passing out of the 12th into the 11th degrees of the signes or Asterisms of Aries & Chelæ, & his observations might place them in the 12t degrees. Meton & Euctemon observed the solstice Anno I. Per. 4282 at which time the cardinal points were passing out of the 9th into the 8th degrees of the signes. And Calumella saith that Meton placed them in the 8th degrees. Afterwards Hipparchus finding the Equinoxes nearer the beginning of the signes concluded that they had a motion backwards in respect of the fixt starrs, & at length Ptolomy found them in the beginning of the signes. But Palamedes contrived to have in the middle of the signes that the first month of the Lunisolar year might begin with the new moon in the first signe

Achilles Tatius tells us that the Egyptians were the first who measured the heaven & earth, & inscribed the knowledge thereof in columns for the use of posterity. That the Chaldæans translated it to themselves, ascribing the invention to Belus And that the wise men of Greece ascribe it partly to their Gods, partly to their Heros & partly to the wise men who flourished after them. The first Astronomers I meet with in Greece were Endymion, Aristæus, Linus, Musæus Chiron, Areus, Orpheus, Palamedes. All these flourished a little before the Trojan war. Then came on dark times till Thales revived Astronomy. [He wrote of the Tropics & Equinoxes & was the first who predicted Eclipses but] Homer & Hesiod mention several constellations & therefore the constellations were formed before their days & by consequence [ they were formed in the age of the Astronomers who flourished] before the destruction of Troy, there being no astronomers celebrated between that war & the days of Thales. Sophocles tells us that Palamedes the son of Nauplius found out Arithmetic & measuring & the heavenly signes & the measures & revolutions of the stars & bendings of the Beare & sitting of the dog, & improved navigation & the art of war. This

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{illeg}

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of the Ethiopians & Assyrians over Egypt took up 60 years.

So then the Monarchy of Egypt founded by Sesostris & recovered by Memnon continued till the founding of the Assyrian Monarchy that is for above 200 years in which time were done all those great works of the Temples Obelisks & Pyramids & the Labyrinth & statue of Mœris. Then the Monarchy brake into several kingdoms & the nations which fell off from it invaded it. ffirst the Ethiopians invaded it & thereupon the Priests who by the help of the certain years first of 360 & then of 365 days had observed the stars from the days of Sesostris, fled to Babylonia & there continued their observation of the stars by the same Egyptian year of 365 days perpetuated in the æra of Nabonassar. It continued under the Ethiopians about 50 years or between 50 & 60. Then the Assyrians conquered it but soon lost it again: after which it continued under kings of its own reigning at Sais for about 146mathML formula years until Cambyses king of Persia in the fift year of his reign invaded it. The first royal seat of this Monarchy was Thebes a City built very sumptuously by Sesostris & called Ammon-No the City of Ammon because his father Ammon reigned in it. The next royal seat was Memphys a city built by Menes, or Memnon & more conveniently situated & better fortified then Thebes, for which reason the following Kings made it their seat as I gather by the great works which they did there, as by the building of the very great & magnificent Temple of Vulcan which was the gradual work of several of these kings, & by the Pyramids & Lake of Mœris & Labyringth. Then reigned the Ethiopians & Assyrians successively over Egypt about 75 years & afterwards Sais a City in the Delta upon the eastern side of the most western mouth of the Nile became the royal seat of the Kings of Egypt for about 146 years more.

[Editorial Note 65]

You heard above out of the Phenician records that the rapture of Europa happened in the beginning of Solomons reign or sometime in Davids, & since it was done by way of requital for the rapture of Io, the time between these two raptures could be but short. You have heard also out of Diodorus that the family of Cadmus came out of Egypt with the shepherds Apollodorus l. 2 tells us that Cadmus (the father of Cadmus) came out of Egypt into Phœnicia & there planted the seat of his kingdom, & Eusebius & others derive the family of Cadmus from the Egyptian Thebes & there are several arguments that confirm it. ffor Cadmus being sent in quest of his sister & coming – – – – Busiris had fled out of Egypt, Proteus seems here to be not the proper name of a man but a title of honour signifying Primus or Princeps, a Prince, & he seemes to have been one of the Princes of the Shepherds who fled from the King of Egypt here called Busiris. These things I mention – – – – Red sea by the wars of David Herodotus tells us that the Gephyreans a people of Athens came originally from Erethyia as they themselves affirmed & that upon enquiry he found that they were some of those Phœnicians who came with Cadmus into Boeotia & being at length expelled thence came to Athens. By the name of their city Erethria, they seem to be some of those Phenicians who came from the Red Sea.

Before letters began to be in use there could be no standing laws in writing & therefore the coming of Cadmus into Europe was ancienter then the Amphictyonic Counsels & even then the reign of Phoroneus who made laws & erected judicatures.

Cadmus was the first [in Europe] who found out the making of Copper (Hygin. fab 274) {Thence} the copper stone is still called Cadmia. Afterwards the Idæi Dactyli in the Island Crete found out the making of Iron. The Europeans therefore had no weapons or other instruments of Copper or iron before the days of Cadmus, from his days they began to use weapons & armour of Copper. Those of iron were of a later date.

Et prior æris erat quam ferri cognitus usus. Lucret. l. 5. v 1286.

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If Cadmus fled from Sidon with his wife Harmonia as the Sidonians relate[179] his eldest son Polydorus might be born before he fled.

The invasion of Egypt by Sabacon seems to have been in the first year of Nabonassar or immediately before.

Pausanias tells us Belus Baby